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Published under the Authority of 
the Government of His Highness 
the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda. 


Rdjaratna, Jndnaratna. 










Translated into English with notes, additions and comments 




Oriental Institute 

Printed by P. Knight at the Baptist Mission Press, and Published on 

behalf of the Government of His Highness the Maharaja 

Gaekwad of Baroda by Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, 

Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda. 

Price Rs. 12-0-0. 


Monsignor S. Rodolfo Dalgado's Influencia do Vocdbulario 
Portugues em Linguas Asiaticas (abragendo cerca de cinquenta 
idiomas) published by the Academy of Sciences, * Lisbon, was 
issued in 1913, and at once received a very warm welcome from 
Orientalists all over Europe interested in philological studies. 

Sir George Grierson, then in England, thanked the author 
heartily for his most valuable and interesting work for which, 
he said, he had been wishing for many years and which would 
be of the greatest help to him in the linguistic survey of India, 
just as his excellent Konkani dictionary had been till then. 
Professors Sylvain Lev! and A. Cabaton from Paris, J. Cornu 
from Austria, and Hugo Schuchardt from Graz, among others, 
acclaimed the work as an enduring monument to Portugal and 
a most valuable contribution to Oriental studies, the materials 
of which, collected with infinite labour, had been put together 
with great learning and precision. 

But except Portuguese India, as was to be expected, no 
other part of India had heard of the author's name, let alone 
of this or any other book of his. The irony of the situation is 
obvious ; for though the result of the laborious examination 
of about fifty different Asiatic languages in search of Portuguese 
words might make the Portuguese justly and pardonably proud 
of the part they once played in the cultural history of the East 
and particularly of India, such a study can have a present- 
day value and importance only to those in India, Ceylon, Malaya, 
and other parts of Asia interested in the history and development 
of their respective vernaculars. The situation was brought 
about purely because Dr. Dalgado's Vocabulario, to give the work 
the name by which it is generally known, is in Portuguese, and 
scarcely any Indian Orientalist to-day possesses a working 
knowledge of that language. 


With the object of introducing Dalgado's work to those 
interested in such studies, I read before the Bombay Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society a paper entitled : The Portuguese 
Legacy to the East or the Influence of Portuguese on the Languages 
of the East with special reference to the Languages of the Bombay 
Presidency. This was in 1922. A paragraph from its concluding 
part will bear quotation here, in as much as it explains my 
motive in reading it and, at the same time, makes an avowal of 
my indebtedness for my materials to the Vocabulario. 

' It remains for me to acknowledge my great and grateful 
debt to Dr. S. Rodolfo Dalgado's Influencia do Vocabulario 
Portugues em Linguas Asiaticas (dbrangendo cerca de cinquenta 
idiomas}. The student who wishes to study from a scientific and 
philosophical standpoint the process by which the gradual trans- 
plantation of the exotic words on Asiatic soil was affected will 
find the introduction to this great work of absorbing interest. 
The book which is published by the University Press, Coimbra, 
and brought out under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences, 
Lisbon, is in Portuguese, a language unknown to the majority of 
scholars in India. I am sure that, on this very account, a 
few brief remarks on the character of this work as well as on 
the career and achievements of the indefatigable orientalist 
and philologist, its author, will not be out of place.' And the 
very same reasons have determined the inclusion of a sketch of 
the author's life and work in this volume. 

The paper was published in the Society's Journal No. 
LXXIV, Vol. XXVI, and it was not long before I had the 
satisfaction of finding that my object had in some measure 
been realised. The few inquiries which had reached me before, 
consequent on the brief summary of the paper having appeared 
in the Times of India, Bombay, now increased both in number 
and in purposefulness. Almost without a single exception 
my correspondents regretted their inability to read the Mon- 
signor's works in the original and also the absence of an English 
translation of the most important of them. The Vocabulario , 


in my view, was the one of all his works that would interest 
scholars in India in as much as it would help them to apprehend 
the nature and extent of the indebtedness of their own verna- 
culars to the earliest European language they came into contact 
with in modern times, just as his Glossario Luso-Asiatico would 
interest Portuguese one might well say European students 
anxious to understand the East and to realise the extent to 
which Portuguese expansion there, whether commercial, political, 
or missionary, has enriched their vocabularies. 

Accordingly, I applied to the Lisbon Academy of Sciences, 
Dr. Dalgado had, meanwhile, after gathering in his rich and 
abundant harvest, gone to his eternal reward on the 4th of 
April, 1922, for permission to bring out an English translation 
of the Vocabulario, and I wish to express here my grateful 
recognition of its courtesy and kindness in promptly granting 
my request. 

Almost a whole decade had elapsed between the publication 
of the Vocabulario and my decision to present it in English, and 
during this interval its author had brought out other works on 
cognate subjects. In these latter he had occasionally arrived at 
opinions and results different from those he had put forward 
before, or supported the earlier views with additional evidence, 
or sometimes provided a fuller and more detailed exposition 
of a philological or phonetic law which had been concisely set 
out in the Vocabulario. Moreover the bibliography annexed 
to the present work, very extensive though it is, gives evidence 
that some sources of information had remained unknown or 
were inaccessible to the author, whilst others had become 
available only after the publication of his book, and this was 
the case particularly with those wherein are to be found a 
large number of terms derived from Portuguese, once current 
in Anglo-India. It is true, he has derived his materials under 
this head from the well-known Glossary of Wilson, the Die* 
tionary of Whitworth, and Crooke's edition of Yule and BurnelPs 
monumental and fascinating volume ; but, since the last-named 


made its appearance, much published material new volumes, 
in the Hakluyt Society's publications, in Foster's Letters, and 
English Factories in India, and of the Indian Antiquary, etc., 
. . . . had become available. The New Oxford English 
Dictionary which the author does not appear to have known 
or consulted was also approaching completion. 

In view of all this I decided that it would enhance the utility 
of my translation if I incorporated in it the alterations or additions 
that the new material had made necessary or possible. The 
additions have been in the main with reference to Anglo-Indian 
terms which owe their existence to Portuguese, and they have 
not been confined to etymological investigations alone but 
been extended to various other fields historical, sociological, 
botanical, zoological, etc. which I thought might provoke the 
reader's interest, and at the same time relieve to some extent the 
baldness, as a rule, inseparable from a Vocabulary. 

The author, as is but natural, considering the nature of his 
work, quotes usually from the early Portuguese chronicles in 
support of the currency of a Portuguese vocable in the East. 
I thought that it would promote both enquiry and interest 
among English-speaking readers if I were to give the reference 
to the relative passage in the English version of the text when 
such existed, arid there are not a few of them in the Hakluyt 
Society's series. This, with very few instances excepted, I have 

There are many Anglo-Indian words in the Vocabulario 
for which the author provides quotations ; in the case of quite 
a number of others, he does not do so tjie nature of his study 
did not demand them. I have endeavoured to supply the 
lacunae, and, when this had to be done in regard to vocables 
which had been already dealt with in Hobson-Jobson, I aimed 
at providing, whenever possible, citations other or earlier in 
point of time than those given by Yule and Burnell. In furnish- 
ing references for the various forms sometimes assumed by a 
term, I have chiefly been moved by considerations of tracing 


the evolution of its orthography before it became finally 

Several locutions at one time employed in Anglo-India, 
as is evidenced by their use in correspondence or accounts of 
travels, have found neither a place in Hobson-Jobson nor the 
New Oxford English Dictionary, or only in one of them, and when 
such have been listed by me, I thought it useful to mention this 
fact, or that other one that some of the quotations I have been 
fortunate to light upon belong to an earlier date than those 
in either or both these works. 

The Vocabulario was primarily addressed to the Portuguese, 
and it was presumably to acquaint even such of them as have no 
interest in philology with the great linguistic legacy their fore- 
fathers have bequeathed to the East}, that, at the conclusion 
of his study, the author provided a general alphabetical list 
of all the Portuguese words that had found an entry into the 
languages of Asia, and also separate lists of these words, language 
by language. I decided to eliminate the general list and in 
place of it have provided a general index of all words and 
names in the book. Instead of the separate lists I have pre- 
pared for each of the fifty languages an alphabetical index 
of these very words but in the forms they have assumed in 
the foreign idioms and, to facilitate reference, have set against 
each the original Portuguese vocable. In the list of Konkani 
words derived from Portuguese their number is legion the 
author gives in quite a large number of cases the vernacular 
idiom which the foreign term has displaced ; in those others in 
which he did not do so I have attempted to supply the omission. 
The additions made by me, except in the case of the lists, 
are marked by square brackets, and the material which came 
to hand after the pages wherein it could have been incorporated 
had been struck off is put together in a supplement at the close. 

The new matter increased the text to almost two and a half 
times the bulk of the original and the problem of finding the 
ways and means to bring out the volume would have remained 


insoluble had it not been for the gracious and personal interest 
which the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda took in the work and 
the decision of His Highness' Government to finance its publica- 

The spontaneous generosity of this great Prince in assisting 
enterprises that conduce to the cultural or social advancement 
of his countrymen has become proverbial both in the East and 
the West. Himself a keen student of languages, Indian and 
European, he has given proof of his interest in linguistic re- 
searches by having had the Shree Sayaji Shastama Shabda 
Kalpatri a comparative dictionary of administrative terms in 
seven Indian languages compiled and published ; and everyone 
in India who has at heart the unification and cultural progress of 
India is aware how much the movement for making Hindi the 
lingua franca of India owes to this Ruler. I venture to take 
this opportunity of recording my indebtedness and grateful 
thanks to His Highness and his Government. 

It remains for me now to thank, besides the many friends 
who have shown interest in my work, rendered help, and put 
up with and answered not a few importunate questions, Miss 
Olive da Cunha, B.A., for offering to let me use her copy of the 
Vocabulario presented to her by the author, which contained 
corrections and additions made by him the latter have been 
shown within parallel lines in the present edition ; Dr. Mariano 
Jose Saldanha, Professor of Sanskrit, Lisbon University, for his 
advice regarding the transliteration of certain Konkani phonetics ; 
Mr. Vitus P. de Sa, Solicitor, Bombay, for placing at my disposal 
letters from Orientalists in Europe received by his uncle, the 
Monsignor, from which I have quoted ; and my daughter 
Florence who has rendered me very useful assistance in the dreary 
task of preparing the language lists and the general index and 
in revising their proofs. 



The primary object with which the translation of ^ the Voca- 
bulario has been undertaken is to introduce the work to English- 
knowing students, specially in India, because of the new light 
it is expected to throw on many a problem which has been 
baffling lexicographers of modern Indian languages, and also on 
the question, much discussed at the present day, as to what 
have been the cultural results that have followed the impact of 
the West on the East ; a secondary, but of no less moment, is to 
introduce the author to his countrymen to all who, whether 
differing in race, creed or political allegiance, claim India as 
their motherland and to them he is practically unknown. He 
is one of India's distinguished sons, born, bred, and nurtured 
on her soil, notwithstanding which, he has not been accorded 
by his compatriots the recognition that is his due. One is led 
to say this because hardly one student of Indology in a 
hundred has even heard of his name ; and because in a publica- 
tion entitled Eminent Orientalists which the well-known publish- 
ing house of G. A. Natesan & Co. brought out some few years 
ago no mention even is made of one who, as will be seen, has 
claim to an honoured place in the roll of Indian Oriental 
scholars. And this claim is based not only on his having 
devoted the greater part of his life to the study of Sanskrit 
and the many In do- Aryan tongues derived from it, and to 
those branches of Oriental research to which one with his 
knowledge as well of the languages and the scientific method 
of the West alone could do justice, but also because he never 
allowed his studies to overshadow his interest in India and 
his affection for her ; far from it, if anything, they helped 
him to understand better her great past, realise more vividly 
her present needs, and bestow greater thought on her 


His eminence in the field of Oriental studies is unquestion- 
able. He was one of the very few Indians enrolled among the 
c thirty ' whom the Royal Asiatic Society of London at any 
one time honours with its honorary membership, and we shall at 
this stage forbear mentioning honours that came to him from other 
learned societies not as well known to readers in India. There is 
one fact, however, connected with his life and work which calls 
for mention even now and it is sure to secure from scholars in 
India and the East the sympathy and admiration which those of 
Europe felt for him. During the years he was engaged in 
compiling his monumental works, in order to avoid worse con- 
sequences to his health, he had to undergo surgical operations 
requiring the amputation of both his legs, one after the other, 
at the short interval of about three years. And the picture 
of this ardent and untiring Oriental scholar, alone and away 
from his home, his only constant companions and faithful friends, 
the dictionaries of Eastern tongues and Portuguese and other 
European chronicles, his truncated body resting in an invalid's 
chair a veritable Procrustean bed, from which he lectured to 
his students, and on which, with heroic resignation, he worked 
away at his books, is as moving as it is sustaining. 

His works are in Portuguese a language which till the 
middle o'f the eighteenth century was the -lingua franca of India, 
but to-day is practically unknown here except to a microscopic 
section of the population and that limited to a small proportion 
of the Portuguese possessions in India. Again, he bore a name 
which could easily lead the indiscriminating to regard him as a 
non-Indian. What wonder then that his countrymen, had 
they even heard of him and his works, should have failed to 
pierce the disguises of name and language and discover in him 
one of their kindred ? 

For Sebastiao Rodolfo Dalgado was born in Assagao, 
Bardez, Goa, of a distinguished Brahmin family which for genera- 
tions had occupied a place of prominence and privilege in the 
economy of the village. In the sixteenth century, Christianity 


on the west coast of India was not content with washing off the 
original sin and subsequent lapses of its recruits, but insisted on 
wiping away every trace of the ancestral lineage and traditions. 
It was then that the cognomen of his family ' Desai ', so signi- 
ficant, and racy of the soil, was made to yield place to the un- 
meaning and alien ' Dalgado '. He was one of a family of six 
brothers and an only sister ; one of the brothers died young, 
two pursued the profession of medicine and two of law. 

Young Rodolfo went to school in his village and afterwards at 
Mapu^a, the chief town of his district. Early in life he felt the call 
towards a priestly vocation and joined the well-known College 
for ecclesiastical studies at Rachol, in the district of Salsete, 
Goa, where, after going through his preliminary studies, which in- 
cluded knowledge of English and French and the prescribed course 
of Philosophy and Theology, in Latin, he was ordained priest 
in 1881. Very soon afterwards he proceeded to Rome, acquired 
knowledge of Italian, and joined the University of St. Apol- 
linarius to study Canon and Roman Law. The Doctorate in both 
these faculties was conferred upon him two years later. As a 
special case, perhaps because of his noteworthy success in the law 
schools, he was allowed to sit for the examination of the Doctor's 
degree in Divinity, which involved his learning Greek and Hebrew, 
without having to keep terms. He came out of the "test with 
distinction. These results, together with the awards of prizes 
and medals which accompanied them, brought the Indian cleric 
to the notice of the then reigning Pope, Leo XIII, who appointed 
him his Honorary chaplain with the title of 'Monsignor '. This 
was on the llth October, 1884, when he was only twenty-nine. 
Leo XIII, as is well known, was keenly interested in raising 
the status of the Indian Clergy, and it is believed that it was 
at his suggestion that Monsignor Dalgado decided to return to 
India and devote his future labours to his own country. Looking 
to the contributions he has made to Oriental studies, one feels 
disposed, at this date, to regard the Pontiff's advice as pro- 
vidential, in as much as the different offices Dr. Dalgado came to 


hold in various parts of India and in Ceylon brought him into 
contact with the idioms and cultures of different people, and 
enabled him to gather materials for the two enduring monuments 
he was to raise in after years. 

Prom Rome he went to Lisbon where, by a Government 
order of the 19th November, 1884, he was nominated a missionary 
of the Crown, with India as his field of activities. He arrived 
in Goa in April 1885 and in quick succession was appointed to 
several ecclesiastical offices. We shall refer here only to such 
as have a direct bearing on his researches in the field of Oriental 

On the 19th March, 1886, he was appointed Vicar General 
of Ceylon, and took charge of his office on the 14th May. As 
the result of a Concordat between the Holy See and the Por- 
tuguese sovereign, the Portuguese Mission in Ceylon became 
extinct on the 2nd January, 1887, arid Dr. Dalgado returned to 
Goa, but not before he had acquired a working knowledge of 
Sinhalese and Malay. Prom May 1887 to April 1890, he was 
the Vicar General of Bengal, with his headquarters in Calcutta, 
long enough for him to acquire proficiency in Hindustani and 
Bengali. In 1893 he was appointed Vicar Porane of Honawar, and 
he continued in this office till 1895, employing his leisure in 
learning Kanarese and Tamil. A large part of the three years 
preceding his taking up his office at Honawar he spent at Savant- 
wadi, a State on the frontiers of Goa, with his eldest brother, 
Dr. Gelasio D. Dalgado, who was the Civil Surgeon there, studying 
Marathi and Sanskrit. It was evidently during these years 
and studies that he realised how closely his own mother tongue, 
Konkani, was related to Sanskrit, and the recognition of this 
fact led him to undertake a scientific investigation of the structure 
and vocabulary of this vernacular. Research was fruitful in 
helping him to bring out his Konkani-Portuguese Dictionary 
in 1893, and to write a Grammar of Konkani, on which he was 
busy at the time of his death and which in its manuscript form 
he bequeathed to the Public Library of Nova-Goa. 


The dictionary has been compiled on a very systematic and 
scientific basis, the Konkani words being printed in Devanagri 
characters, and contains an introduction which is as informative as 
it is lucid. This work which had been executed on a scale and with 
a method never till then adopted, attracted the attention of the 
Portuguese authorities in Lisbon, who by an order of the llth 
November, 1895, entrusted him with the task of bringing out a 
Portuguese-Konkani Dictionary, the cost of which was to be 
defrayed by the State. He had now to proceed to Lisbon to super- 
vise the printing of this work, which ran into over nine hundred 
pages and dealt with vocables in an orthography with which 
the compositors at the Government Press were utterly unfami- 
liar. In the same year 1895, he was elected a fellow of the Geo- 
graphical Society, Lisbon. The Dictionary came out in 1905 
and about this time Dr. Dalgado was made a Domestic Prelate 
to the Pope. The Lisbon Government exempted him from 
further missionary service in the East. Such leisure as the 
exacting task of bringing out the Dictionary left him, he had 
devoted to the study of Sanskrit and Philology, under Oriental 
scholars in Portugal, in acquiring a working knowledge of German, 
and just that much of Arabic as would enable him to consult 
dictionaries of that language and of Persian. In 1907 he was 
appointed Professor of Sanskrit at the Lisbon University ; 
and four years later he was elected a corresponding member 
of the Academy of Sciences, Lisbon. In 1917 the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Literature was conferred upon him by the 
Lisbon University. 

From the time he brought out his Dictionaries his literary 

output was prodigious, and his title to be numbered among the 

eminent philologists of the day grew with every new publication 

of his that issued from the press. Exclusive of articles he wrote on 

religious, historical and political subjects for journals in Portugal, 

Brazil and India, we give below a list of his published writings : 

Diccionario Konkani-Portuguez, Philologico-Etymologico. 

Bombay, 1893, xxx + 562 pp. 


Hitopadexa ou Instruc$ao Util (translation of Hitopade6a 

from the Sanskrit original into Portuguese). Lisbon, 

1897, xxii + 292 pp. 
Dialecto Indo-Portugu&s de Ceyldo. Lisbon, 1900, xii + 

262 pp. 

Dialecto Indo-Portugues de Ooa. Oporto, 1900, 22 pp. 
Dialecto Indo-Portugues de Damao. Lisbon, 1903, 31 pp. 
Diccionario Portugu&s-Concani. Lisbon, 1905, xxxii + 

Dialecto Indo-Portugu&s do Norte (the Indo-Portuguese 

dialect of Bombay and its suburbs). Lisbon, 1906, 

Influencia do Vocdbulario Portugu&s em Linguas Asiaticas. 

Coimbra, 1913, xcii + 253 pp. 

Contribuifao para a Lexicologia Luso-Oriental (Contribu- 
tions towards a study of Luso-Oriental words). 

Coimbra, 1916, 196 pp. 
Historia de Nala e Damyanti (Translation of Nala and 

Damyanti from the Sanskrit original into Portuguese). 

Coimbra, 155 pp. 
Dialecto Indo-Portugues de Negapatam. Oporto, 1917, 

Gonsalves Viana e a Lexicologia Portuguesa de origem 

Olossario Luso-Asiatico, Vol. I. Coimbra, 1919, lxvii + 

535 pp. 
Glossario Luso-Asiatico, Vol. II. Lisbon, 1921, vii + 

580 pp. 
Rudimentos da lingua Sanscrita (Rudiments of Sanskrit, 

for use of students at the University). 1920. 
Florilegio de Proverbios Concanis. Coimbra, 1922, xx + 

330 pp. 

As will be noticed from the above", his special subject 
of study was the influence of Portuguese on the languages of 
the East, and inversely of the idioms of the East upon Portuguese, 


one might say European, vocabulary. No one before him had 
attempted this investigation on such a scale, and it can be 
safely asserted that not one who had touched upon this vast and 
absorbingly interesting field of study had brought to it the 
first-hand knowledge and intimacy with so many languages 
of the East and the West which he did. It was the Vocabulario 
which laid the foundation of his great reputation in the European 
world of Oriental studies. It represented twenty years' strenuous 
labours to track down the numerous Portuguese vocables which 
like nondescripts, without papers or passport, had strayed 
into the boundaries of Eastern idioms, and so many of whom 
had lost every semblance which might bespeak their country 
of origin. 

But his chef d'oeuvre is the Glossario Luso-Asiatico in two 
volumes. It is the complement to the Vocabulario and in it 
the author traces the history of the innumerable Eastern terms 
met with in Portuguese chronicles, very many of which have 
become naturalised in Portuguese, and not a few after crossing 
the frontiers of this language have secured domicile in other 
European tongues. In the introduction to it he mentions that 
his original intention was to include in it words derived from 
African sources, but partly because of the difficulty of obtaining 
accurate information regarding many of them, and chiefly because 
of the state of his health, he thought it prudent to circumscribe 
his investigations to Asia, for fear that the enterprise, as he 
phrases it, might get shipwrecked before reaching port. Even 
as it is, to use the words of Sir George Grierson, ' it is a monu- 
ment of erudition \ 

The Glossario is not only a Portuguese Hobson-Jobson but, 
as has been fitly pointed out by the late Mr. Longworth Dames, 
something more besides, because of the peculiar position which 
the Portuguese language occupies in its relation to the East, 
a relation very different from that of other European languages. 
The Portuguese were the first to give new terms and likewise 
the first to borrow new terms from the East : quite a large 


number of these latter were adopted by the French and the 

It is possible to realise the magnitude and the monumental 
character of the work, embodying as it does the result of a 
quarter century's reading and research, by turning to the Bib- 
liography. Its five hundred and more names of works several 
of them running into many volumes cover practically every 
book in Portuguese dealing with the East, a very large number 
of such in Latin, French, Italian, Dutch, Spanish and English, 
and some even from Arabic, Persian and Chinese sources. 

Upon the appearance of the Olossario the author was 
overwhelmed with appreciations from Oriental scholars in 
different parts of the world. In England, Mr. Longworth Dames, 
the then Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society, reviewed 
it in the Society's Journal (April 1921) and went so far as to say 
that he hoped students in England and India who were not 
acquainted with Portuguese, would endeavour to obtain a suffi- 
cient knowledge of that language to enable them to avail 
themselves of the mass of invaluable information contained 
in the two volumes. Not long after he was elected an Honorary 
member of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

But his great aspiration was to be a full member or, to use 
the Portuguese term, ' Socio effectivo ' of the Lisbon Academy 
of Sciences, under whose auspices and at whose cost most of his 
important books had been published. The number of the * Socios 
Effectives ', as of the ' Immortels ' of the French Academy, is 
limited, but the death of one of them, Dr. Anselm Jose' Braacamp, 
had created a vacancy and Dr. Dalgado's name was selected to be 
placed before the general body at a session on the 27th April, but 
Providence had willed otherwise, for on the 4th of the same 
month Dr. Dalgado was summoned by his Maker to receive 
the due reward of his exemplary sanctity of life, untiring industry, 
wise use of his rare gifts and his heroic resignation in suffering. 

The Portuguese people mourned the passing away of this 
Indian scholar as a national loss, for they had come to look upon 


his Vocahulario and the Glossario as imperishable monuments to 
their great and glorious past. 

At the time of his death he had in the press the Floril&gio 
de Proverbios Concanis. It is a fascinating and penetrating study 
of the everyday philosophy of the Konkani-speaking people. 
Two thousand one hundred and twenty-seven proverbs which 
he was able to collect have been translated into Portuguese and 
grouped under two hundred and twenty-three heads, commented 
.upon and compared with similar sayings in different Asiatic 
(principally Sanskrit, Marathi, Kanarese) and European (Latin, 
English, French, Spanish, German) languages. 

Early in 1922 he was engaged in preparing at the request 
of the Lisbon University, a new edition of Duarte Barbosa's 
famous * Lima ', but this and a grammar of the Konkani lan- 
guage at which he had been working from 1920 remained un- 

Apart from his sacred ministry, love for India and love 
for Portugal were the two consuming passions of his life. It 
is in connection with these that his literary activities had their 
being and around them they moved. The titles of his writings 
show how he distributed his interest almost equally between 
these two. But India, as is natural, occupied the first place 
in his affections. And it is a coincidence, at once significant 
and arresting, that he should have made his entry on the stage 
of Oriental scholarship with a dictionary of the Konkani lan- 
guage and that, when the curtain was rung down on his acti- 
vities, he should have been engaged on an Anthology of Konkani 
proverbs and a Grammar of Konkani. 

From his exiguous resources he endowed a prize for Sanskrit 
at the Lyceum in Goa, and offered to the Archbishop of Goa 
a sum of money for the foundation of a chair of Konkani in the 
seminary of Eachol. The Archbishop did not see his way to 
accept the offer and he felt disappointed. The Portuguese 
ecclesiastical authorities, in the past, have been no friends 
of Konkani, the people's tongue in Goa. Time and again they 


made relentless efforts to suppress the language of the soil, not 
unlike those once made by the Normans against Anglo-Saxon 
speech, and as unsuccessfully. Monsignor Dalgado was surely 
acquainted with these, but he must have presumed that a newer 
order had yielded place to the older one. 

His intense devotion to India is understandable, but how 
is it that this Indian with not a trace of Portuguese blood in his 
veins came to feel the affection he did for Portugal ? A sentence 
in his preface to this work bears witness to its intensity. ' I 
have pursued this task with an ardent zeal and unflagging 
enthusiasm inspired above all by my devotion to Portugal and 
thought for her glory.' We shall allow Dr. Dalgado himself to 
answer what on the surface appears to be a very intriguing 
query : 

" The influence of Portugal in the East which many foreign 
and some Portuguese writers have characterised as cruel, in- 
tolerant and of few beneficial results, presents nevertheless on 
careful investigation, an aspect and a type which are wholly 
peculiar, in as much as it has been highly sympathetic and 
warm-hearted. Tt is an influence which other nations who 
regard themselves as being more civilised and more liberal have 
not up to this day succeeded in exerting in spite of present- 
day advance in social doctrines. The most striking evidence 
of this influence, which in itself constitutes a glorious record of 
the relations that have existed between the conquerors and the 
conquered, is their effective and legal recognition of political and 
social equality, without any difference whatsoever, between the 
Portuguese and their colonials, be they Indians, Chinese, Oceanians 
or Africans a policy which as yet remains a desideratum among 
non-Portuguese colonies, however rich, extensive and cultured. 

According to the general theory of the Portuguese, their 
colonies are not dependencies or centres for exploitation. On the 
contrary, they are patches of Portugal sown, for her glory, in 
different climes with races, colours, castes, usages and customs, 
it is true, very unlike those of the mother country, but not on 


that account less Portuguese at heart and soul. It is on this 
account that a Portuguese born in India or Africa of European 
parents is not ashamed to call himself an Indian or an African. 
This fact ought not to cause surprise or be looked upon as an 
isolated incident or one of recent happening. The primary and 
most absorbing motive force which impelled the early explorers 
and conquerors was the idea of extending the temporal and 
spiritual limits of Portugal and to bind the East and the West 
with the tender ties of love. Here is an instance of very great 

value in proof of this. The King of Portugal did not disdain 

to be treated by the friendly Rajas of Malabar as their brother 
and the Rajas very naturally were proud to be allowed to claim 
this relationship. It is useful to remember that no other sovereign 
of any other power has similarly treated any potentate, Asian 
or African, even up to the present day, when we are living in 
an age in which so much is talked about the liberty, equality and 
fraternity of the human race. Moreover, there is no record 
of any governor or viceroy of any other power having spoken 
of an Indian woman as ' my daughter ' as the great Affonso Al- 
buquerque used to do without distinction, in respect of the 
women of Goa, when they were coming over to Christianity 
and marrying his soldiers and sailors. 

These and other facts of a similar nature furnish abundant 
proof that the Portuguese, who knew how to make themselves 
dreaded by their enemies and to treat them with severity, 
possessed, at the same time, the gift of associating themselves 
without any reserve with the indigenous population and of even 
identifying themselves with them, and if the latter happened 
also to belong to their faith, they were looked upon on that very 
account as their brothers." 

It is much to be regretted that since the above was written, 
and during the last few years, there has been a backward move- 
ment in the old Portuguese colonial policy. 

The equalitarian and fusionist doctrine of the Portuguese 
has by many been looked upon as the cause of their failure in 


the East ; there are others, however, who believe, and Dr. Dalgado 
is one of them, that the true criterion of estimating the success 
of colonial administration is the affectionate memory and grate- 
ful esteem of the rulers by the subject population and, tested 
by this, the success of the old Portuguese colonial policy has 
been very great indeed. 

It is the earnest desire of present-day statesmanship to see 
the East and the West understand each other and to have them 
extend to each other the hand of fraternal sympathy. Dr. 
Dalgado 's Vocabulario and Glossario will remain abiding monu- 
ments of such an alliance between the two civilisations, and he 
himself, whether regarded as man, priest, or scholar is a 
splendid exemplar of the happy result to be derived from an 
intimate association of the East and the West. 


Authorities of indisputable competence have more than once 
recognised and not less often held fo.rth the great advantage 
and importance of assembling in one place the large number of 
Portuguese words, many of them in everyday use, which have 
been taken over by most of the cultured and some also by the 
less advanced languages of Southern Asia. 

It is now about twenty years that a daily paper in Bombay 
which has a vast circulation, The Times of India, suggested the 
importance of such a work with reference to India and pointed 
out to the late Dr. Gerson da Cunha as one suited for carrying 
it out. 

Subsequently Dr. Hugo Schuchardt, an authority on the 
Romance languages of universal fame who has published so many 
works on the Portuguese dialects of Asia and Africa and on the 
diffusion of Portuguese in the East was insistent on the advantage 
and necessity of preparing a glossary of the Portuguese words 
introduced into Asiatic tongues. 

Dr. Adolf o Coelho, in appreciating an interesting monograph 
of Mr. Gongalves Viana on the influence of Portuguese on Malay, 
declared that this publication imposed upon him the obligation of 
completing the work he had begun by examining other lan- 
guages of the Archipelago, a task which, most certainly, he 
had the competence to perform. But the eminent linguist, in 
a subsequent edition of his work referred to above, wrote to 
say that he did not deem himself qualified for undertaking the 
work and that one already had taken upon himself to execute 
it, thereby referring to the author of the present book. 

Five and twenty years ago when I began the study of the 
ematology and the etymology of Kpnkani, the language of 
Goa, with the aid of dictionaries in Sanskrit, the parent tongue, 

of the other languages in use on the frontiers of Goa, I 


noticed at once that it was not only in Portuguese India but 
also in British India that many Portuguese words were current ; 
this fact I had on a previous occasion, though of course on 
a scale much smaller, observed when I was the vicar general 
and administrator of the Portuguese missions in Ceylon and 
Bengal. In my Konkam-Portuguese dictionary published in 
1903, I indicated by initials placed before the respective word, 
the six or seven languages, Aryan or Dravidian which used them 
and which I then knew. 

Accepting the suggestion of a friend, I sent him from India 
in 1892 a very short manuscript study to be put before the 
International Congress of Orientalists which was to have been 
held in Lisbon but eventually was not held there. It was a 
brief study consisting of two distinct parts of the Indo- 
Portuguese dialect of Ceylon, and of the Portuguese terms, 
grouped under certain heads, which had been introduced into 
half a dozen languages of India. 

The Geographical Society of Lisbon published, as my 
contribution to the celebrations in honour of the fourth centenary 
of the discovery of the sea-route to India, an enlarged study of 
the Portuguese dialect of Ceylon. But I could not then accede 
to the pressing request of the late Luciano Cordeiro to put 
through the press the second part of my essay because I wished 
to extend the scope of this part of the work and, at greater 
leisure, to co-ordinate it in the best possible manner. 

Since then I have carried on, with interruptions more or less 
protracted and occasionally with flagging zeal, the arduous task 
of going through, more than once, a large collection of dictionaries 
and vocabularies of some fifty languages, some of them volumin- 
ous, rare and costly ; of acquiring incomplete but published lists of 
words ; of obtaining fresh ones through the help of obliging 
friends scattered over India, and finally of casting anew the 
materials thus brought together. And all this has been done in 
the midst of constant physical sufferings, oftentimes of an 
excruciating nature, and of not a few moral smarts. 


It is but natural that works of the nature of this, especi- 
ally those taking in an area so extensive and so little surveyed 
before, are as a rule incomplete and imperfect and full of errors 
of various sorts, and I should not have even now been rash 
enough to issue to the public the fruits of my investigations, 
had it not been for an ever-growing presentiment that Death 
might come to meet me in the midst of my labours. 

What stimulated me in the carrying out of this weary task 
was not so much my love for literary pursuits as my ardent 
affection for Portugal. Should the present work, perhaps the 
last literary product of my leisure hours, with all its short- 
comings, contribute in some measure towards her glory, I shall 
hold myself abundantly repaid for my labour and expense. 

I wish to leave recorded here my ever grateful thanks to 
the Academy of Sciences which gave a most generous welcome 
to my book and sanctioned its publication ; to Mr. Gongalves 
Viana who pronounced an opinion on it which I feel was a great 
deal too complimentary, and who went through the greater part 
of it and made many judicious and useful suggestions ; to Mr. 
J. A. Dias Coelho of the Government Printing Press, who with very 
great interest revised the proofs twice over ; to Mr. Candido 
Au gusto Nazareth, the manager of the press, who helped so 
greatly in seeing it being put through quickly and also to its 
effective get-up ; to the missionaries of the Portuguese Govern- 
ment working in the East who furnished me with Portuguese 
words in the local dialects, and finally to all those who in what- 
ever way have helped me in the execution of this work. 

Lisbon, August 1913. 


I. The Influence of Portugal on the East 

The influence of Portugal on the Orient both as regards its 
extension and intension has not hitherto, as a whole, been 
adequately appreciated. 

Much has been written about the glorious achievements of 
her navigators and conquerors, and of the heroic deeds of her 
captains and governors. There are graphic descriptions of her 
extensive commercial relations, of her vast emporiums and of the 
fearful trials and the dazzling luxury of her sons in the colonies. 
Likewise, in the light of the present-day trend of thought, her 
policy of cruelty and intolerance and the excesses that flowed 
from her religious zeal have been the subject matter of severe 
criticism. And it has been generally held that this influence of 
Portugal on the East was circumscribed, superficial and ephemeral. 

The truth, however, is that the civilizing influence of 
Portugal in her former dominions and the peoples she came into 
contact with was, in more senses than one, very extensive, very 
deep and very abiding. There exist even at the present day 
numerous and unmistakable vestiges of this influence, and there 
are irrefutable arguments * to support this view. 

Dr. Heyligers recognises c that the influence which . the 
Portuguese exercised in the Indian Archipelago ' and the same 
can be said of diverse other parts * was of an absolutely singular 
character,' and he includes it under three heads : population and 

1 ' In the matter of principles, therefore, Portugal was the first country 
which knew to formulate them in a manner calculated to bring about, by a 
policy of assimilation between the conquerors and the conquered and without 
useless severity and futile tyranny, the progress and the civilisation of the most 
backward regions. And in the matter of practical application we (the Portu- 
guese) gave proofs no less remarkable nor less decisive.' Opinion of the Sub- 
Committee (Colonial Politics) of the Geographical Society of Lisbon. 


race, customs, and language. 1 But there are other aspects by 
no means of less consequence and which, at the same time, are 
important factors of civilisation : the introduction of new objects, 
the flora, the fauna, agriculture and industries. 

There is no colonial nation which has less racial egotism and 
is more inclined to identify itself with the indigenous population 
than the Portuguese. 2 The discerning mind of Albuquerque 
found no better means of knitting together the East and the 
West and of consolidating the Empire which he was founding 
than by the fusion of the conquerors and the conquered, and 
towards this end he concentrated all his efforts. 8 If his judicious 
policy was not resolutely maintained or if it encountered grave 
difficulties, it did not fail any the less to achieve considerable 
results. Even at the present time there are to be met with in 
various parts of Asia groups of families, some small others large, 
which pride themselves on being the descendants of the European 
people who were the earliest in modern times to bring their 
civilisation to the East. These families also glory in designating 
themselves Portuguese and are proud of their Lusitanian patro- 

1 Traces de Portugais dans les principals langues des Indes Orientates 

2 ' The Portuguese have always been in this matter very tolerant and this 
is one of the great qualities of colonisers and they would never think it a 
disgrace to contract marriage alliances with the high castes of India, the people 
with the purest Aryan blood in their veins.' Conde de Ficalho, Garcia da Orta 
e o sen tempo, p. 169. 

3 See Jofio de Barros, Dec. II, V, 11. 

' And already at this time there were in Goa four hundred and fifty married 
men, all servants of His Majesty, the King, and of the Queen, and of the Lords 
of Portugal ; and those who wished to marry were so numerous that Afonso de 
Albuquerque could hardly grant their requests, for he did not give permission 
except for the men of proved character to marry.' 'Commentaries of Afonso 
Albuquerque, III, Ch. 9. [Hak. Soo., Vol. Ill, p. 41. ED.] 

* The Portuguese make a marvellous profit all over India. Where thfcy are 
well received they associate with the natives of the country, who in their turn 
accompany them in their voyages, so much so, that even all the crews of their 
ships and pilots are Indians, either Mohammedans or Hindus.' Pyrard de 
Laval, Viagem, Vol. 1, p. 373. [Hak. Soc., Vol. 1, p. 438. ED.] 


nymics. On this very account they sometimes enjoy rights and 
privileges which are superior to those granted to the indigenous 
classes or are the same as those enjoyed by the Europeans as 
is the case in the Moluccas. 1 

Uptil now we know of no means more effective for civilizing 
backward peoples than Christianity and its missionary activities ; 
and all colonial nations in greater or less degree employ and 
support these agencies. The Portuguese colonisers in preference 
to all other methods made use of religious propaganda as the most 
effective and enduring way of introducing their culture. 2 And if 
there were some resultant abuses now exaggerated by hyper- 
critics, the converts to Christianity are not prepared to admit 
that they owe more to Europe than to the religion which they 

1 The Dutch and their proceedings have almost ceased to be remembered 
by the lowland Sinhalese ; but the chiefs of the south and the west perpetuate with 
pride the honorific title Don, accorded to them, by their first European conquerors, 
and still prefix to their ancient patronymics the sonorous Christian names of 
the Portuguese.' Sir James Emerson Tennent, Ceylon, an Account of the Inland. 

' In our camps there were four native Modeliares (Mudliars) who were in our 
service ; they were all Christians, and the sons of Columbus, one of the headmen 
of the Island . . . and they were called Don Aleixo, Don Cosme, Don Balthazar, 
and Don Theodozio.' JoSo Ribeiro, Fatalidade Historica da Ilha de Ceildo, 
Bk. II, Ch. I. 

2 ' The Kings of Portugal always aimed, in their conquest of the East, at 
combining the two powers, spiritual and temporal, in such a way, that one of 
them should at no time be exercised without the other.' Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. VI, IV, 7. 

' In Cochin I came across a primary school where children are taught, and 
I thought that Your Highness would not allow the children to rot now that 
they are in the school, and I, therefore, gave orders that one of the men who 
had contracted marriage here should teach the children to read arid write ; 
there will bo an attendance at the school of nearly oiio hundred youths and 
they are the children of the panikars (teachers) and other honest men ; the youths 
are very sharp and take in- what is taught them, and that very quickly, and 
they are all Christians.' Afonso de Albuquerque, Cartas (Letters), I, p. 45. 

* Antonio Galvfio saw to it that the children were taught religious doctrine 
and to read and write '. Fernfio Lopes de Castanheda, Historia do Descobri- 
mento e Conquista da India (History of the Discovery and Conquest of India), Bk. 
VIII, Ch. 203. 


profess. And as these converts recall to mind with gratitude 
the names of those who were the earliest to bring over to them 
their faith, with ample good will they forgive the Portuguese 
nation for the lapses they may well have -been guilty of. 1 And 
among the cultured Hindus, who are championing the cause of 
national self-rule, there are not wanting some who regret, as I 
myself have had occasion to hear, that Portugal had not converted 
to her religion the greater part of India. 

The Portuguese also promoted the civilisation of the East 
by her immense trade, bringing over from Europe objects 
unknown in these parts, introducing these into the domestic life 
of the people, and by carrying very many objects from parts of 
Asia to others more remote in the continent ; this last fact is 
testified to by the names of the articles with which are associated 
their place of origin. 2 

The flora of Asia and, in a especial degree, that of India 
owes to Portugal the introduction of very many plants, most of 

1 With regard to the influence of Portuguese colonisation on the customs 
of the indigenous peoples, it is enough to say that since the very beginning 
Portuguese missionaries preached Christianity and founded Christian schools . . . 
It is unnecessary to add that the work of the missionaries introduced at the 
same time, the first elements of European civilisation and that the views of the 
conquerors, in respect of indigenous customs, began to be mellowed under the 
influence of Christianity/ Dr. Heyligers, op. cit. 

' These Catholic populations, which even now are to be found there, in 
lands over which for long years we have lost our sway, and which combine 
with reverence for their faith their regard for the name of our land (Portugal), 
go to prove how deep the teaching and th</ influence of the Portuguese missionary 
had penetrated. 1 Conde de Ficalho, op. cit., p. 160. 

2 ' Our ancient intercourse has, however, left indelible traces in the language. 
Bengarajima, Chaujima and Santomejima are fabrics which were imported from 
the Indian cities of Bengal (Port. Bengala], ChaujL and St. -Thomas (Port. San 
Tome). Amakawa-sango are corals from Macau (formerly called Amacao) ; 
Indengawa, leather from India ; and Perusyagawa, that from Persia.' Dr. N. 
Murakami, The Influence of Early Intercourse with Europe, etc. 

* They have also a great quantity of cloths from Cambaya, Chaul, and 
Dabul ; and from Bengal they bring many synabasos which are a sort of cloth.' 
Duarte Barbosa, Livro, p. 261. [Hak. Soc. Longworth Dames's Translation, 
Vol. I, p. 93.] 


them of American origin, many of which now grow wild, cover 
extensive areas and are of conspicuous utility. 1 

In like manner the fauna of the East was enriched, thanks to 
the Portuguese, by the addition of many specimens till then 
unknown or not at aU common. Proof in support of this will 
be found in the course of this work. 

The cultivation of fields and cocoanut plantations owed no 
little improvement to the Portuguese and especially to their 
religious orders who owned extensive but at the same time 
model estates. 2 And the same may be said with regard to other 
branches of industry. 

II. The Influence of the Portuguese Language 

The influence which the Portuguese language exercised in 
the past and even to this day exercises over a large part of Asia, 
more than any other factor, establishes the great value of the 
civilizing role of Portugal, so wholly singular and without a 
parallel. That the language of the conquering people will 
become the official language of a country is to be expected and, 
as a matter of course, the indigenous inhabitants find them- 
selves under the necessity of learning to speak and write it. But 
this condition of affairs lasts only so long as the country is under 
the yoke of the foreigner. Thus we see that Holland, which 
exercised dominion over various parts of India has left scarcely 
any trace of its speech unless it be a word or two in one language 
or another. 

It is likewise to be expected that the descendants of the once 
dominant nation will continue to employ, especially should they 
represent a large body, their mother tongue long time after their 

* See Dr. D. G. Dalgado, Flora de Goa e Savantvadi. Also see Conde de 
Ficalho, Memorias sobre a- influenoia dos descobrimentos Portugueses no conheci- 
mento.das plantas (A Monograph on the Influence of the Portuguese Discoveries 
upon the Knowledge of Plants). 

2 * The excellence of the Goa mangoes is stated to be due to the care and 
skill of the Jesuits.' Hosbon-Jobaon under Mango. 


national sovereignty has passed away. This is the case with 
the Portuguese in Bengal, on both the coasts of the Indian 
peninsula, and in Malacca and Singapore. 

But the phenomenon which one notices in Ceylon is nothing 
short of a marvel. There, not only the descendants of the 
Portuguese, but even the children of the Hollanders who exercised 
a sway over the island during as long a period as the Portuguese, 
and generally speaking all the Euro-Asiatics and even some of 
the indigenous inhabitants, have adopted Portuguese as their 
mother tongue. Besides these, there are the Europeans and the 
natives who learn the language for the convenience of trade, 
domestic requirements, or religious services. 1 

And it is yet again a matter for surprise and not a little 
amazing, that a section of the indigenous population, which 
cannot lay claim to a drop of Portuguese blood in its veins, 
should have repudiated its own vernacular and adopted, together 
with the Christian religion, Portuguese as its mother tongue. 
This is a phenomenon which one notices in the Presidency of 
Bombay and also in some parts of the Malabar Coast. 2 

The expansion of the Portuguese language over Asia during 
the past centuries is astounding. ' The history of the dis- 
covery of the Portuguese conquests is likewise the history, 
generally speaking, of the spread of the Portuguese language/ 3 
says Dr. Schuchardt very aptly, and he establishes his thesis 
with much erudition. To this may be added that the history of 
the spread of Portuguese missionary activities is, in an equal 
measure, up to a certain point, the history of the diffusion of 
the Portuguese language. In those early days Portuguese was 

1 'Already the language of the Dutch, which they sought to extend by 
penal enactments, has ceased to be spoken even by their direct descendants, 
whilst a corrupted Portuguese is to the present day the vernacular of the lower 
classes in every town of importance.' Emerson Tennent. 

See the introduction to Dialecto Indo-Portuguda de Qeil&o by the author. 

2 See Dialecto Indo-Portugues do Norte by the author. 

8 Beitrage zur Kenntniss dea kreoliachen Romanisch, V. 


regarded as the language of Christianity par excellence and a 
knowledge of it was looked upon as an index of European 
culture. 1 

Portuguese was spoken in its pure or corrupt form throughout 
the whole of India, in Malaysia, Pegu, Burma, Siam, Tonquin, 
Cochin-China, China, in Kamaran in Persia, in Basra of the Turkish 
Vilayet, and in Mecca in Arabia. 2 And it was spoken not only by 
the Portuguese and their descendants but by Hindus, Mahom- 
medans, Jews, Malays, and by Europeans of other nationalities 
in their intercourse with one another or with the indigenous people. 
It was employed by the Dutch missionaries in their own dominions 
and, even to this day, English Protestant ministers make use of 
it in Ceylon. It was therefore for a long time the lingua franca 
of the East. 3 

1 The Chinese converted by Thomas Pires, who were more than three 
hundred in number and were wont to meet in his daughter's house, used to recite 
their prayers in Portuguese ; and likewise was the case with the Chinese family 
of Vasco Calvo. See Fernfto Mendes Pinto, Peregrina$ao (Travels), Chh. CXI 
and CXVI. In the Portuguese dialect of Singapore, papid cristao means * to 
speak Portuguese.' 

c Taken, for certain, to India from the Dominican mission of Larentuka, in 
the neighbouring island of Flores from this Larentuka where even to-day 
Catholic prayers are recited in Portuguese.' Dr. Alberto de Castro, Flores de 
Coral, pp. 147-148. 

2 ' The Portuguese language is spoken and is current from Gujarat to 
Cape Comorin. It is not unknown on the Coromandel Coast as far as Bengal. 
It is in common use, in a form more or less pure, in Ceylon, in the Malay 
Archipelago, and in China. It is understood in Siam and in various groups of 
the Oceanic Archipelagos, etc.* Cunha Rivara, Grammatica da Lingua Ooncani 
(Grammar of the Konkani Language). 

8 * Indo -Portuguese is more or less understood by all classes in the island 
of Ceylon and all along the whole coast of India ; the extreme simplicity of its 
construction and the facility with which it can be acquired has brought about 
its extensive use as a medium of intercourse.' The Bible of Every Land. See 
Introduction to Hobson-Jobson, and the learned articles 6f Dr. Adolfo Coelho, 
published in the Journal of the Geographical Society of Lisbon (2nd, 3rd, and 
6th series) under the title Dialectos Romanicos ; also the same Journal (2nd 
series, p. 133) with regard to the expansion of Portuguese in Southern Africa. 
[See also A. X. Scares, The Portuguese Heritage to the East (Journal Bombay 
Branch B.A.S., No. LXXIV, Vol. XXVI). ED.] 


It is true that to-day the radius of the circulation of 
Portuguese in Asia is no longer what it used to be ; it is much 
reduced. It has ceased to be the lingua franca, and, of its several 
dialects, some are extinct, others are in articulo mortis, and it 
may well be that yet others shall, after the lapse of ages, have 
entirely disappeared. But when perchance Portuguese shall have 
ceased to be spoken in the East, the words from the beautiful 
tongue of Camoens, adopted and naturalised in a hundred and 
one of the vernaculars of the East, will continue to exist as long 
as the vernaculars themselves endure and stand as living and 
abiding monuments of the Portuguese dominion and civilisation 
in those parts. 

As was to be expected, the languages which most felt the 
influence of Portuguese were those of India and the Eastern 
Archipelago. And these are precisely the languages which are the 
subject of this study, and to these for one reason or another are 
superadded others. It is on this account that the philological 
notes that follow 1 in the succeeding chapters have most reference 
to India. 

III. The Languages of India. General Observations 

India, on a par with her other riches, is rich also in languages 
and dialects of various species and gradations, which are spoken 
by an indigenous population of over 300 millions in an area which 
is equal to that of half Europe. 1 

Especially in the mountainous tracts inhabited by numerous 
tribes, nomadic and savage or semi-savage there exist so many 
diverse forms of speech that it is difficult to say whether they are 
distinct languages, well-defined dialects, or mere variants. In the 
plains the more important languages spread themselves out as 
the result of a process of absorption, and many dialects ordinarily 
limited to provinces or districts are easily reduced to one common 

1 [According to the Census of 1921, the population of British India, 
excluding Ceylon, was reported to be 318,942,480. ED.] 


type. But there are cities like Bombay and Calcutta which are 
veritable Babels, where not infrequently one comes across 
people who can speak, without much difficulty, two or three 
languages, and educated persons who can express themselves 
correctly in half a dozen tongues. 

But the scientific exploration and the comparative study of 
this vast language-field may well be said to be yet in its embryonic 
stage, notwithstanding the valuable investigations on general 
or special lines which during the last years have seen the light 
of day thanks to Erskine Perry, John Wilson, Max Miiller, 
George Campbell, Crawfurd, Marsden, Hoernle, Caldwell, Latham, 
Burnell, Beames, Oust, Grierson, and other eminent orientalists. 1 

Scholars who were absorbed during a long period in the 
study of the Sanskrit language and its literature, either did not 
find the time for an analysis of the vernaculars, or perhaps did 
not deem them worthy of their attention. The early missionaries, 
as a rule, used to learn the common speech of their zone only so 
far as was necessary for their work of preaching the Gospel. If 
they managed to write anything for the use of the public it was 
no more than what was necessary for teaching religious doc- 
trine to catechumens and neophytes. 2 Even thus, the earliest 

1 * For nearly thirty years philology has been wandering through the 
maze of Indian languages with uncertain steps ..... Speculations regarding 
Indian languages must wait till the survey is concluded and all the facts are 
represented in a convenient form. Till then, even the classification adopted in 
the following pages must be taken as provisional.' G. Grierson, The Languages 
of India, p. 1. 

2 It is but natural that the more proficient should leave behind hand- 
written notes, grammatical and lexicographical, for the private use of their 
colleagues and successors in office. 'Father Francisco Anriquez learnt to 
speak the language and even read and write the script of the country (Malabar) 
in six months, and within a short time brought out a grammar and a glossary 
of the language, to the astonishment of the native population and to the great 
advantage of our Fathers and Lay Brothers who, since then till now, thanks to 
these and other books which were being produced, study the Malabar language 
with the same ease with which they do Latin.' Rev. Jo&o Lucena, Historia da 
Vida do Padre Francisco de Xavier, Bk. V, Ch. 25. 


writings in connection with the languages of the East have 
come exclusively from the preachers of the Gospel, and in modern 
times the cultivation of these languages is principally their 
work. 1 

Since the last fifty years and especially during very recent 
years the study and the cultivation of the more important living 
languages has grown apace thanks to the persistent efforts of 
missionaries and indologists and to the sustained stimulus and 
generous patronage of the British Government. Everywhere 
there are to be found mixed vernacular schools, and every year 
there is published a large number of books in the characters of 
the various vernaculars, most of them of a didactic nature, not 
to speak of the large number of periodicals and journals which 
are read with great avidity by the present generation. 2 

It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that up to now there 
has been no investigation on scientific lines of the total number 
of languages and dialects in India nor has there been a unanimous 
consensus of opinion regarding the limits of the Indian language- 
field which, of course, varies a great deal from the geographical 
and political boundaries of India. Robert Oust enumerates no 
less than two hundred and forty-three languages and two hundred 
and ninety-six of the dialects grouped under eight families ; but he 
unduly extends the range of the language-field including in it 
Timor, Madagascar, and the island of Formosa, owing, as he says, 
to linguistic and ethnic affinities. 3 

In a zone much more circumscribed, but which however 
included Burma and Siam, Beames in 1868 counted hundreds of 

1 ' To one class of labourers Science is more indebted than to any other. 
I allude to the Missionaries, both Protestant and Roman Catholio, who have 
vied with each other in letting light into dark places,' Robert Gust, A Sketch 
of the Modern Languages of the East Indies, p. 21. 

2 * About eight hundred indigenous periodicals are published in India ; 
they are printed in nineteen different languages. And about seven thousand 
books are printed each year in the vernacular languages. 

3 Op. cit., p. 148. 


languages with many of their principal dialects, omitting some 
and designating others under generic heads. 1 

Sir George Grierson in a more recent publication based upon 
the British Indian census of 1901, to which he contributed a 
chapter on the languages of India, computes the total number to 
be one hundred and forty-seven, including therein the two spoken 
in Aden (Semitic and Hamitic) and excluding therefrom those of 
Ceylon (Sinhalese and the language of the Veddas, the aborigines 
of the islatid) and of the temporary sojourners in the ^country. 
From among the Malayan group of languages he includes only two 
(Selung and Nicobarese) and he makes Konkani a dialect of 
Marathi. 2 i 

IV. Classification and Division of Languages 
The vernaculars of India and of the Indian Archipelago, 
actually spoken, can be grouped under five principal families : 
Aryan (Indie and Iranian branches), Dravidian, Munda or 
Kolarian, Indo-Chinese (with three sub-families : Mon-Khmer, 
Tibeto-Burman, Siamo-Chinese), and Malay o-Polynesian. 8 

The Iranian branch has its representatives in Pushtu or 
Pakhtu and in Baluchi, in the north of India. 

The j Indie branch includes the Indo-Aryan or Gaurian 
language^, which stand in the same relation to classical Sanskrit 
as the Romance languages do to classical Latin. 4 Such are : 

1 ' In! the Punjab every district has its own dialect and some districts have 

more than,' one.' ' Munipuri dialects, Koreng dialects, Karen dialects.' 

John Beanies, Outlines of Indian Philology. 

2 Gewge Grierson, The Languages of India, and the Census of 1901, in The 
Asiatic Society Quarterly Review, April, 1904. See also Linguistic Survey of 
India, by the same author. 

8 Arabic is the sacred, and Persian, the literary tongue of the Mahommedans. 
The languages of the Andaman Islands and of the gipsies are not classified. 
European languages and their dialects are excluded. 

4 Thjere are some Sanskritists who believe that Sanskrit was not a living 


in the sense in which Latin and Greek were, spoken by any people. 

but merely a language elaborated by the Brahmins for their orthodox composi- 
tions, on t -he lines of the old Vedic tongue. ' Sanskrit was only a literary language 
but nevey- spoken in the sense of a vernacular.' Hoernle and Grierson, A Com- 



Hindi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bengali, Marathi, Konkani, 
Gujarati, Assamese, Oriya, Kashmiri, Nepali, Sinhalese. 1 Sir 
Grierson adds to these eleven others which he designates as 
Aryan but non-Sanskritic and these are spoken in Gilgit, Chitral, 
and Kafiristan. The total population of those who speak the 
Aryan tongues is more than 220 millions. 8 \ 

To the Dravidian family belong Tamil, Malayalalm, Telugu, 

Kanarese, Tulu, Kodagu ; Toda, Kota, Kurukh (< 
Malhar (or Rajmahali) ; Gond, Khond ; Kandh, Ko 
first five and perhaps the Kodagu are cultivated ; tile rest are 

not cultivated. The population that employs the 
languages is more than 57 millions. 8 




parative Dictionary of the Bihari Language, Introduction. But it is 
make a distinction: Sanskrit properly so called or classic Sanskri 
have been a mother tongue, learnt at the breast of the mother, 1 
undeniable, according to the data provided by Yaska, Panini, and Pi 

necessary to 
t could not 
}ut yet it is 
itanjali that 

it was spoken by the cultured classes throughout the length and f breadth t>f 
Ariavarta (from the Himalayas to the Vindyas), in the same way as il Portuguese 
is in Goa. See Arthur Macdonell, A History of Sanskrit Literature. r And it is 
to be noted that in the census of 1901, seven hundred and sixteen individuals 


declared Sanskrit to be their language. 

Sanskrit was evolved from the dialect spoken on the banks of th^'e Sarasvati 
river almost in the same way as Latin was from the Italian dialect i of Latium. 
Balabhasha (literally * the language of children') corresponds to Low 1 Latin which 
was spoken by the masses. In many of the Indian languages, inclu ,sive of the 
Dravidian, the literary idiom differs much from the spoken, as musl > also have 
happened, though perhaps not to the same extent, with Latin t vnd Greek. 
Vid. Robert Caldwell, A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Langi tfages. 

1 With respect to the classification of this language, there is a difference 
of opinion among indologists and to this we will refer hereafter. 

2 The words in the early Indo-Aryan language, mentioned in t >he Vedas, 
found their way into the new Indo-Aryan idioms through two channek : directly, 
through the original Prakrit a spontaneous and common evolutior /ji and in- 
directly, through classic Sanskrit, by the labours of the learned. TL,* 16 f ormer 
are called tadbhavaa, and the latter tatsamos, which again are divided inj to ancient 
anql modern. To comprehend the difference : the Portuguese terms chac > (ground), 
cheio (full), auto (action), and feito (deed) are tadbhdvas, with reference to Latin: 
piano (plain), pleno (full), acto (action), and facto (deed) are tatsamas. \ 

3 Brahui, spoken in Baluchistan by about 160,000 people aceordi' ng to the 
1921 census report is a remote branch of the Dravidian group. Th ! e ancient 


The third family Kolarian has its original home in the 
mountainous regions of Western Bengal, and contains ten distinct 
members, among which are the Santali and the Kol, spoken by 
3 millions. The sub-family Mon-lQimer of the Indo-Chinese 
branch is, at the present day, represented in India by Khassi in 
Assam, and by Palaung and Wa in the mountains of Upper 
Burma, and outside India by the languages of Pegu and Cambodia. 

Tibetan and Burmese are the two cultivated languages which 
belong to the other sub-family of the Indo-Chinese bra$ch ; they 
have in the mountainous regions of Northern India innumerable 
members, most of them little known, and some of them classified in 
groups, like : Garo, Bodo, Naga, Kuki-chin, Kachin, Himalayan. 
The Nevari and other dialects of Nepal with the exception of 
Nepalese are related to Tibetan. 

The third sub-family which, outside China, has its principal 
home in Siam is represented in India by the language of the 
Shan States and of the Karens of Southern Burma. 

Finally the fifth family Malayan or Malayo-Polynesian 
takes in Malacca and Malaysia. Gust makes out ten groups : the 
Sumatra-Malacca, Java, Celebes, Borneo, Philippines, Molucca, 
Timor, China, Madagascar and the Alfurese-Negrito group 
and enumerates eighty-eight languages and twenty-nine dialects. 

With this genealogical classification agrees more or less the 
morphological. The tado-Aryan languages are polysyllabic and 
inflectional, some of them with a tendency towards the analytic 
stage. The Dravidian are polysyllabic, agglutinative, prone to 
the use of suffixes, and with a tendency towards a certain degree 
of inflection. The Kolarian are polysyllabic, agglutinative, 
suffixive and infixative like the Turkish. The Indo-Chinese 
languages are monosyllabic and agglutinative. The Malayo- 
Polynesian are agglutinative but dissyllabic. 1 

Sanskrit writers used to designate the languages of Southern India andhradrdvi* 
dabhdshd, * the language of the Andhras and the Dravidas.' 

l For more details, see Oust, Beames, Caldwell and especially Grierson, 
op. cit. 


V. Geographical Distribution 

It is evident that in the present state of our knowledge, 
which is far from complete, it is not possible to trace with 
mathematical accuracy the lines which divide each of the living 
languages of India, nor would this be possible in respect of certain 

Apart from the difficulty referred to above, of determining 
the territorial boundaries of the languages of India, there arises 
another of ascertaining whether the hill peoples who are ethnically 
distinct are also separated by language differences, and if their 
languages belong to one and the same family. 1 

There are countries where two or more mother tongues or 
vernaculars exist side by side spoken by different tribes or races ; 
this phenomenon is due to immigration in the remote past. 

Besides this, two or more languages become $o blended 
along the frontier of a continuous stretch of territory that, they 
either go to form one separate dialect with elements taken 
equally from each language and without any genealogical sub- 
ordination or one of the two rises superior to the other and 
preserves its ties of family likeness. 

It is not to be expected, therefore, that the linguistic maps 
which have till now been published are accurate in respect of all 
the languages ; some of them err through excess by double 
designation or enlargement of the language-field others through 
defect by omission or contraction of the language area. 

The zone of each of the more important languages is suffi- 
ciently well known in its general lines and will be marked out in 
the description that follows of each of these. 

* * In the Himalayas the two families, as far as we have data for them* 
are so intermixed, that it is difficult, if not impossible, to lay down definite 

boundaries Especially is this the case in the large kingdom of Nepal which 

is still a terra incognita in many respects.' Beames, Outlines of Indian Philology* 
p. 9. 


The linguistic map that is annexed to this work is an adap 
tion of the one worked out by Gust, with certain modificatk 
which I have found very necessary. 

VI. The Scope of this Study 

This work treats of : 

1. The Aryan Family, (a) Indie branch : Kc 

Marathi, Gujarati, Hindi, Hindustani, I 
Hindustani, Nepali, Oriya, Bengali, A? 
Sindhi, Punjabi, Kashmiri and Sinl 
(6) Iranian branch : Modern Persian. 

2. The Dravidian Family: Tamil, Malay alam 

Kanarese and Tulu. 

3. The Indo-Chinese Family, (a) Tibeto-Burme 

Garo, Burmese, and Tibetan. (&) ]V 
branch : Khassi and Kambojan. (c) Sia 
branch : Siamese, Annamite and Tonkii 

4. The Malayo-Polynesian Family: Malaj 

Batta, Sundanese, Javanese, Madure 
Dayak, Macassar, Bugui, Nicobarese 
and Malagasy. 

5. The Semitic Family : Eastern Arabic. 

6. Japanese, without any classification. 

7. Anglo-Indian and Indo-French. 

8. Anglo-Chinese or Pidgin-English. 

9. Mediately : Some languages of the Mr 

family and other origins. 

I did not extend the scope of my treatise 
because I had no materials on hand for doing 
did not wish to protract its publication 
languages which have not been included in 
very little importance and very little influence 



VII. Exotic Elements 

No Asiatic language, generally speaking, ai \d no Indian 

uage in particular, can pride itself on possessing a vocabulary 

h is purely vernacular, free from a very considi Arable and, at 

ame time very necessary admixture indeed, of 1 aeterogeneous 

nts. 1 The exotic elements were first in fcroduced by 

at, whose influence direct or indirect on tl ie Dravidian 

ges (and on a smaller scale on the Malayan languages) is 

able to that which Latin continues to exercist 3 on the non- 

3e languages of Europe. It is divided into old Sanskrit 

} in common use and the modern which is confined to 


Mahommedan invasion, in its turn, brouj ;ht into the 

uany Arabic and Persian terms but these < Bnriched the 

ies more of the Aryan than of the Dravidiai i languages : 

oe on these was similar to what it exerc ised on the 

n the peninsula of Spain. 

hem the Portuguese, as was to be exp ected, gave 
ber of words of their own language to ah nost all the 
Cultivated or uncultivated, what time ' they them- 
'Absorbing a large number of words fron , them into 
?ue. This they effected by direct or indi rect means, 
helped to spread over the country some vernacular 
ived from one or the other language affy ar they had 
etimes a phonetic modification at their hands. 
, as has been said before, have Ief1 u , very few 
language and these almost exclusively ir \. Sinhalese ; 
their long domination, is the influen* 3e of their 
*eat in the languages of Malay, as i* \ admitted 

borrowed from the Latin dindra, denariut 3, and from 
<*d used for writing, hord, hour, and other astronomical 


Finally, En/ glish is at present exercising an influence analogous 
to that of the Portuguese language, especially in the administra- 
tive and comi oxercial terminology, in all the lands subject to its 
sway. And :'m course of time this influence will grow more 
extensive eve n as the knowledge of the English tongue spreads 
more among 1 ;he people. 

VIII. The * Agencies at Work and Grounds for the Influence of 
Portuguese on Asiatic Languages 

The intr oduction of Portuguese words into Asiatic languages 
has been efl ! ected through agencies which have been working 
either separa btely or simultaneously : 
(a) di rect dominion 
(6) cc >mmercial connection 

(c) p olitical influence 

(d) v icinage of Portuguese colonies 

(e) r( 3ligious propaganda 

(/) c onsociation of many vernaculars in certain cities 

(g) b orrowings from a contiguous language or from a 

more important language which had already been 


(h) c o-existence of Indo-Portuguese 
(i) i inglo-Indian vocabulary 

The ini luence of Portuguese and its range is determined by the 

nature of t 
its action a 
to be met 

he cause or combination of causes, and the degree of 

nd extent. There are terms in common use which are 

with in all or almost all the indigenous cultivated 

and the number of such is small ; theire are others 

which are exclusively used by Christians ; again there are some 
which are known to the educated classes and used only in the 
principal c ities. 

The d irections in which this influence was most felt, and the 
chief reas< ;ms that led to its operation, may be brought under 
the follow: ing heads : 


1. The Christian religion which was jbropagated and 
carried on by Portuguese missiL> nar i es or by 
missionaries who though not Poii^tuguese had 
assimilated Portuguese ways of life n-^d thought ; 
this was so because there were no verih acu i ar terms 
corresponding exactly with what thi^y wished to 
teach, or such as were known to the people at large. 
Again, even when suitable terms or!, expressions 
existed in the indigenous languages, ttj te y ma de use 
of the Portuguese words for fear les't the people 
might confound Christianity with Hftnduism or 
Mahommedanism and thereby trace rj ^semblances 
between these three religions. Cf. t\*ruz (cross), 
igreja (church), altar (altar), padre (p,rfest), casar 

(to marry). Likewise the names of e 
dignitaries, of church vestments and 

vessels, of 

ceremonies and liturgical festivities ai e with few 
exceptions Portuguese, as: papa (Pi^pe^ bispo 
(bishop), arcebispo (archbishop), meirinJ^ (beadle) ; 
cdlix (chalice), hostia, particula (the saci . e( j wa fer) ; 
diva (alb), estate (stole), capa (cop i e ) ; Natal 
(Christmas), Advento (Advent), Pascoa (J Easter). 1 
2. The new civilisation which introduced new 'Vocables to 
signify objects till then unknown or lit t} e known, 
such as : armdrio (ward-robe), balde . (bucket), 

l For example, in Tamil, not to speak of Konkani, the follow fog ecclesias- 
tical terms are in use : amito (amice), alva (alb), cordao (cord), casul ^ (chasuble), 
dalmatica (dahnatic), manipulo (maniple), estola (stole), capa {cope), cdlix 
(chalice), patena (paten), pala ( ? ), bdlsa ( ? ), corporal (corporal), $anguinho (a 
little cloth with which the priest wipes the chalice after receiving the , sacrament), 
cota (surplice), hdstia (host), particula (wafer), missal (missal), rit > >ua i (ritual), 
estante (a reading desk), altar (altar), cruz (cross), castipal (candle-8tiok) rf taberndculo 
(tabernacle), sacramento (sacrament), turibulo (censer), naveta (iij ^cense-pan), 
caldeirinha ( ? ), galheta (cruet), pdlio (a canopy carried over the sacrament in 
processions), sotaina (soutane), loba (cassock). For the most part si' ^^ vocables 
are not referred to in this book. 


bomba (pump), botdo (button), camisa (shirt), fiia 
(ribbon), pena (quill), pipa (barrel), pistola (pistol), 
meia (sock), cadeira (chair). 

3. The introduction of new plants ; with them were natur- 

ally carried the names by which they were known in 
their places of origin, like : ananas (pine-apple), 
anona (bull's heart or the Anona reticulata), caju 
(Anacardium occidentale), couve (cabbage), papaia 
(Carica papaya), pera (guava or Psidium guyava), 
tabaco (tobacco). 

4. Foreign words which are often regarded as better 

adapted to convey an air of distinction or superiority 
to persons or objects. 1 Of. mestre (master), 
pedreiro (mason), louvado (expert, arbitrator), copo 
(cup), cozinha (kitchen), doce (sweet), pSk> (bread), 
jdgo (game, play), tronco (lock-up). 

5. Certain words which are adopted by preference 

because they are simple to pronounce, and are 
withal expressive and characteristic. Of. ama 
(nurse), aia (ayah), bacia (plate), banco (bench), 
grade (railing), leilao (auction-sale), sorte (lottery). 

6. Again, there are certain terms the adoption of which 

to the detriment of or in addition to the vernacular 
word can solely be explained by the fascination that 
certain vocables are capable of exercising. Of. 
buraco (hole), chave (key), paga (salary), ponta 
(point or end), renda (tax). 

7. We also come across some words, of Asiatic origin 

which were introduced directly into the other 
languages from Indo-Portuguese, such as : achar 

* As is the case in Portuguese with reference to French and English terms : 
soirfo, matin&e, corbeille, dilivrance ; club, lunch, sport. 


(pickle), chita (chintz), gudao (store-room), pires 
(saucer), rota (walking-stick). 

IX. The Morphology of the Exotics 

The greater number of the imported words is made up, as is 
natural, of substantives which are either the names of persons or 
objects, and of some abstract nouns, and these are employed 
sometimes in an extended and, at others, in a limited sense. 

Abstract terms and derivatives are formed and the nouns 
declined in conformity with the general rules of each language. 
To take an instance, bebdo (drunkard), in Konkani, gives bebdepaq 
or bebdikdy (drunkenness) ; btbaduva, in Sinhalese, gives bebadu- 
kama. From kazdr, also used as a substantive in Konkani in 
the sense of 'marriage', is derived: kazari (married), kazdratso 
(marriageable), kazro (' marriage ' in a depreciative sense). 

Some substantives are employed in an acceptation peculiar 
to the local Portuguese dialect as in the Sinhalese, rdmuva (from 
the Port, dialect, ramo) for ' mould ' ; r&ndaya (from the Port, 
dialect, renda) for 6 rent, * toll, tax payable to the State '. 

Verbs have very little adaptability and are never much in 
demand for borrowing purposes. And yet we meet many of 
them in Konkani and in the Malayan group. In Konkani they 
remain as a rule unchanged and are conjugated with the vernacular 
verb corresponding to ' to make ' or ' to be ' according as it is 
transitive or intransitive and reflexive. The Malay verbs have 
no inflexions. 

Some words with a verbal form have, in addition or exclu- 
sively, the meaning of the substantive, as casar (to marry 
and marriage), pintar (to paint and a painting), jogar (game of 
dice), confessar (confession). 

Some adjectives occur in a few languages, which are also 
used adverbially as the result of indigenous influence, as, in Goa, 
just (just and justly), sert (certain and certainly). Adverbs proper, 
conjunctions and prepositions occur only in the Malay group. 
But we meet with contra (against) in Konkani. 


X. Remarks on the Phonetics 

Portuguese words in their transition to Oriental languages 
suffer as a rule phonetic changes which are more or less important ; 
the same is the case with Asiatic vocables which were introduced 
into Portuguese. Some of the changes are common to almost 
all languages and these are consequent on their passage from 
one language to another or on their obeying the same laws ; there 
are others which are peculiar to each language or to a group 
or family of languages. 

This work being primarily intended for lexicographical 
purposes, it is not possible to analyse and explain in every case 
all the phonetic changes that so many words have gone through. 
On this I think, it would be useful to set down here, in general 
only the most important changes : 

1. The initial vowel when it constitutes a syllable by 

itself is dropped in the case of polysyllabic words in 
the same way as in corrupt Portuguese dialects : 
Thus we have : kdphldr from ; acafelar ' (to plaster), 
ndnas from c anands ' (pine-apple), nona from 
'anona' (bull's heart or Anona reticulata) ; mar, murd 
(L.-Hindust.) from c amarra ' (cable) ; girjd 
from ' igreja ' (church) ; vanjel (Konk.) from 
< evangelho ' (evangel) ; burnal (L.-Hindust.) 
from ' embornal ' (scupper hole in a ship) ; duljens 
(Konk.) from * indulgencia ' (indulgence) ; legojo 
(Jav.) from ' algoz ' (executioner). 

2. Sometimes the initial syllable begins with a 

consonant is likewise dropped, as in mingo or mingu 
(Mai., Jav.) from 'domingo ' (Sunday) ; bdko (in 
many of the Malayo-Polynesian languages) from 
'tabaco' (tobacco); dilu (Mac,) from 'codilho 5 
(a term employed in a game of cards) ; piniti 
(Mai.) from * alfinete ' (pin). 


3. The final vowel when preceded by a stressed vowel 

may also sometimes be dropped as in almari from 
fc armario ' (ward-robe) ; basi from ' bacia ' (plate) ; 
in Konkani all the post-tonic vowels are eliminated ; 
thus we have, almdr from * armdrio ' (ward-robe) ; 
vigdr from ' vig&rio ' (vicar) ; muzg from mftsica 
(music) andmusico (musician); kdmbrf.Tom 'camara' 

4. The final a after a consonant is treated in diverse 

ways. In the Aryan languages of the South 
(except Sinhalese) it is silent as in phit from ' fita ' 
(ribbon), kamis or kamij from 4 camisa ' (shirt), 
bomb from ' bomba ' (pump). In those of the 
North, ordinarily, it is lengthened out or stressed 
as in phltd, pipd, girjd, kamij, mij from 6 fita ' 
(ribbon) ; ' pipa ' (barrel) ; * igreja ' (church) ; 
c camisa ' (shirt) ; ' mesa ' (table). In the Dravidian 
it is changed into ^, a favourite termination with 
them : kamisu (Tarn, kamisei), pistulu, ripu, vdru 
from ' camisa ' (shirt), ' pistola ' (pistol), fi ripa ' 
(lath), ' vara ' (yard). In the Malayan, the final 
a is retained in some words, whilst in others it is 
changed into the closed 6 : renda, rendd, from ' renda ' 
(tax or hire), roda, rodd from ' roda ' (wheel), 
ronda, rondo from * ronda ' (patrol). 

5. The final e mute oscillates between the tonic i (Aryan 

languages) and the atonic i (Dravidian and 
Malayan languages) : baldi, bdldi from ' balde ' 
(bucket) ; cMvi, chdvi from c chave ' (key) ; padri, 
pddri from ' padre ' (priest). In Konkani and 
Marathi it is dropped many times, being preceded 
by the simple consonant : Mb from * couve * 
(cabbage) ; gardd from * grade ' (railing) ; bul - 
(Konk.) from 'bule 5 (tea-pot); kdch "(Konk.) 
from ' coche * (coach). 


0. Similarly, the final o is dropped in the Aryan languages ; 
it is changed into the short u in the Dravidian 
and into u short or the closed 6 in the Malayan 
languages. Thus we have bank, bdnku, bdnko 
from ' banco ' (bench) ; kald, kdldu, kdldo from 
' caldo ' (broth) ; burdkh (Aryan) from ' buraco ' 
(hole). But tambaku or tamaku from ' tabaco ' 
(tobacco), in almost all languages. 

7. The diphthongs ei and ou change into e or e arid d, 

as in the Portuguese dialects. Thus we have 
bander, bandera, bandero from ( bandeira ' (flag) ; 
leader, kadera, kadel from cadeira ' (chair) ; k6b, 
kobis from ' couve,' pi. couves (cabbage) ; orivis 
(Mai.) from ' ourives ' (goldsmith). 

8. Some vowels in contact with the labial consonants 

become nasal : tambaku from ' tabaco ' (tobacco), 
pimp from c pipa ' (barrel), bhompld (Mar.) from 
' abobora ' (pumpkin). Also phint from ' fita ' 
(ribbon). 1 

9. Ch preserves its old sound which is current in the 

north of Portugal and identical with the oriental 
tch : tchepem from * chap6u ' (hat), tchinel from 
' chinella ' (slipper). In some languages as Konkani 
and Marathi it sounds like ts when followed by a 
and o. Thus, tsavi from ' chave ' (key). 

10. F is almost equivalent to the English w especially 

when it is a medial. Such languages as have no 
v (and sometimes also those that have it) convert it 
into b in the same manner as they change / into p. 

11. The initial r is pronounced as though it were a 

medial. Double r'$ are changed into a single as a 

1 The same phenomenon is also noticeable in Portuguese before mute 
consonants : fiandeiro (spinner) from flar (to spin) ; lavandeiro (washerman) 
from lavar (to wash). 


rule, because they are not to be met with in the 
majority of Asiatic languages ; e.g. we have kareta 
from ' carreta ' (light cart), amdru from c amarra ' 
(cable), bora from ' borra ' (wine lees), phdr from 
'forro ' (lining). 

12. LTi and nh which have no sounds corresponding to 

them are rendered respectively by ly or I and ny 
or n. Thus we have tuvdliya, tuvdla, tuvdl, tuvalo 
from ' toalha ' (towel) ; v&illu, el, from ' velho ' 
(old) ; kunyd from ; cunha ' (wedge) ; barkin from 
' barquinha ' (a skiff). Konkani, Malayalam and 
some other languages preserve the original sound in 
some words representing it by n or nn. Thus we 
get modift or modinh (Konk.) from c modinha ' 
(song), vinftu (Malayal.) from ' vinho ' (wine). 

13. S intervocalic (=z) is generally changed into j 

(sometimes into $ sibilant) either because many of 
the languages have no such sound or because it is 
only associated with the syllables of certain vowels 
(a, o, u 9 as in Konkani, Marathi, Sindhi). Thus 
we have mej from ' mesa ' (table), kamij or kamis 
from ' camisa ' (shirt). 1 

14. R and I change places in those languages which 

have these sounds but in those which have only 
one of them the one is replaced by the other. Thus 
we have kadel, bhoblo from c cadeira ' (chair), and 
c abobora ' (pumpkin) ; boru, charamera (Jap.) 
from ' bolo ' (cake), and ' charamela ' (bagpipe) ; 
complador, patili (Pid.-Engl.) from ' comprador ' 
(steward) and c padre ' (priest). 

15. Surd consonants frequently become sonant, but 

rarely does the reverse of this happen. Thus we 

1 In Konkani j is usually changed into z after a, o, u : imdz from Port. 
imagem (image), reldz from Port, reldjio (watch), dztid from Port, ajuda (assistance). 


have alavdngu from c alavanca ' (a hand-spike) ; 
turung from ' tronco ' (lock-up) ; prdda from ' prata ' 
(silver) ; prek from 6 prego ' (nail). 

16. Some consonants, especially when they are in contact 

with r, become cerebral as happens in Sanskrit. 
Thus we have sodti, sorti from ; sorte 5 (lottery) ; 
kornel from { coronel ' (colonel) ; bhoblo, or bhompld 
from 'abobora' (pumpkin) ; barkiftirom ' barquinha * 
(a skiff). 

17. There are instances of aspirate consonants, as in 

khamis from ' camisa ' (shirt) ; khuris from ' cruz ' 
(cross) ; burdkh from c buraco ' (hole) ; bhoblo or 
bhompld from c abobora ' (pumpkin). 

18. There occurs a transposition of r, as in girjd from 

' igreja ' (church), krasa from ' gar$a ' (heron). 

19. The hiatus in the middle of a word is destroyed by 

the intercalation of a v, as in tuvdl or tuvalo from 
' toalha ' (towel), baluvdrdi from ' baluarte ' 

20. When there are two consonants together and the 

second of them is an r, a separation is effected 
between them by the insertion of a vowel (suara- 
bacti) : gardd from ' grade ' (railing) ; pardnch from 
' prancha ' (scaffolding) ; kardb from ' cravo ' (a 
pink) ; turung from ' tronco ' (trunk) ; vidur, vidurava 
from ' vidro ' (glass). Some of the languages do not 
admit of compound consonants at all ; others admit 
of only double or twin consonants. 

XI. Sources and Difficulties of such a Study 
The most satisfactory way of compiling a complete list of 
the Portuguese words grafted on to the vocabularies of Asiatic 
languages, would naturally be to collect the terms by a living and 
intimate contact with all the different strata of each people, 
due regard being paid to every phase of their languages. Now, 


this is well nigh impossible in view of the enormous area and the 
immense variety of languages to be explored and investigated, not 
to speak of other obvious difficulties. 

Even a seasoned polyglot would find it very difficult to be 
able to acquire, at the end of many years, complete personal 
knowledge of about half a dozen languages, and these of one or 
two language 'groups only. It is just on this account that 
there are as yet no comparative dictionaries just as there are 
comparative grammars of great value. 1 Such as exist are small 
vocabularies or dictionaries of some dialects or of two or three 
of cognate languages. 2 

Another way, supplementary but deficient withal, would be 
to obtain with the help of competent persons a list of Portuguese 
vocables that have found their way into their respective languages. 
This again is not easy, because there are few who would show 
any inclination for a task so thankless, involving the assembling 
of words which do not spontaneously present themselves to the 
mind when dissociated from any specific ideas. Even with the 
help of obliging friends it was not possible for me to secure more 
than three lists of Tamil, one of Bengali, one of Kanarese, and 
one of Telugu, and these too were incomplete and summary. I 
am not aware that such lists of Portuguese words have been 
made, incomplete though they be, excepting one relating to 
Hindustani (Schuchardt, op. cit.) and some others bearing upon 
the languages of the Malayo-Polynesian group. 

Under these circumstances the only course to take was to 
run through, word by word, the dictionaries of such languages as 

1 John Beames, Comparative Grammar of Aryan Languages. Robert 
Caldwell, A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of 

2 In 1868 Sir W. W. Hunter published a list of 186 vocables in 120 non- 
Aryan languages or dialects under the title of Comparative Dictionary of the 
Languages of India and High Asia. F. A. Sevettenham likewise brought out his 
Comparative Vocabulary of the Dialects of the Wild Tribes inhabiting the Malayan 


possess them, and hunt them out. But very few are the living 
languages of Asia which like Marathi, Hindustani or Malay 
possess a dictionary which may be called a thesaurus linguae. 
The majority of them have been compiled for school or missionary 
purposes and some of them do not pretend to satisfy any but the 
elementary needs. It is, therefore, too much to expect that in 
such compilations will appear all the words in general or special 
use. 1 

Dictionary-makers as a rule try to avoid foreign words (I am 
speaking from experience), perhaps because of a desire to show 
off the richness of the language, or, when they do mention them, 
interpret them by descriptions with which the spoken language 
will have nothing to do. When they point out the etymology of 
a word, and, there are very few who attempt this, as the greater 
number of them are not acquainted with Portuguese, they follow 
the usual tradition and attribute it to a source to which it does 
not really belong or on the other hand, evade the difficulty by 
referring it to one of the indigenous languages. 2 

In some cases there are great difficulties in ascertaining 
whether certain words really owe their existence to Portuguese or 
whether Portuguese itself received them from other sources ; of 
this kind are terms like pires (saucer), gago (stammerer), canga 
(yoke), bafo (breath) ; again, whether Portuguese or IJngUsh is 
the real source of such words as biscoito (biscuit), botelha (bottle), 
batata (potato), estala (stable) ; whether certain terms were already 
known and in use before the Portuguese discoveries and conquests, 

1 Add to this the fact that some of the most valuable dictionaries are 
not to be had at all in the book market or are to be had only at very great cost. 
The public libraries of Portugal possess very few dealing with Asiatic languages ; 
at my pressing request the authorities of the * Biblioteca Nacional * (National 
Library), Lisbon, purchased half a dozen of them. 

2 There are also some among those presuming to be well informed in these 
matters who maintain that with the exception of tdpo (top)? cdmara (room), 
fita (ribbon), ' and few other words, the Portuguese domination in India left 
few traces of their language '. Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine quoted by 


such as tabaco (tobacco), arratel (pound weight), chd (tea), caf6 
(coffee) ; whether certain terms are in fact not instances of 
parallelisms, sometimes with very slight change of meaning, such 
as chapa (stamp or mark), tanque (tank), varanda (veranda). 1 

XII. The Method observed in this Work 

Among the Portuguese words in this work, there are some 
whose etymology is evident or almost certain ; there are others 
whose source in the indigenous languages is doubtful or improbable 
and, finally, there are a few of which it can be said with certainty 
or with great probability, that they are not the originals of the 
Asiatic vocables. 

Those which come under the second head I have marked with 
a note of interrogation placed at the very beginning when the 
doubt embraces all the languages mentioned, or placed before 
one or more of them when the uncertainty is limited to these. 
Those of the third class I have distinguished with an asterisk, 
and I have indicated the reasons for the inclusion of such in my 
list and also for rejecting them as the etymons of the Asiatic 
words ; I have done this lest it might appear that I had omitted 
to mention them because I was not acquainted with them. 

There are some words which are not genuine Portuguese 
words and which, therefore, the Portuguese could not have 
carried with them from Europe ; they belong to an Asiatic 
language or group of languages. But as such words form part 
of the Asio-Lusitanian vocabulary and were adopted and dis- 
seminated by the Portuguese I thought they should have a 
place in this work after due reservation had been made. 

1 ' Derivations of names are much better ascertained in the countries where 
they originate, and where we know the languages well, than in strange countries 
where we scarcely know a word much less know the derivations.' Garcia da 
Orta, Colloquios dos Simples e Drogas da India, LVIII. (Markham's Translation, 
p. 462.) 


I have mentioned diverse derivates and compounds of the 
more important Portuguese words met. with in the indigenous 
languages, and I have done this to prove how the foreign word 
had acquired a general vogue. In some cases I have also pointed 
out the zone in which the word is current or the class of people 
who employ it. Not infrequently I have mentioned the vernacular 
terms which more or less correspond to the Portuguese words, in 
order to show that it was not the absolute lack of these in the 
indigenous languages that led to the adoption of the foreign 
vocable. I have not carried this process very far because besides 
making the work too prolix it would involve too great labour. 

The vernacular terms, which I have cited as the equivalents 
of the Portuguese and as common to languages of one family, 
are reproduced in their original form : in Konkani, in the Indo- 
Aryan ; in Tamil, in the Dravidian ; and in Malay, as belonging 
to the Malayan group. 

In the tabulation of Asiatic languages there were two methods 
open to me, viz. to adopt the geographical or the genealogical, 
and these do not always coincide. I preferred to make use of 
the genealogical and the one which traces affinities, at the same 
time maintaining, whenever possible, the geographical continuity. 
In this way it is possible to appreciate better the changes that the 
Portuguese words undergo in cognate idioms. I began with the 
Indo-Aryan group of languages, taking for my starting point 
Konkani, and after this I ran through the field of Dravidian 
languages and then passed on to other families, groups and 
unrelated languages. 

I have collected in a general index all the Portuguese words 
introduced into the various languages which are the subject 
matter of this study, and have indicated such as do not figure 
in the body of the work by italics. Prom this it will be possible 
to see very easily the number and the nature of the words that 
have been adopted into the Asiatic languages. 

In order that it may be possible to see at a glance the 
Portuguese vocables that have been taken over into each of the 


different languages, I have prepared separate lists of each of 
them ; in these especial lists I have included words employed 
exclusively in Konkani or in Teto or Galoli, but which I had 
omitted from the body of the work. 

The Portuguese words or such as are presumed to be of 
Portuguese origin which I have listed in the different Asiatic 
languages are almost all which are known after reliable scientific 
inquiry to have been really employed in these several languages. 
As the result of mere conjectures or inferences, it would have 
been possible to augment greatly their number in cognate 

XIII. Brief Notes on each of the Languages l 

In this chapter I shall present a brief survey of each of the 
languages which enter into this study in the order in which they 
figure in it. Besides the filiation and the nature of the language 
I shall set out the area, the population, the dialects, characters, 
the antiquity of its literature, etc. I shall indicate also the 
vehicles by which the Portuguese words found their way into 
each. In respect of each of these languages I shall quote the 
various authorities whose studies have reference to the subject 
of this work. 

1 See Mappa Dialectologies do continence portugues (The Dialectical Map 
of the Portuguese Continent), by J. Leite de Vasconcellos, preceded by a summary 
classification of languages by A. R. Goncalves Viana. Latham, Elements of 
Comparative Philology. Gustav Oppert, On the Classification of Language*. Sir 
Erskine Perry, On the Geographical Distribution of the Principal Languages of 
India, etc. in Journal Bombay Branch R.A.S., Vol. XVI, 1853. H. H. Wilson, 
A Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms, the Preface. Robert Cust, A Sketch 
of the Modern Languages of the East Indies. John Beames, op. cit. t and Outlines 
of Indian Philology. Caldwell, op. cit. George Grierson, Linguistic Survey of 
India ; The Languages of India, and the Census. 


1. Konkani 1 

Konkani or Concani, formerly called by the Portuguese 
under a mistaken notion, Lingua Canarina or Canarim 2 (the 
Kanarese language) and Brdmana (the Brahmin language) is the 
-southernmost representative of the Aryan family in India. It 
is spoken, according to the opinion of Dr. Gerson da Cunha, 
by about 2 millions in an area of about 7,000 square miles. Its 
original home is Goa and on this account and with a view to 
avoid a confusion between it and a Marathi dialect, it has been 
called by modern philologists Gomantaki, from GomantSa which 
is the ancient name for Goa. 

Konkani extends, due probably in part to the diversity of 
its political boundaries and in part to emigration, on the north 
up to Malvan, and on the south to Kanara as far as Mangalore. 
There are in consequence three principal dialects of it : that of 
the north, Kudali, influenced by Marathi ; that of Goa, Gomantaki, 
properly so called, and that of the south influenced by Kanarese 
and without any special name. 

The dialect of Goa is divided into two classes : the language 
of the Novas Conquistas (New Conquests) which is more influenced 
by Marathi, and that of the Velhas Conquistas (Old Conquests) 
which is more under the influence of Portuguese. Again, the 
vernacular of the Velhas Conquistas is subdivided into the 
dialect of Bardez and that of Salsete ; the former is regarded as 
purer and is more inflexional, the latter more analytic and 

1 See SebastiSo Rodolfo Dalgado, Dicionario Konkani -Portugues (Introduc- 
tion). Cunha Rivara, Ensaio Historico da Lingua Concani, in the Grammatica 
of Father Thomas Stephen. Gerson da Cunha, The Konkani Language and 
Literature. Angelus Maffei, An English-Konkani Dictionary. Dicionario 
Portuguez-Concani, by an Italian missionary. Ramchandra Gunjikar, Sarasvatl- 

2 ' A long and narrow strip of land, they call Concan, and the people 
properly Gonquenijs (Concanese) though our men speak of them as Canarijs 
(Canarese).' Jo&o de Barros, Dec. I, IX, 1. ' Orders were thus given to 
make the proclamation in Portuguese as well as in the Canarij lingoa (language) 
of the country (Goa).' Id., Dec. II, V, 3. 


enriched by Portuguese and Kanarese words. The language 
spoken in Ilhas (the insular portions oF Goa) partakes of the 
characteristics of the dialects of the two afore-mentioned districts. 

With regard to the nature and the origin of the Konkani 
language I shall transcribe what I wrote in my Konkani- Portuguese 
Dictionary : ' From what precedes I will briefly sum up my 
conclusions : (1) Konkani is an Aryan language and inflexional, 
not Dravidian and agglutinative ; (2) it resembles Balabhasha ; 
(3) it is less removed from Sanskrit in its grammatical structure 
and in its vocabulary than is Marathi ; (4) it is not a dialect or 
corruption of Marathi ; (5) it approximates more to ancient 
Marathi (which in its turn comes very near to Bdldbhasha) than 
to the modern ; (6) it is allied very much in its phonetic structure 
to the Gaurian languages of the North, specially Bengali ; (7) 
it represents with much probability Sarasvati which orientalists 
regard as being extinct, for those who introduced it into the 
Konkan were emigrants from Tirhotra or Tirhut '.* 

In Goa, for the purposes of writing, Roman characters with 
Portuguese sound values are employed; in the north, Marathi 
balbodh or modi characters are used ; in Kanara, Kanarese or 
Roman characters. Old writings in Kanarese as well as in 
Devanagri are extant and the scripts of these two languages 
must be regarded as the proper alphabets of Konkani. 

The territory in which Konkani is most spoken being under 
Portuguese rule for four centuries, it is but natural that it should 
have admitted Portuguese words more largely than any other 
language. A tenth or perhaps more of the colloquial speech of 
the Velhas Conquistas is made up of Portuguese words or of words 
that are derived from Portuguese. In the Dictionary referred 
to above I included the following : (1) All words of Portuguese 
origin which had been adopted by one or more of the Oriental 

1 See Sahyddri-khanda, edited by Dr. Cunha. Hoernle and Grierson find, 
* Konkani has intimate relationship with Hindi, the direct representative of 
ancient Maharastri.' 


languages besides Konkani ; because this fact in itself is a sure 
indication of the need or convenience afforded by such words. 
(2) All Portuguese vocables that have become so naturalised 
that they are to be met with in the speech of the people without 
attracting attention as to their origin ; such terms were adopted 
either with the object of marking a dividing line between the 
Hindu and the Christian population or because the vernacular 
terms were not found adequate, or, again, because the indigenous 
term was not commonly known, or in order to avoid the trouble 
of coining new terms. (3) Many Portuguese words which are 
more in use than their corresponding vernacular equivalents. 
(4) Some Portuguese words that were entirely unnecessary, and 
this I did in order to show that the language (Konkani) possesses 
a large number of corresponding equivalents and that only 
culpable neglect or pedantry could have led to the use of the 
foreign words. 

In the present work I have restricted the choice of the 
Portuguese vocables in Konkani much further. I have omitted 
from it all Portuguese words which are used exclusively in 
Konkani, and are not to be found in any other indigenous language. 
Such terms which have been left out from the body of the book 
have been listed however in the special index of this language, 
appended to this work. 1 

2. Marathi 2 

Marathi is the language spoken in Maharashtra (the great 
region or country of the Mahars) by 18,237,899 people according 

1 In my Diciondrio Portugues-Concani, published , by the Portuguese 
Government in 1905, I have mentioned almost all the words in common use 
more or less in Gomantaki. 

2 See John Wilson, Notes on the constituent elements, the diffusion and 
application of the Marathi Language, in Molesworth's Dictionary. Dr. Stevenson, 
An Essay on the points of similarity and dissimilarity between the English and 
Marathi Languages, in Candy's Dictionary. Filipe N4ri Pires, Grammatica 


to the census of 1901 ; in this I have included the Konkani that 
is spoken in British territory. Its zone which takes in a vast 
area extends from Goa to the river Damaun (Daman Ganga), 
and on its eastern boundaries impinges on Kanarese and Telugu. 
It has three principal dialects : Khandesi, Dakhini and Konkani ; 
to these some philologists add Gomantaki, more correctly called 

Marathi owing to its importance occupies the second place 
in the Gaurian languages. It is much cultivated ; there are 
primary schools in all parts where it is taught and it possesses a 
rich literature, especially suited for school purposes l ; its oldest 
literary specimens which are poetical and religious belong to the 
13th century. 

Marathi has two alphabets : Balbodh (or Bdlbod) which is, 
with slight variations, the same as Devanagri or Sanskrit, and is 
employed in the schools and in the press ; Modi or Mod, which 
is peculiar to it, has fewer characters and makes no distinction 
between short and long vowels (i, I, u, u) ; it is written in a 
cursive manner without any separation of letters and is employed 
for correspondence and in manuscripts. 

Its copious vocabulary, consisting of 20,000 words, is made 
up of the aboriginal Turanic stock, of Prakrit through Magadhi 
(the ancient language of Behar), of the Sanskrit, through its 
literature, of Arabic and Persian owing to the Mussulman domina- 
tion and the influence of Hindustani, and of Portuguese and 

The infiltration of Portuguese words into the language is 
due to the former Portuguese dominion over Bombay, Thana, 
Bassein and Chaul ; to commerce (Surat, Bijapur) ; to the 
vicinage of Goa and Damaun ; to the Portuguese missions in the 
greater part of the Marathi language-field, and to the Portuguese 
dialect of the Indian Christians who now go by the name of 

1 Molesworth's and Candy's dictionaries deserve especial mention as models 
in their class. 


' East Indians ' and who were formerly called c Norteiros ' 1 
(Northeners) because their home was to the north of Goa, the 
Portuguese metropolis in India. 

It is above all in the district of Konkan that the influence 
of Portuguese is most marked. 

3. Gujarati 2 

Gujarati, the language of Gujarat, is bounded on the north 
by Hindi, and, on the south and east, by Marathi. It is spoken 
by a population of 10 millions and is very much cultivated at the 
present day ; it is employed a great deal in the periodical press of 
Bombay. It is the language, the rich and cultured Parsi com- 
munity (which originally emigrated from Persia) employs as its 
vernacular, and it is the lingua franca of commerce, especially in 
the city of Bombay. 

It has several dialects such as the Surati, Ahmedabadi, 
Kattiawari and the Mercantile. 

The elements that go to constitute its vocabulary are the 
same as those of Marathi. It likewise has two alphabets : one 
its own, with few consonants and without distinction of short 
and long vowels (i, u), and the other, Balbodh or Devanagri, 
a little defective and clumsy in form. Gujarati is the vernacular 
of the Portuguese possessions, Daman and Diu, where there are 
Government schools in which it is taught ; thus the influence of 
Portuguese in these parts is direct and real with a tendency 
towards expansion. The dictionaries of the language, which are 
at present deficient, do not however list all the Portuguese words 
used in these localities, but only such as form part of the general 
vocabulary and which found their way into the language as the 
result of political relations in former times, or of vicinage and 

1 See my Dialecto Indo-Portugute do Norte. 

2 See Shaping! Edalji, A Dictionary Gujarati and English. 


4. Hindi 

Hindi is the most important language in India, occupying 
almost the centre of its language-field whether we look at it from 
the standpoint of area covering 248,000 square miles ; or of the 
numbers that speak the language almost 73 millions ; or from 
its vitality in ever spreading itself and absorbing other languages, 
or from the number of its dialects fifty-eight according to Gust, 
some of which can pass for real languages. There are philologists 
who consider that Gujarati, Panjabi and Nepalese should be 
considered as dialects of Hindi. Beames mentions the following as 
the principal dialects of the language: Maithili, Magadhi, Bhojpuri, 
Kosali, Brijbasha, Kanauji, Rajputani (group of dialects), 
Bundelkhandi. Sir Grierson divides Hindi into two parts : 
Eastern and Western. 

Though Hindi is derived from Indo-Aryan, nevertheless, it 
contains a large number of words of Turanic descent and a 
considerable admixture of Arab-Persian loan words. It is 
generally written in the Devanagri script. Literary Hindi has 
passed through three stages, archaic, that is at least 700 years old, 
Hindi of the middle period and the current language. 

The influence of Portuguese on it is principally mediate 
through the intervention of other neighbouring languages. It 
appears scarcely likely that the influence could have proceeded 
from politico-commercial relations which were not very frequent. 1 

5. Hindustani 

Without entering into the question whether Hindustani is a 
language by itself or rather & dialect of Hindi, as it is generally 
supposed to be, I am treating it under a separate head owing to 
the especial nature of my work. Formed from 16th century 
Persian which was the language spoken by the Mahommedan 

1 Shakespear assigns to Hindi a large number of the Portuguese words 
introduced into Hindustani. 



conquerors, and from Hindi, the vernacular of the indigenous 
population, upon a grammatical structure which is Indo-Aryan, 
but written usually in a script which is a modification of Arabic 
and Persian, Hindustani became the mother tongue of the 
Mahommedans of every part of India and developed into the 
lingua franca of commerce in the principal centres of trade. 
6 Hindustani is ', says Beames, ' by far the most widely spread 
and commonly understood of all Indian languages, and is spoken 
as a lingua franca by people whose mother tongue it is not, all 
over India.' 

c Hindustani or Urdu is not a territorial dialect,' says Gust, 
' it can scarcely correctly be said that it is the common language 
of any one district though spoken by many classes'. But Sir 
Grierson maintains that it is the vernacular of the Upper Gangetic 
plain and of the surrounding country. 

It is true that both terms Urdu and Hindustani are used 
promiscuously, but Urdu denotes properly speaking, the form of 
the literary language, purer and more polished, and Hindustani, 
the common speech diluted by the admixture of exotic words. 

The Hindustani of the north is purer and is distinguished 
from that of the south or Dekkani which is more corrupt. ' A 
still further degradation or dilution of the language ', says Gust, 
' takes place by the introduction of Romance-Aryan words 
in the dialect of the Portuguese settlements on the west coast 
of India '. In the existing dominions of the Portuguese in India 
Hindustani is not current. 

The influence of Portuguese on Hindustani which is more 
noticeable in the Dekkani variant is due chiefly to the inter- 
course and commercial and political relations of former days * 
and to the facility which Hindustani has of assimilating foreign 

1 See J. A. Ismael Gracias, Uma Dona Portwguesa na Cdrte do Qrbo-Mogol 
(A Portuguese Lady at the Moghul Court). 


6. Laskari-Hindustani 

Lascari or lascarim from the Persian lashkari, first employed 
by the Portuguese and subsequently adopted by the Dutch and 
the English in its original meaning, ' soldier V came afterwards 
to denote the indigenous sailor and is in this sense synonymous 
with the Arab-Hindustani ' khalasi '. 2 And as it is generally the 
Mussulmans who are the crews of vessels bound on long voyages, 
their speech was given the name of Lashkari-Hindustani. 

Now, it is but natural that in the formation of this dialect 
of sea-faring men there should figure very many words from the 
language of those Europeans who were the first to cross the seas 
to India and who exclusively dominated them for a long period. 
The English language is to-day playing a similar, and in an 
equal measure, a supplementary part. The vocabulary of 
Lashkari-Hindustani is therefore an admixture of Hindustani, 
properly so called, of the Portuguese of the 16th and 17th 
centuries, and of the present-day English. 8 

The study of this ' confusion of tongues ' has a special 
interest because of the variety of forms and the phonetic changes 
which are represented in the Portuguese words which have issued 
from the speech of an unlettered people during the long space of 

1 ' What was given as soldo (soldier's pay) and rations to the lascarins 
who were in the City/ Castanheda, Historia do Descobrimento e Conquista da 

' They divide among the soldiers of their flag-ships who are called lascarins.' 
Damifio de G6is, Chronica del Rei D. Manuel, II, Ch. 6. 

2 * There were Portuguese sailors fewer than were needed and in their 
place Mohammedan lascaris who as they were interested only in their personal 
gain and had no experience in the handling of ships were a sort of hindrance.' 
Antdnio Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 25. 

* With the exception of some (Portuguese) who go as masters or pilots on 
their own ships or on those of His Majesty, the crew and company are all 
Mohammedans who are called Laschares (whence it is that the soldiers were 
commonly designated Lascharis).' Jofto de Lucena, Bk. IV, Ch. 1. 

8 ' Dass ursprunglich die ganze Seemannssprache des Laskaren portogiesisch 
war, das zu vermuten. dttrfte mit Hinblich auf die vorstehender Abhandlung 
dargelegteu Thatsachen nicht allzukuher sein.' Sohuchardt, Beitrage, etc. 


time they have been current among them. Probably some 
technical expressions owing to the very mutilated form in which 
they exist at present have escaped me whilst going through the 
dictionary of this dialect. 1 

7. Nepali 2 

Nepali, Gorkhali, Khas, and Parbatya are the names of the 
language of the court and lingua franca of Nepal. It is spoken 
by 3 millions of people who are for the most part Hindus, and 
the script employed is Devanagri. Its literature is very scanty 
and of little importance ; it has several dialects. 8 

Strictly speaking Nepali is a dialect of Hindi, deriving its 
origin from Bajasthani, which is the vernacular of Kajputana. 
Besides this the numerous non- Aryan languages spoken by the 
Tibeto-Burman races have influenced its vocabulary. Hunter 
mentions thirty-six of them in his comparative dictionary. 

The influence of Portuguese on this language is entirely 
mediate by way of Hindi. Unfortunately the English-Nepalese 
list of words which I have with me is a very concise one. Never- 
theless it is safe to assume that a large part of the Portuguese 
words which are to be found in Hindi have found an entrance 
into Nepali. 

8. Oriya 

Oriya, Uriya or Utkala is the language spoken in Orissa by 
a population of over 9^ millions over an area of 60,000 square 
miles within the provinces of Bengal and Madras and the 
Central Provinces. It belongs together with Bihari, Bengali, and 
Assamese, to the eastern Sanskritic group, which was derived 

1 Portuguese words employed both in Hindustani and Lashkari-Hindustani 
are mentioned in this work only with reference to the former of these two 
languages in order to avoid repetition. 

* See Turnbull, Nepali Grammar and Dictionary. 

8 Grierson says that Nepali or Eastern Pahari is not the principal language 
of Nepal but Nevari is. Turnbull, however, maintains that this is not so at 


immediately from the ancient speech of Magadha, the home of 
Buddhism. 1 

Oriya has several dialects : the Northern, the Southern, that 
of Sumbhulpur, of Kalakundi ; but that of Cuttack is regarded 
as the standard. Its alphabet is based on Devanagri with 
modifications in different parts of the language-field. It is the 
only one of the North Indian characters to adopt the curvilinear 
form of the upper strokes which in the other are horizontal. 2 
Its earliest literary monuments date back to 400 years. 

The Portuguese influence on Oriya is chiefly mediate, through 
the intervention of Telugu in the south and Bengali in the north, 
though in former times there was commercial intercourse between 
the Portuguese and Orissa. 8 

9. Bengali 

Bengali, as the name indicates, is the vernacular of Bengal 
spoken by more than 44 millions, Hindus as well as Mahommedans. 
It is at the present day much cultivated by the Babus, which 
is the most cultured and progressive class among the peoples of 
India. The literary tongue differs a great deal from the spoken, 
not only in respect of the vocabulary but even in its morphology 

1 In this work I could not take in Bihari because of the absence of the lexico- 
graphical material. Rudolf Hoernle and George Grierson began in 1885 the 
publication of A Comparative Dictionary of the Bihari Language ; of this work 
only two parts have appeared which do not come up to the end of the first letter 
of the alphabet. Bihari has four principal dialects : Baisvari, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, 
and Maithili. The last named passed for the standard because it is the most 
developed and cultivated and because it has literary monuments which go as 
far back as the 14th century. The natural presumption is that there would 
be found in it the same Portuguese words as are met with in Hindi. 

2 Gust tries to explain this peculiarity by saying that it was necessitated 
by the writing materials being an iron stylus and a leaf of the fan-palm ; straight 
incised lines would have split the palm. But such materials are or were common 
to other languages. 

3 * The principal sovereigns with whom we had intercourse because of their 
domains being on the sea coast were : The King of Bisnaga, of Orix, of 
Bengal, of Pegu, of Siam, and of China.' Joao de Barros, Dec. I, IX, 2. 


and is to a good extent sanskritised. It uses an alphabet which 
is a picturesque variant of Devanagri. 

Bengali has several dialects which are not properly 
distinguished. Beames groups them under the generic heads of 
Eastern, Northern, and Southern, that of Central Bengal being 
the one which is normal. But there are other dialects mixed 
in character, which have issued from the contact of Bengali with 
Hindi and Oriya on both frontiers, and also those which have 
been the result of the contact with non-Aryan languages (Kolarian 
and Tibeto-Burman) on the east and the west flank, especially 
by millions of non-Aryans passing into semi-Hinduism, and 
among these Gust distinguishes those of Purneah, Rungpur, 
Kuch, Sylhet, Rabha, Meeyang, and Ghittagong. 

Portugal had a factory at Bandel on the Ugli or Ogolim 
(Hooghly) ; it had a large colony in Calcutta, and held constant 
commercial relations with various parts and, even to-day, owns 
important missionary stations endowed with extensive estates. 1 
From these circumstances sprang a Portuguese dialect, the range 
of which at present is much circumscribed and which threatens 
to disappear wholly. These facts explain the introduction of 
numerous Portuguese words into Bengali. The descendants of 
European families use many a term relating to sweets and foods 
(and this happens in other parts of Asia as well) without, so much 
as, a thought of their origin. 

10. Assamese 2 

Assamese is the language spoken in the plain of Assam by 
the entire population of the Brahmaputra valley which is about 
a million and a half. 8 

1 * Arriving at the port of Chatigfto, in the kingdom of Bengala, where at 
that time there were many Portuguese.' Fern&o Pinto, Ch. CLXXII. 

' Just like the King of Orixa, and the King of Bengala, who have many 
ports which we visit and with which we trade.' Jofto de Barros, Dec. Ill, II, 5. 

2 See Bronson, A Dictionary in Assamese and English. 

8 In the mountainous parts there are non-Aryan tribes, who have a language 
of their own, one of which, Khassi, is included in this study. 


Neither the Ahoms, invaders of the Tai family, in spite of 
their long domination, nor the Burmese and the Kacharis, members 
of the Tibeto-Burman family, nor the Mahommedans have lelt 
any trace on the language which is closely akin to Bengali. 

Assamese is laden with Sanskrit loan words which have been 
introduced in modern times and, at times, with a modified meaning 
and pronunciation. It has a script of its own in which the 
Bible has been translated ; but the characters of Bengali are 
also employed. Since the last two or three centuries it has a 
literature in prose and verse. The language of the larger number 
of the poetic compositions differs from that of the Buronjies or 
Histories which are in prose. At present, as it is the official 
language of the Provincial Government, it is hoped that it will 
be extensively cultivated. 

The Portuguese words which found an entry into it did so 
by way of Bengali and Hindustani. 

11. Sindhi 1 

Sindhi is the language of the valley of the lower Indus from 
Multan to the sea ; on the east it merges into the Rajputana 
dialects of Hindi, and on the west into the Beluch dialects. It 
is spoken by about three million people made up of Hindus and 
Mussulmans. It is generally written in Arabic characters, with 
many modifications to represent the cerebrals and aspirates of an 
Aryan language. 8 Its principal dialects are : Sirai, Vicholi, Lari, 
Uch, and Kachi. 

The vocabulary of Sindhi like that of Hindustani, with the 
exception of its own original stock, is made up of Sanskrit, Arabic 
and Persian words. The influence of Pushtu, its Iranic neighbour 
is especially notable. All the words terminate in vowels as 
they do in Italian ; all those ending in an u and o being masculine. 

1 See George Stack, A Dictionary English and Sindhi. 

* As Sindhi has more sounds than those which are provided for by 
Devanagri characters, whenever it employs this alphabet, it uses diacritical 
marks with the ordinary letters in order to distinguish these sounds. 


It has no neuter gender. The Portuguese influence on it is, it 
appears, almost wholly mediate and very limited if we are to 
judge from the dictionaries of the language hitherto published. 

12. Punjabi 1 

Punjabi is the language spoken from the Indus to the Sutlej 
and from Multan to the mountain ranges ; it is the language of 
about 17 millions and is written in a variety of characters of the 
Aryan alphabet, the principal of which is Gurmukhi. For official 
correspondence and for the purposes of general literature the 
Arabic character is preferred. 

Owing to its very close relationship with Hindi, many 
philologists prefer to regard it as a dialect of the latter. It has 
a large number of dialects. Beames says that every district of 
the Punjab has its own dialect, and there are even districts 
having more than one dialectical variation * Gust who has 
greater competence to speak on this subject disputes this state- 
ment. The more important of these dialects are according to 
Maya Singh : Punjabi properly so called, Multani, Pathohari, and 
Pahadi. 2 

In the vocabulary, besides its original stock of Hindi, Arabic 
and Persian words, many Portuguese terms have found their way 
through the intervention of Hindustani. 

13. Kashmiri 

Kashmiri is the vernacular of the Valley of Kashmere, 
spoken by about three millions or according to Sir Grierson by 
about a million ; it is the most northerly member of the Indo- 
Aryan language-family. It is not a cultivated language and 
never has been reduced to writing in its actual form, nor has it a 

1 See Bhai Maya Singh, The Punjabi Dictionary, Introduction. 

2 Grierson speaks of Multani as Lahnda and regards it as a distinct language 
very different from Punjabi, and gives it a population of more than three millions. 
[In the Census report of 1921 Lahnda or Western Punjabi is given a population 
of over 5J millions. ED.] 


grammar or a dictionary worthy of the name. It is therefore a 
spoken language, Persian being the language of the court and of 
correspondence. Even as such, there are three varieties of 
Kashmiri spoken : that of the Brahmins, loaded with Sanskrit 
words ; the form used by Mahommedans and sown thickly with 
Arabic and Persian words ; and lastly the one used by the com- 
mon people, which preserves the old local form and dialectical 

This language might well have been left out by me in this 
work in view of the fact that there exists till now only a vocabulary 
of the language, in which not even half a dozen of Portuguese 
words can be traced, some of them being of an uncertain origin. 
But it appears to me natural that there should be more of them, 
connected with objects carried into the country by the Mussulman 

14. Sinhalese 1 

Besides the Vedas, the aboriginal inhabitants of Ceylon 
whose number is at the present day very much reduced, 2 tLe 
two indigenous races that people the island are, the Dravidian, in 
the north, which emigrated from India in some time immemorial, 
and the Aryan, brought there by Vijaya in the 6th century 
B.C. The vernacular of the former is Tamil, and of the latter, 
Sinhalese or Chingla, as it is called in the Creole language. 8 

It is a much debated question among philologists of the 
Indian languages as to whether Sinhalese should be classified as 
an Aryan or a Dravidian tongue. Clough, Max Miiller, Cust, 

1 See B. Clough, A Dictionary of the Sinhalese and English Languages. 
R. C. Childers, Notes on the Sinhalese Language. James D'Alwis, On the Origin 
of Sinhalese Language. 

2 ' There is a class of people whom they call B6das : in colour they are 
almost like us, and some are dark brown ; their language is not understood by 
any Chingala or other people of India, and their converse is only with one another.' 
Joao Ribeiro, FataUdade Historica da Ilha de Ceilao, Bk. 1, Ch. 24. 

3 Ceylon is a colony Crown Colony separated' from India. It was on 
this account not included in the census of India taken in 1901 and 1911. 


Alwis lean to the former view. This appears to be more likely 
in view of the linguistic investigations of Childers. 1 

Sinhalese is at least two thousand years old ; it had a very 
copious literature dating back from the 4th century and reckons 
almost two millions who speak it. It has two dialects : the 
Elu which is the archaic form of the language and which is 
characterised by the phonetic decadence of Aryan words (tad- 
bhavas) ; and the modern language, the Sinhalese, used by the 
people, which has admitted in its fold a large number of words 
without any notable changes from Sanskrit, and from Pali which 
is the sacred language of the Buddhists to which religion belong 
the large majority of the Sinhalese. 2 It has its own alphabet 
which has a few more vowels than Devanagri. 8 '[ 

The Portuguese domination asserted itself in Ceylon more 
intensely and at the same time more extensively than in the 
different other possessions and exercised an influence so intense 
and many-sided, that Holland with all her efforts was not able 
to extinguish it, nor appreciably reduce the traces of its existence. 
To attest to the truth of this statement there exist two memorials 
of very high value ; first of all, the Portuguese dialect, which is 
the most important of all the Creole Portuguese languages and 
which up to this day is full of vitality 4 ; secondly, the introduc- 
tion in the Sinhalese diction, which is otherwise very well stocked, 
of a host of Portuguese terms. In this latter respect Sinhalese 
occupies a place second only to Konkani among Indian languages. 

1 Gustav Oppert classifies Sinhalese among the Aryanised languages. 

2 * There exists among them a language which is not used by the common 
people ; it is much like what Latin is among us.' JoSo Ribeiro, Bk. 1, Ch. 16. 

8 There are various opinions with regard to the origin of Pali. Westergaard 
(Ueber der filter sten Zetirawn der Indischen Gfesehichte) derives it from the Ujjaini 
dialect in the 3rd century B.C. Kern (Over de Jaartetting der Zuidelijke Buddhisten) 
regards it as an artificial language, like the Sauraseni of the dramas, elaborated 
in the beginning of the Christian era. Oldenberg ( The Vinaya Pitakam) believes 
that it is a dialect of Eastern Deccan. See Barth, The Religions of India, p. 108. 

* See DMecto Indo-Portugufo de Ceti&o, by the author. 


It is necessary to realise that this result was in a large measure 
due to the existence of the Creole Portuguese language. 

15. Tamil 1 

Tamil is the principal member of the Dravidian family 
whether we consider it with reference to its splendid culture, or 
the copiousness of its vocabulary, or the antiquity and the 
wealth of its literature. No other language, says Rice, ' combines 
greater force and concision, or is more exact and philosophic in 
its modes of expressions '. 2 

Its language-field extends from the Ghats to the gulf of 
Bengal and from Calicut to Cape Comorin. It is also spoken in 
the southern part of Travancore and in the northern portion of 
Ceylon and in some other regions. The people speaking the 
language number about 16 millions. It has an alphabet of its 
own which employs 30 letters for its own script and besides four 
more for writing Sanskrit words which in the latter case is known 
as Grantha. It includes two forms or dialects, the classical or 
the ancient and the colloquial or the modern called respectively 

1 See, especially, for the Dravidian languages the monumental work of 
Robert Caldwell, from which I have quoted before, and Rev. Henry Rice, Native 
Life in South India. 

' The proper spelling of the name Tamil is Tamir, but through the change 
of r into I it is often pronounced Tamil and it is often (though erroneously) 
written Tamul by Europeans.' Caldwell. 'The kingdom of Charamandel, 
where the language is Tamul.' Duarte Barbosa, Livro, p. 291. [Hak. Soc. 
ed. Longworth Dames, Vol. I, p. 184.] 

2 The Portuguese, according to their practice of giving to a language the 
name of the country wherein it was spoken called Malayalam, the language 
current on the West Coast, Malabar, and also by this name designated the 
language that was in vogue as far as the Coromandel coast, there being a simi- 
larity between the two. The other European nations adopted this designa- 
tion which is at present falling into disuse. ' First of these races whom I call 
foreigners who dwell in Malabar is a caste called Chatis, natives of the pro- 
vince of Charamandel They speak a tongue which differs from that 

of Malabar in the same way as Castilians speak a language different from that 
of the Portuguese.' Duarte Barbosa, p. 340. [Hak. Soc. ed. Longworth Dames, 
Vol. II, pp. 71 and 73.] 


the Sen and the Kodun, 1 which differ from each other so widely 
that they might almost be regarded as different Jtanguages. 

Tamil, jealous of its vernacularity, admits foreign words into 
it with difficulty ; even the importation of Sanskrit words is 
very limited and these are very little used in classical works, the 
earliest of which date back more than a thousand years. 

The Portuguese influence on it which is not a little consider- 
able arose from various sources : domination of certain tracts of 
the country, trade, religion and missionary contact, Portuguese 
creole dialects now almost extinct, and the intercourse between 
the Tamils and the Portuguese in the various parts under the 
occupation of the latter. 

16. Malayalam 2 

Malayalam is the language spoken along the Malabar coast 
from Chandraguiri near Mangalore to Trivandrum by about six 
millions of people. Regarded in its origin as a dialect of Tamil, 
it developed into a sister language owing to Brahmin influence 
about the 9th century, by discarding the use of the personal 
terminations of the verbs and by availing itself of a large number 
of Sanskrit derivatives. Its alphabet is based upon the Aryan. 
The Mahommedan inhabitants, called Mappilas, have a dialect of 
their own and have adopted Arabic characters, though modified, 
for their script. 

Malabar was the country which the Portuguese first dis- 
covered and in part conquered and christianised and which 
for a long time remained under their dominion. Even at the 
present day there is a Portuguese bishopric in Cochin, and a 
corrupt form of Portuguese which is in a moribund state 8 is 
also in use there. 

1 *A person can make out one without knowing the other.* Rice. 
According to this author ' Tamil * signifies * melodiousness '. 

2 See Gundert, A Malayalam and English Dictionary. 

8 Dr. Hugo Schuchardt published a small monograph on this corrupt 
Portuguese dialect. 


Again from or through Malabar were introduced many 
Indian terms intp Portugal, such as : manga (mango), cairo 
(coir), betel (betel), ola (palm-leaf), teca (teak-wood), chatim 
(merchant) ; there were some that were introduced into Indo- 
Portuguese, like : jagra (jaggery or unrefined sugar), chuname 
(lime), pinaca (cocoanut or sesame cake), mainato (washerman). 

17. Telugu 1 

Telugu or Telinga, in respect of its culture and its glossarial 
copiousness ranks next to Tamil in the list of the Dravidian 
languages, but surpasses it in point of euphonic sweetness and the 
number of those that speak it, viz. over 20 millions. 2 

It ranges from Pulicat to Chicacole and on the west impinges 
on the boundaries of Marathi. It has a character which is a 
variation of the Aryan, and its literature dates back as far as 
the 12th century of our era. Its present-day vocabulary is 
greatly strewn with exotics, the greater part of which are Sanskrit 
and Hindustani. 

The influence of Portuguese on Telugu is evident from the 
close and constant relations, political and commercial, that existed 
between the rulers of Bisnagar or Bisnaga (Vijayanagar) and also 
from its contiguity to Tamil and Marathi and its contact with 

The number of Portuguese words that have been adopted 
in the popular form of the language is very large and some of 
them are exclusively borrowed by it and by no other language. 

1 See C. P. Brown, A Dictionary of the mixed Dialects and foreign words 
used in Telugu. 

It is interesting to note how the name Gentoo (from the Port, gentio, gentile) 
came to be used by the English for a long time in a restricted sense to the Telugu- 
gpeaking Hindus. The Portuguese spoke of this people more correctly as 
Badagas, Tamil Vadttgar, Kanarese Badaga. c The next province which marches 
with the kingdom of Narsyngua, they call Telingu.' Duarte Barbosa, p. 291. 
[Hak. Soc. ed. Longworth Dames, Vol. I, p. 183.] 

2 * He was appointed Governor of the District of the Talingas, who are the 
Hindus whose language is more developed than that of any other people in 
the Deccan '. Diogo do Couto, Dec. IV, X, 4. 


18. Kanarese 

Kanarese is spoken throughout the plateau of Mysore and 
in some of the western districts of the Nizam's territory ; it is 
spoken also (together with Konkani, Tulu, and Malayalam but 
more extensively than any of them) in Kanara, on the Malabar 
coast, a district which was subjected for centuries to the rule of 
Kanarese princes. 1 It is the language of over 10 millions of 

Kanarese like the other Dravidian tongues has two dialects : 
the classical or the ancient Kanarese and the colloquial or 
modern. The former differs from the latter not only in respect 
of its vocabulary but also because of the use of different inflexional 
terminations. The Kanarese alphabet is, with very slight changes , 
identically the same as that of Telugu. 

The influence of Portuguese on it is due, in a measure, to 
domination, to political and commercial relations, to colonists 
from Goa, to missionary labours and the proximity of other 

19. Tulu 2 

Tulu or Tulava is the name of a language of not much 
importance both in respect of population and its language-field ; 
for it is spoken in a limited area bounded by the rivers 
Chandraguiri and Kalyanpuri, in the district of Kanara, by 
about 500,000 individuals. Notwithstanding its want of Etera- 

1 As is evident there was a geographical displacement of the ancient name 
Kamata or Kamatcika, corrupted into Kannada, Kanara* By Carnatic the 
English mean the eastern footboard of the Ghauts on the Coromandel coast. 
The old Portuguese, in their turn also, twisted geography and ethnology by 
speaking of the natives of Goa as ' Canarins * and of their language as ' Canarim ' 
or * Canarina ' This error has survived even to this day, though it is obvious 
that the indigenous population of the Konkan ought to be called Konkanis 
Duarte Barbosa calls modern Canara Tolinate ' i.e. Tulu nadu, or the modern 
district of S. Canara '. Hobson-^Jobson. [Hak. Soc. Longworth Dame's Transl., 
Vol. 1, p. 183.] 

2 See A. M&nner, Tutu-English Dictionary. 


ture, except for some legends inscribed on palm leaves, it is one 
of the most highly developed languages of the Dravidian family 
and is more closely allied to Kanarese than to Malayalam, and 
has some dialects. Sanskrit, Kanarese, Malayalam, and Hindus- 
tani words are grafted on to its original stock. The Malayalam 
alphabet was formerly employed, but now the Kanarese script 
has become inseparably associated with the language. 

The number of Portuguese words adopted in the language 
is considerable and more even than in the adjacent languages. I 
am unable to furnish a reason for this, unless it be the emigration 
of Hindus from Goa. Religious terms in Portuguese were intro- 
duced by Protestant missionaries. 

20. Anglo-Indian Vocabulary 1 

The English language has not begotten any bastard variety 
of itself in India, nor is it likely that any will issue from it in 
course of time. But the vocabulary of English spoken in India 
is sown thick, as is but natural, with indigenous terms. 

When the English arrived in India, a corrupt form of 
Portuguese was the lingua franca of the country, as much between 
Europeans and Indians as between the Europeans themselves 
who belonged to different nationalities. 

It is no matter for surprise, therefore, if Portuguese should 
have furnished a large contingent of words to Anglo-Indian 
vocabulary, directly or through the medium of the vernaculars. 
Even so, many indigenous terms found entry into it by way of 
Portuguese, such as : areca, betel, benzoin, coir, copra, corge, congee, 
godown, mandarin, mango, palanquin, monsoon, typhoon, etc. 2 

Many of the words derived from Portuguese are now obsolete, 
whilst some are in vogue only in certain parts. On the other 

1 See Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson. Whitworth, An Anglo-Indian 
Dictionary. Wilson, A Glossary of Judicial and Reventte Terms. 

2 * Even amongst the English, the number of Portuguese terms in daily 
use is remarkable. 9 Emerson Tennent, Ceylon. 


hand the diffusion of many Portuguese words among the verna- 
culars is due to it. Hence Anglo-Indian* vocabulary has been 
included in my work. 1 

21. Indo-French Vocabulary 2 

The French arrived late in India, and found there the 
Portuguese, the Dutch, and the English engaged in a struggle. 
They exercised scarcely any influence of a general and abiding 
character on the country. No corrupt form of French is in use 
in any of its very tiny colonies just as none is current in the 
English colonies. Indo-Portuguese used to be spoken in them 
just as it is even now spoken there though on a smaller scale 
side by side with the Indian vernaculars. 8 

Like the Anglo-Indian vocabulary, the French spoken in 
India borrowed a number of words which are of genuine 
Portuguese extraction and very many Asiatic terms that had 
first been taken over into Portuguese ; these, not to speak of 
such terms as were received directly from the vernacular languages 
were, generally speaking, carried into it through the agency of 
Indo-Portuguese. Several of these terms which were used to 
denote an object peculiar to India travelled over to France and 
became naturalised there ; the same happened when many 
Anglo-Indian expressions were received into its bosom by 
European English. 

The reasons that led me to include Anglo-Indian vocabulary 
within the range of my survey have also led me to examine Indo- 
French, though the importance of the latter is not so great. 

* I have availed myself a great deal of Yule and BumelTs learned glossary. 

2 See Arietide Marre, Notice sur la langue portugaise dans V Inde Frangaise 
et en Malawi^. 

8 Dr. Schuchardt includes Pondicheny and Ohandernagore among the 
regions in which Indo-Portuguese is spoken, and gives specimens of the Portuguese 
dialect of Mahe. And E. A. Marre says : ' II r&ulte 6videznment dee propres 
termes de I'Annuaire que le portugais eat parl par une partie de la population 
d* I'Inde frangaise.' 


I do hot know of any other work on the subject besides the one 
cited by me and I turned my attention to Indo-French only at 
the eleventh hour when I felt convinced that the Portuguese 
influence on it was not insignificant. It is, therefore, very 
natural that the list of Portuguese vocables in Indo-French 
furnished by me should be incomplete. 

22. Garo 

In the lower part of the Assam valley there is a group of 
languages of small importance, called Bodo, belonging to the 
Tibeto-Burman family, and spoken by about 600,000 individuals. 
One of these languages is Garo, spoken by about 186,000 ; it has 
various dialects and the language itself has been sufficiently 
studied. There are schools in which it is taught and school 
and religious books written in it ; this is due to American 
missionaries who, however, in teaching it make use of English 
books in place of the Bengali, and employ largely English 
terminology in addition to the Aryan. 

The Portuguese words which have penetrated into Garo 
have done so by way of Assamese, and of Bengali, and some of 
them, perhaps, through the medium of the missionaries. 

23. Burmese 

Burmese spoken by 7J millions is an agglutinative and 
cultivated language. It has many Aryan words which were intro- 
duced by Buddhism, the prevailing religion, side by side with Pali 
literature. It has an alphabet of its own, derived from the 
Indian. Its principal dialects are : Arakanese, Tavoyee or 
Taneagsari, and Yo. 

Besides Tibetan, Burmese is the only other important 
member of the Tibeto-Burman linguistic family. Its literature 
dates back several centuries ; but the language of the literature 
does not differ much from Siamese. 

The influence of Portuguese on it, to judge from the single 
vocabulary which has come to my hands, is very limited. Some 


more words that derive their origin from the Portuguese ought 
naturally to exist, carried into the country either by traders or 
Portuguese adventurers, or introduced by way of Bengali or 


24. Tibetan 1 

Tibetan is in a stage of transition from the monosyllabic to 
the agglutinative type. It possesses a vast literature, ancient 
and modern, and four different forms of syllabic alphabets, derived 
from the Aryan and introduced in the 7th century. 2 ' The 
literary language is very different from the colloquial. Tibet, 
according to Bell, is essentially a land of dialects ; a proverb 
much in vogue says, ' each district has its dialect and every Lama 
his own doctrine '. The most important is the dialect of Lhassa, 
which is regarded as the standard and is the lingua franca for 
the whole of the country. 

The influence of Portuguese on Tibet is almost nil ; in a 
vocabulary of the language I discovered only two words of 
Portuguese provenance. All the same, there was a Portuguese 
mission founded in Tibet in 1642 by the Jesuit Antonio de 
Andrade and carried on subsequently by Fathers Gongalo de 
Sousa and Joao Cabral. 8 At the present time with greater 
facilities of communication between Tibet and India, it is but 
natural to expect more Portuguese words to find their way into 
the language. 

25. Khassi 4 

In the southern frontier of the valley of Assam, to the 
east of India proper, betwixt the Garo and the Naga tribes, is 
the country of the Khassi-Jyntia tribes whose population is 
about 200,000 and which speak a language known as Khassi, 

1 See C. A. Bell, Manual of Colloquial Tibetan. 

2 ' It is to intimate relations thus established, so it seems to me, that Tibet 
probably owes not only her Buddhism in great measure, but also her written, 
alphabet.' L. A. Waddell, in Asiatic Quarterly Review. 

3 See Cardinal Saraiva, Obras Completaa (Complete Works), V, p. 149. 
* See H. Roberts, An Anglo-Khosei Dictionary. 


or Kossia. In this part is situated Shillong the seat of the 
Government of the Province of Assam. Morphologically, Khassi 
belongs to the monosyllabic order ; genealogically Beames includes 
it in the Lohotic or Burmese class. Gust regards it as a family 
by itself and Grierson basing himself on the authority of Kuhn, 
affiliates it to the sub-family Mon-Khmer of the Indo-Chinese 

It has neither character nor literature of its own ; the Roman 
character on account of its convenience has now been adopted 
in the composition of a grammar and dictionary of the language 
by English missionaries and in writing school texts. 1 

It has several dialects, the common being the Cheara ; it has 
also a rich vocabulary, composed in a great measure of onomato- 
poetic terms, and containing an infiltration of Bengali and 
Hindustani words. It is through the medium of these two 
languages that Portuguese words have passed into it, without 
these semi-savages ever having heard the name of Portugal. 
And this is exactly what will happen in analogous cases. 2 

26. Kambojan 

The Kambojan language is at the present day the principal 
representative of the sub-family Mon-Khmer, Khmer being the 
indigenous name of the country, now in a state of great decay, 
and likewise of the people who profess Buddhism. It is spoken 
by about a million in Cambodia and by about 500,000 in Siam , 
and Annam. It has three dialects, Xong, Samre, and Khamen- 

Kambojan is monosyllabic like the other branches of the 
family but it has no tones ; it is so full of Siamese words that for 
a long time it was mistaken for Siamese. It likewise has loan 
words from Pali, Malay, Annamite, and Peguan contracted in the 

1 The attempt to introduce the Bengali alphabet was not successful. 

2 Nissor Singh refers to Hindi almost all the Portuguese words introduced 
into Khassi 


manner required by the tendency of the language. There are 
two modern characters, the sacred and the vulgar, both of them 
derived from Devanagri ; it is rich in archaic literary monuments 
which date back to the 13th century. 

The influence of Portuguese on Kambojan which is relatively 
speaking considerable, is due to the ancient commercial, political 
and religious relations, and to the influence on it of contiguous 
languages, especially Malayan. 1 The kingdom being at the 
present time a French protectorate, many French terms are 
being introduced in the language, and this of necessity causes 
doubt as regards the origin of certain Romance words found in it. 

27. Siamese 2 

Siamese is the most important representative of the Tai 
branch of the sub-family Siamo-Chinese, and belongs like Chinese, 
to the class of monosyllabic, synthetic languages. 8 The name 
Siam is a corruption of Sham, which is another name of the Tai 
or Thai race, which in the 7th century invaded Upper Burma 
and afterwards went and settled down in this country and in 
Assam. 4 

The Siamese language-field is vast ; it extends from Burma 
to the lake of Cambodia, and from the Gulf of Siam to the confines 
of Lao. Tt is spoken by about two million people who profess 
the Buddhism of the South, and it is written in a script which is 
of Indian origin and expresses tones by accents. It has an 

1 See Fr. Jo&o dos Bantos, Ethiopia Oriental, II, Ch. 7. 

2 See Miehell, A Siamese-English Dictionary. Lunet de Lajonquidre, 
Ditionnaire Fran$ai8-Siamois. 

3 But the Indo-Chinese languages were formerly inflective as recent investi- 
gations have proved. See Grierson, The Languages of India, p. 6. 

4 The old Portuguese writers call Siam Sornau. See FernSo Mendes Pinto. 
Duarte Barbosa calls it Danseam. * The second kingdom which is a continuation 
of this along the northern part is CJwumtia, the people of which have a language 
by themselves ; it is properly speaking the kingdom which we call SIAO (Siam), 
a name unknown among its people and given to it by foreigners and not by them.* 
Jofto de Barros, Dec. Ill, II, 5. 


enormous religious and secular literature and three dialects : 
that of the sacred Buddhistic books, that of the higher orders, and 
that of the people. Its glossary according to Michell consists of 
14,000 words and contains very many foreign words, most of 
them mutilated and derived from Pali, Sanskrit, Kambojan, 
Malay, Chinese, and the European languages. 

In view of the various kinds of relations that Portugal had 
with Siam, one should have expected that Siamese would contain 
many Portuguese vocables ; but there is a very small number 
of such that figure in their dictionaries, and this is a phenomenon 
that one notes also with regard to the other monosyllabic 
languages. 1 The educated people coin terms from the Sanskrit to 
denote new inventions such as telegraph, telephone, stenography ; 
and the journals, and the people in contact with the Europeans 
prefer words borrowed from the English. 2 

28-29. Annamite and Tonkinese 

By Annamite or better still Annamese, is understood the 
language either of the ancient kingdom of Annam or in a more 
restricted sense, the Cochin-China dialect, to distinguish it from 
Tonkinese. 8 

Philologists are not in accord with regard to the classification 
of Annamese in general. Logan allies it to Mon-Khmer, con- 

* There are in Slam 43 Portuguese, Catholics, who are permanent residents 
of the place. There are also 250 Portuguese of Chinese origin who have their 
names inscribed in the register at the consulate. Finally there are 68 more 
protected Portuguese of Chinese descent residing in Siam. In all 361 Portuguese 
are to be found in the register. (Journal of the Geo. Soc. of Lisbon.) See 
Fr. Jofio dos Santos, II, Ch. 6 ; and Frederico Pereira, Rela$ao de Portugal 
com Si&o, in Journal Geo. Soc. of Lisbon, 8th ser., pp. 385-404. 

2 Such as: bank, bill, boat, boot, foot, madam, mister, minute, agent, 
hotel, office, pen, police, salute, stamp, station, tape. 

* * Which land the Chijs (Chinese) call the kingdom of Cacho, and the 
Siamese and Malay Cauchinchina ; it is different from the Cochij of Malabar/ 
Jo*o de Barros, Dee. Ill, VIII, 6. 


stituting a separate group the Mon-Annan. Gust and Grierson 
throw doubts on this alleged connection, although there are, 
Khmers in the country. Sylvain Levi traces, as the result of 
oral information that he has secured, a connection between it 
and Siamese or Tai, but admits the great influence of Chinese. 
All the same they don't seem to note in it any vestiges of Indian 
civilisation which disappears after Cambodia and gives place to 
the Chinese. The people are Buddhists but of the Chinese type, 
and possess an abundant literature, and employ a large number 
of Chinese ideographs used phonetically as a syllabary. The 
literati, however, prefer the entire Chinese alphabet. In view of 
the difficulty that the reading of these characters present, the 
Roman Catholic missionaries have invented an admirable system 
of adapting the Roman characters to these sounds, which is 
called Quoc ngu to represent faithfully all the tones and stresses 
of the language. 

This is the system which is generally followed by philologists 
and according to Lajonqui&re, by the Very natives of Coohin- 
China. 1 

Tonkinese differs dialectically from Annamite ; it has a 
literature and there are especial books to help its study ; but to 
judge from its vocabulary the difference between the two is not 
very noticeable. 2 Both use the same European words, but they 
are very few and as a rule of French origin, except some religious 
terms which disclose a Portuguese source. Besides commercial 
intercourse, there were in Tonquin Portuguese missions which 
were very flourishing and which could count towards the middle 

1 ' Besides Chinese characters, they have characters belonging to the 
language of tlie land, which they commonly use and which even the women can 
learn.' Antdnio Francisco Cardim, Batodhaa da Companhia de Jesus, p. 69. 

2 * The inhabitants of Cochin-China are of the same nation as the people 
of Tonquin and call the entire kingdom Annam ; it was the Portuguese who 
divided it into Cochin-China and Tonquin, both of them being in reality the same 
people, and in no way differing in language, dress and customs .....' Cardim, 
p. 69, 


of the 17th century 295 churches with a membership of about 
200,000 souls. 1 

30. Malay 2 

Of the Asiatic languages, Malay is after Konkani, one of the 
most important for my work and it was this which induced me 
to extend the orbit of my investigations outside the limits of 
India proper. 3 

The Malay language is spoken in Malacca and in the islands 
of Sumatra (mixed up with other languages), Banca, Billiton, in 
the Moluccas (or Maluco) 4 and in some other parts. It is said 
to be spoken by more than 10 million people. There is the 
Malay language properly so called and what is spoken of as Low 
Malay. The former, which is the language spoken in Singapore 
and Malacca, possesses a literature both in prose and verse, 
written in a modified form of Arabic characters. The other or 
Low Malay, devoid of difficult sounds (gutturals) and com- 
plicated forms, is the lingua franca of the whole of the Archipelago, 
as Hindustani is of India, and as such is spoken by the indigenous 
population of the maritime ports, even though they be not 
Malay by race ; it is commonly written in Roman characters. 5 

1 See Cardim, op. cit. 

2 See Favre, Grammaire de la Langue Malaise. Swettenham, Vocabulary 
of the English and Malay Languages. Heyligers, Traces de Porlugais, etc. 
Gon$alves Viana, Vocabuldrio malaio derivado do portugues. Fokker, O 
Elemento portugues na lingua malaia. 

3 ' It has a language of its own which is called Malay ; it is very sweet and 
easy to learn.' Castanheda, II, Ch. 112. ' On account of its refinement and its 
sweetness, Malay has deserved the just claim of being called the Italian of the 
East.' Favre. 

4 * But the most common language and which all use is Malay ; every one 
took a liking to it because of its sweetness and its agreeable pronunciation.' 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. IV, VII, 7. 

5 * The people of the country are called Malay, and the language of the 
country is likewise called by the same name ; for purposes of the trade of Malacca 
with the neighbouring islands, this language is used by almost all the islands 
and is understood among them.' Lucena, Historia da vida do Padre Francisco 
de Xavier, Bk. Ill, Ch. 10. 


The language of Batavia belongs to Low Malay. Some 
Portuguese words assume in it especial forms, which are indicated 
in the present work, just like those which are peculiar to the 
Moluccas. 1 

Malay has great powers of adaptability and contains many 
exotics, its vocabulary being laden with Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, 
Javanese, Chinese, Telugu and European loan words. 2 

The influence of Portuguese on Malay, especially Low Malay ,. 
which has its origin in conquest, prolonged, domination, trade> 
conversions, missions and in the corrupt Portuguese dialects 
spoken there, is enormous and deep-seated, for it is discernible 
in a very large number of words and extends even to verbs and 

Fortunately, there are many works of a general and special 
character dealing with this subject. The earliest is the dictionary 
of Fr. Haex which enters many terms which are not to be found 
in the present-day works either because they are really obsolete 
or because they were not in common use but confined and 
peculiar to missionaries and Christians. 8 Among modern books 

' The language which is called Malay is among the people of the East what 
Latin is in our Europe.' Ta vernier, Voyages, TV, p. 251. 

1 The Samsanas of Quedda in Malacca who are Siamese by race and 
Mahommedans by religion use a language which is a mixture of Malay and 

2 * Both Malay and Hindustani manifest that capacity for the absorption 
and assimilation of foreign elements, which we recognise as making English the 
greatest Vernacular that the World has ever seen.' Gust, The Modem Languages 
of the East Indies, p. 150. 

* Following the Portuguese came the Dutch, then the English and the 
Spaniards ; in a word the whole of Europe came to plant itself in Malaysia, the 
language of which had naturally to be enriched by a new series of vocables 
belonging to different European languages.' Favre. 

8 Says the author : ' At the foot of the Malay-Latin Dictionary are appended 
Portuguese and Tarnatic vocables, which are really in common use and which 
are mixed up with Malay words in the islands of Amboyana, Banda, Java, and 
the Moluccas '. As this appendix (pp. 51-64) was wanting in the copy of the 
National Library which formerly belonged to the old library of Alcobao,a, a 


the dictionary of Setihor Gongalves Viana deserves especial 
mention because in a great measure it takes in its fore-runner^. 

31. Achinese 1 

Achinese is one of the languages spoken in Sumatra and 
which has, as its name indicates, its home in Achen (correctly 
Acheh) which lies in the northern extremity of the island and 
belongs to Holland. 2 It presents a very close affinity to the Malay 
language, but is less cultivated and less rich in its vocabulary. 
Its literature consists of poetical and theological compositions, 
and of many chronicles. The population is almost entirely 
Mahommedan and uses the Arabic character. 

The influence of Portuguese on this language is not very 
large, and must have been due directly or indirectly to Malay. 
The Portuguese had constant relations, as a rule hostile, with the 
Achinese who in the 16th and 17th centuries represented the 
most powerful indigenous power in Sumatra. 8 

friend sent me a copy on loan from the library of Cardinal Mezzofanti, now 
brought together in the College of the Propaganda Fide. 

1 See The Encyclopaedia BrUannica. 

2 * The Portuguese generally called it Achem (or frequently, by the adhesion 
of the genitive preposition, Dachem). 9 Hobson-Jobson. Ant6nio Nunes makes 
a distinction between ' Dachem grande * (Great Achem) and * Dachem pequeno ' 
(Little Achem). Livro dos Pesos da Ymdia. 

3 [Luis Camoens, the poei, composed an ode to Dpm Francisco Coutinho, 
'Count of Redendo, who was Viceroy of Portuguese India from 1561-1564, for 

the Viceroy had sanctioned the publication of Garcia d'Orta's Colloquies on the 
Simples and Drugs of India and Camoens was d'Orta's intimate friend. This 
od is published in d'Orta's book and contains an eloquent address to the Viceroy. 
Among other things he says of him that perhaps his thoughts are busy with 
pernicious war (guerra infesta) or with bloody Taprobanic Achen, the scourge 
of the sea (sanguinolento Taprobanico Achem, que o mar molesta). This 
reference to Achen bears witness to the hostile relations between it and the 
Portuguese in the 6th century. It is also interesting as proof of the fact 
that Camoens like many other educated men in iiis age identified Taprobana 
of the Greeks in this passage with Sumatra and not with Ceylon. ED.] 


32. Batta 

Batta or Batak is another language of Sumatra which is 
spoken by a people, pagan and given to cannibalism, and, yet 
not entirely uncivilised, who are now becoming Mahommedans 
and Christians. 1 They have a literature both in prose and 
verse and a character of their own ; they write from bottom to 
top and from left to right. 

Oust mentions three dialects of it : Dairi, Toba, and 
Mandailung. Joustra adds to it Karo, without furnishing pinch 
information regarding it. 

The influence of Portuguese on this language, which some 
think has a resemblance to ancient Javanese and others to Malay, 
is not very great and appears to have been wholly exercised by 
way of Malay, though the Portuguese had commercial and 
political intercourse with the country. 2 The words which I have 
set down as adopted into Batta, belong properly speaking to 
Karo according to the dictionary of Joustra. 

33. Sundanese 3 

Sundanese is the language of the west of Java and probably 
the ancient language of the island and belongs to the Javanese 
group. It has no ancient literature. It employs Javanese 
characters, but in a smaller number, and at the same time the 
Roman. Prom its geographical position and the structure of its 
words it approximates more to Malay than to Javanese, and 
that is why I mention it before the latter. 

* * Noted especially for their cannibal institutions.' Hobson-Jobwn. 

* In a part of this island, which they call Bathek, live the anthropophagi 

who hold human heads as objects of value ; after severing the heads of their 
captive enemies, and eating their flesh, they lay up these heads and employ them 
as a medium of exchange.* Nicolo Conti (1430), De Varietate Fortunae. 
' They call them Batas ; they eat human flesh and are a people the most wild 
and warlike in the whole country.' Jo&o de Barros, Dec. Ill, V, 1. 

2 See Fernfio Pinto, Ch. XIII et seq. 

a See especially Bigg, A Dictionary of the Sunda Language. 


The influence of Portuguese on its vocabulary, which is purer 
than that of other languages which are allied to it, is both direct 
and indirect as in the case of Javanese. There existed in Sunda 
a large Portuguese colony of which Fernao Pinto and other 
writers make frequent mention. 

34. Javanese 

e From the linguistic standpoint, Javanese is without doubt 
the most important of all the Malayo-Polynesian group. It is 
spoken by many millions of men, belonging to a tribe which 
occupies unquestionably the first place among the peoples of 
the Archipelago in development and civilisation. This language, 
which extends towards the centre of the island of Java as well a& 
towards the east, is distinguished by the copiousness of its 
vocabulary and its forms, as well as by the richness of its lit % era- 
ture.' Heyligers. 

It has three principal dialects : High Javanese a ceremonial 
dialect ; Low Javanese the popular dialect ; Middle Javanese 
the colloquial dialect. There also exists a poetic form of language, 
called Kavi, which is charged with Sanskrit terms. The foreign 
ingredients in the language are the same as in the Malay. Its 
characters are derived from the Indian, but are much modified 
and complicated. 

It is true the Portuguese never conquered the island but, 
all the same, they visited its harbours very often and maintained 
political and commercial relations with it. It is by this means 
and by the contact of other languages, principally Low Malay, 
that many Portuguese terms found their way into Javanese. 

Some of these as the result of special evolution passed into 
Krama or High Javanese, in harmony with the nature of the 

35. Madurese 

Madurese is the indigenous language of the island of Madura 
and of the immigrants who have been established for centuries 


in the eastern part of Java. It is spoken by about a million and 
a half and it uses the Javanese alphabet for writing. Its structure 
is simpler than that of Javanese but its enunciation is more 
difficult and ruder. It has one dialect, the Sumanap, besides 
some peculiar forms of the colloquial language. 

It appears that the Portuguese did not have much inter- 
course with the island and that the introduction of the Portuguese 
vocables into it is due principally to Javanese and to Low 
Malay. Even so, the number of Portuguese words that <are to 
be found in it is considerable and generally these retain the 
Javanese form. 

36. Balinese 1 

Balinese is the sole language of the island of Bali. It is 
spoken by about 500,000 people whose religion is still Brahmanical 
and Buddhist imported from Java and much perverted. 
According to Gust, the language is more polished than the 
Sundanese and Madurese. It is generally written on palm leaves 
in Javanese characters. Its vocabulary betrays traces of 
Sanskrit through Kavi (the poetic diction of Java), of Javanese, 
and of Malay. The lower classes speak a dialect which is purer 
and free from loan words. 

In the dictionaries published by the Dutch we find very 
few Portuguese words, and these too owe their existence in it 
to mediate influences. But it is likely that there are more of 

37. Dayak 

Dayak or Dyak is the chief of the twelve languages of the 
extensive island of Borneo. It is also the generic name of the 
purely indigenous population which is pagan. On the coasts 
are settled Malays, Javanese, Bugis, and Chinese. The language 
is an uncultivated one and has neither a literature nor an alphabet. 

1 See R. Van Eck, Eerste Proeve van een Balmeesch-Hollandsch Woordtnboek. 


The Portuguese had a factory at Borneo (1590-1643). But 
the Portuguese vocables in this language appear to have found 
their way chiefly through Malay and other allied tongues. When 
we consider the way these have been transmitted and the scale 
of the civilisation of the people and of the language wherein 
they have been admitted, we must confess that the number of 
the words thus introduced is remarkable. 

38. Macassar 1 

Macassar is the language of the southern part of the Celebes 
Island which is called by the same name, and belongs to a special 
group. 2 It is a language that is cultivated, has a literature, 
and its own characters, preserving the classification of the 

In its glossary of words there figure many Malay, Javanese, 
Sundanese, Chinese, and Arabic terms. It is thus through the 
agency of Malay and Javanese as well as through direct 
influence, principally religious, 8 which was very intense that 
Portuguese words 4 found their way into it. 

Bugui 6 

Bugui or Vugui (Bugi or Wugi) is another important language 
of the Celebes, very much resembling Macassar, and which, 
according to Gust, has exerted an influence upon the languages of 
the other islands. It has a copious vocabulary in which many 
Arabic words have .found their way through the influence of 
Mahommedanism ; it has also a rich literature, ancient and 

1 See Matthes, Makassarsch-Hollandsch Woordenboek, 

2 ' According to Crawford thig name (Celebes) is unknown to the natives, 
not only of the great island itself but of the Archipelago generally, and must 
have arisen from some Portuguese misunderstanding or corruption.' Hobson- 
Job son. Fernffo Pinto calls it * The Island of Selebres/ 

3 See Diogo do Couto, Dec. V, VII, 2. 

4 It is not known when and by whom the Portuguese terms belonging to 
the card game of quadrille were introduced ; they are not to be met with in any 
other of the languages except this and in Bugui. 

* See Matthes, Boegmeeech-Hottandsch Woordenboek. 


modern, and also an archaic language. Its alphabet is the same 
as that of the Macassar. 

The influence of Portuguese on Bugui must have been both 
direct and indirect, as in the case of Macassar. The large number 
of words of Portuguese origin, some of which cannot be traced 
in the other Malayo-Polynesian languages is a proof of the 
extensive and deep-seated influence of Portuguese civilisation in 
these parts. 

Note. There are many other languages belonging to different 
groups of the Archipelago, but I have no materials to 
enable me to investigate them. It is possible to conjecture 
from the allied languages that are treated in this work, that 
even in such, provided they are not entirely the speech of 
savages cut off from all contact with civilisation, Portuguese 
words must have found a way, especially such as are in com- 
mon use, and which have no equivalents in the vernaculars. 

40. Nicobarese 

Nicobarese, the language of the Nicobar group of islands, is 
connected in respect of its present-day structure with the Malayo- 
Polynesian family of languages, but its substratum is provided 
by another language now extinct. With regard to this older 
language Sir Grierson says, c It must be admitted that at the 
bottom of the languages spoken by the Kols, of the language of 
the Mon-Khmers and of the Nicobarese and Orang Utans, there 
is a common substratum which in the case, at least of the 
Mon-Khmers and the Nicobarese, inasmuch as it shows clear 
vestiges of its existence, was superimposed by a language belong- 
ing to a family of languages entirely different.' 

Nicobarese is not a cultivated language, and has no characters 
of its own ; but it has a variety of dialects, which vary according 
to the islands and their people. 

The Portuguese must have often touched at these islands on 
their voyages from India and Ceylon to Malacca and must have 
landed over to them many of their terms, such as rei (king), 


chumbo (lead), sal (salt), lebre (hare), cobra (goat), which are not 
to be found in the other languages. 1 The others which are met 
with in Nicobarese must have found their way in a great measure 
through Malay. Again there were Catholic missions on these 
islands during the 17th century. 

41. Teto 2 

The Portuguese colony of Timor has an indigenous popula- 
tion of a million, which is composed of Malay new-comers, and 
the aboriginal negritos. They speak in the country five languages 
or principal dialects which are very closely related and having 
local variations : they are, Teto, Galoli, Uaima, Macaque, and 
Midic. 3 

Teto is the one generally used over the island 4 ; it is an 
uncultivated language and possesses neither a literature nor its 
own alphabet;. The speech of Dili, which is the capital city differs 
from the language of the interior as much in its vocabulary as 
in its structure and syntax. 5 

1 There are five or six islands which have very good water and anchorages 
for shipping inhabited by poor Heathen ; these islands are called Nacabar.' 
Duarte Barbosa, p. 374. [Hak. Soc. Longworth Dames's Transl., Vol. II, p. 181.] 
* Francisco de Almeida on his way from India to Sumatra died of fever in the 
islands of Nicubar.' Fern&o Pinto, Ch. XX. ' Returning to D. Paulo de Lima 
(who had been becalmed among the islands of Nicobar).' Fr. Jofto dos Santos, 
II, p. 210. 

2 See Aparicio da Silva, Ditcionario de Portuguez-Tetum. Rafael das 
Dores, Diccionario Teto-Portugues. Dr. Alberto Osorio de Castro, Flores de 
Coral, s.v. Timor. 

8 See Dr. Castro, op. cit., p. 189. 

* It is spoken in Dili, Viqueque, Luca, Lachute, Alas, Suai, Monofahi, 
Berique, Dotic, Bibicuyu, Samoro, Batugadi, Sanir, Balib6, Cova, Joanilo, 
Silacan, and Fialaran. 

* Tetura is almost the lingua franca of this country, just as Galoli is among 
the people on the littoral to the east of Dilli.' Dr. Castro, p. 189. 

5 * The dialect which is spoken in Delly, which is Teto or Tetum, is under- 
stood over all the island ; nevertheless the Teto spoken in Lachute and in other 
parts is very different from that dialect.' Jos6 dos Santos Vaquinhas, Timor ,. 


Timor being a Portuguese possession and Teto, a very poor 
language, it is obvious that its vocabulary is laden with Portuguese 
terms, which are current in a lesser or greater degree, according 
to the extent of the contact of the peoples with European civilisa- 
tion. I do not mention in this* work all the Portuguese words 
that find a place in dictionaries of Teto or Galoli, many of which 
are entered evidently to make up for the want of the corresponding 
vernacular terms ; but I am finding a place for such in their 
respective indices. 

42. Galoli 1 

Galoli is the other principal language or dialect of Timor. 
With regard to it says Rev. Alves da Silva : ' It is the dialect 
most employed by the Christian population to the north-east of 
Timor, that part of Malaysia which is the most loyal and faithful 
to the Portuguese crown. In the language too of this part there 
is a noticeable difference though not quite so perceptible ; thus 
it comes about that this dialect spoken in Manatuto though 
understood in Laleia and Vemasse, presents certain variations 
which are noticeable as far as in Laclo, although this latter place 
is almost two hours distant from the former.' 

The influence of Portuguese on this language is analogous 
to that exercised on Teto. In the dictionary of this language 
there are fewor Portuguese words 2 to be found than in that of 

43. Malagasy 8 

Prom its geographical position the island of Madagascar, 
* the Island of St. Lorenzo ' of the old Portuguese writers, belongs 

1 See Rev. Alves da Silva, No$&es da Qrammatica Galdli ; Diccionario 

2 There are no materials for the study of Uaima, Macaque and Midic. 

3 See Malzac, Diciionnaire Fran^ais-Malgache. Marre, Foccrfmtatre ties 
mote tforigine europtewne, etc. 


to Africa ; but its ethnic and linguistic affinities are with Asia. 
It is on this account that Oust includes Malagasy, which is the 
language spoken in the island, in his ' Languages of the East 
Indies '.* Its population is about two millions and a half and 
it is divided among numerous tribes which differ from one 
another in their physical appearance, the result of a mixture in 
a greater or smaller degree of the African with the Malay, Arab, 
or Indian. 8 But all speak a common language, which has ten 
dialects, of which the Hova is the chief and the one that is 
understood by the bulk of the population. 4 It has no peculiar 
character, and therefore commonly employs the Roman. 

The affinity of Malagasy to the Malayo-Polynesian Language 
Family was observed four centuries ago and has now been con- 
firmed by the investigations in modern times of Van der Tuuck, 
Marre, Marin, and W. E. Cousins. 6 But the roots of the words 

* * The names Madagascar and S. Lourengo are foreign. Among the native 
population no general name for the whole island has been found.' Rev. Luis- 
Mariano, Relafao d<t Jornada e descobrimento da ilka de *S\ Louren$o (1613), 
in Journal^ Geo. Soc. of Lisbon, 7th ser., p. 315. 

2 * This island of San Louren0o, which writers call Madagascar 

All this island is inhabited by peoples not as black as the negroes, nor as fair as 
the Mohammedans of all that coast. The presumption is that this island was 
conquered by the Jaos (Javanese) and that the inhabitants are a half breed 
people, the result of the fusion of the conquerors with the former natives of 
the country who must have been the Caffres (negroes) from the other side of the 
mainland.' Diogo do Couto, Dec. VII, IV, 6. 

3 < The second Mohammedan king who reigned in Cambay and who was a 
great conqueror sent certain ships to the coast of Melinde . . . these touched at 
the island of San Lourenpo, and as they were unseaworthy, they remained 
there, and then* crew helped to people some of the ports.' Commentaries de 
Afonso de Albuguergut, IV, Ch. 23. 

* * The language in use all over is Buque, . . . and it is so uniform all over 
the island that the natives from the southernmost point understand it just as 
well as those from the northernmost ; its vocabulary is poor, but on that account 
as easy to learn as to pronounce. 9 Rev. Mariano, op. cit., p. 353. 

6 * In the interior of the island, and other parts and the coasts, only Buque 
is spoken, which is the language of the natives, entirely different from the Caffre 
(negro) language, but very similar to Malay ; this is almost a sure proof that the 
first settlers came from the ports of Malacca. Id., p. 323. 


are not trisyllabic as in the languages of the Archipelago. All the 
words end in a vowel, especially in a and i. 

In its vocabulary there are to be found many exotic words 
chiefly English, 1 which are due to the intense Protestant 
missionary activity in the island, and French words which have 
been introduced, thanks to the influence of the Catholic religion 
and its missionary labours. 

The Portuguese visited many times the ports of Madagascar, 
to which they gave names derived from the Calendar of the 
Saints ; but they had no frequent or permanent relations of a 
political or commercial nature with the island. Prom Goa were 
despatched to it expeditions of a politico-religious Jdnd, but 
without any serious result ; and the missionary labours started 
by the Jesuits were of short duration and not very fruitful of 
results. 2 Among the Romanic words adopted in Malagasy, it is 
difficult to distinguish those which owe their existence to the 
mediate or direct influence of Portuguese, the presumption as a 
rule being in favour of French or English as the channels of 
entry. 8 

44. Pidgin-English 4 

In the coast cities of China is spoken a dialect of English., 
which serves as a means of oral communication, like the corrupt 
Portuguese dialect in former days, between the natives and the 

' In some of the bays of these islands (of Madagascar) they found some 
people who appeared to be Javanese ; whence they came to- see that the outskirts 
of that coast had been peopled by the Javanese because the inhabitants spoke 
their language.' Diogo do Couto, Dec. VII, viii, 1. 

1 Just as : book, glass, page, pencil, Christian, Christmas, monastery,, 
catechist, Bible, angel. 

2 See Bocarro, Chh. 42, 108, 146, and 147 ; and Fr. Jofio dos Santos, ii r 
Ch. 9. 

& ' Having heard these matters and noticed some Portuguese words which 
are today in use among this people : camisa (shirt), cal^oo (trouser), romft 
(pomegranate), filho meu (my son), espingarda (rifle) and similar others, they 
went on board the caravel on the llth.' Rev. Mariano, p. 341. 

* See Leland, Pidgin-English Sing-Song. 


European and American foreigners, and sometimes even among 
the Chinese themselves who speak very different dialects. 

' In its first and low form,' says Leland, * as it is given in the 
vocabularies published for the use of servants, Pidgin is a very rude 
jargon, in which English words singularly mutilated, owing to the 
difficulty of expressing their sounds in written Chinese, are set forth 
according to the rules of the Chinese grammar. In fact, it is a 
translation, word by word, with little effort at inflection or 
conjugation, in view of the fact that such grammatical forms, as we 
understand them, do not exist in Chinese. The result of this, 
naturally, is that the vocabulary being very limited, a Chinaman 
learns Pidgin-English with no more difficulty than is presented by 
the acquisition of a few hundred words, whose pronunciation and 
grammar have been modified to accommodate themselves to his 
own language. In this it resembles exactly posh an posh or 
the corrupt Romany dialect spoken by the Gipsies in England 
in which Hindi-Persian words follow English grammatical 
structure. 1 

It is owing to the facility with which the Chinese learn 
this dialect and the good will of the foreigners to go and 
meet them half-way, that it has spread to such an incredible 
extent, thus preparing the ground to make English the language 
of the Pacific. And as the Chinaman learns more easily a 
Romanic language than pure English, it is probable that were it 
not for the Pidgin jargon, corrupt Portuguese would have formed 
the popular means of communication between the foreigners and 
the natives of China the large number of Portuguese words 
which at present exist in Pidgin-English appears to prove it.' 

The word pidgin is supposed to be a corruption of the English 
word business, but with a meaning much more extensive and 
varied. And as commerce is the one great bond between the 

1 4 Pitchin English (business English) is the commercial language of the 
ports of China ; it is bad English with some Portuguese words, the grammatical 
construction being English.' J. H. Calado Crespo, Cousas da China, p. 16. 


Chinese and the foreigners residing in the country, it is not to be 
wondered at that the term came to be applied to denote the 
language that was evolved for the purposes of trade. 

There are those, however, who think that ' pidgin ' is derived 
from the Portuguese ' occupa9ao.' * 

45. Japanese 8 

Students of languages are not agreed upon the genealogical 
classification of the language of Japan, the Yamato. Some try 
to trace an affinity between it and Aryan ; others conclude that 
it has sprung from the Ural-Altaic stock, and that it is akin 
to the Korean, Manchu and Mongolean. There are again others 
who regard the Japanese language, just as much as the race 
itself, as a distinct one. 

Morphologically, Japanese is agglutinative and polysyllabic. 
The ordinary colloquial language is very different from the 
written and the literary, in which are to be found many Chinese 
terms. 8 In its vocabulary are met with various Sanskrit, or 
rather, Pali words, introduced by Buddhism. 4 

1 In the Anglo-Chinese vocabulary there are many Hindustani and Anglo - 
Indian terms carried there principally by the English, such as : bangee, bobbery, 
chop, pukkha, punkah, puttee, go-down, tiffin, Griffin. 

2 See The Encyclopaedia Britanniea, La Grande Encyctopedie. N. Murak&ai, 
The, Influence of Early Intercourse. Ladislau Batalha, O Japao por dentro. 
Wenceslau de Morais, in the Journal of the Geo. Soo. of Lisbon, 2nd ser., No. 6, 
and especially, Gongalves Viana, Paleetras FUoldgicaa. 

3 * The primitive language of Nippon, the Yamato-Kotdba, must have been 
necessarily very poor in vocables; and it appears certain that the earliest 
Japanese were completely ignorant of the use of writing. With the successive 
and growing intercourse of Japan with China, about the 3rd century of our 
era, Yamato-Kottiba began to be enriched with Chinese words, though such an 
alliance might now appear strange ; it was then that the art of giving graphic 
form to an idea was started.' Wenceslau de Morais, op. tit. 

* Such as : araghyo from arghya (oblation), arano from aranya (forest), 
biku from bhiksu (monk), butsu from buddha (enlightened), karancho from 
krauflcha (heron), daruma from dharma (duty), namae from n&ma (name), 
ahishi from ?isya (disciple), shisho from simha (lion). 


The dialectical differences which are noticeable in different 
localities are of minor importance and do not stand comparison 
with those that are to be found in China. The dialect of the 
group of islands, known as Riukiu, deserves especial mention inas- 
much as it preserves its archaic character. The speech of the 
Aino tribes of the island of Spezo is totally different from pure 
Japanese and is therefore not understood by the people of the 
other islands. 

In their writing they generally employ Chinese ideographs, 
which run to about 3,000 in number. The proper Japanese 
script is syllabic made up of 47 syllables, 1 and is known as Kana, 
of which there are two varieties : the Katakana and Hiragana. 
Japanese is written in vertical columns from the right to the 
left. Its literature goes as far back as the 7th century. 2 

Portugal was the first European nation which cuitoe into 
contact with Japan and for a long period maintained commercial 
and missionary relations with it. It left, as in almost every other 
part, indelible traces of its language in the vocabulary of Japan 
most of which were due to the introduction of new objects and 
of a new religion. Some of the terms have acquired such citizen 
rights that it is difficult to trace their foreign origin. The ancient 
books of the Japanese abound, according to the testimony of 
Dr. Murakami, in religious terms of foreign origin and only a 
few of these have entered into the common speech of the 
people. 8 

1 The modification of some of these syllables raises the total number to 
seventy- three. See Ballhorn, Alphabetic oriental ischer und occidentalischer 

2 Fourteen kinds of letters distinguished not only in their form but in 
their peculiarity and meaning, the young fidalgos study in the monasteries of 
the Bonzos.' Lucena, Historia da vida do Padre Francisco de Xavier, Bk. VII, 5. 

3 Dr. Murak&mi, Director of the School for Foreign Languages in Tokio, 
was kind enough to send me a list of such terms which he had not published in 
his work to which I have referred above. In recent times many English words 
have been introduced as also words which, though not English, have found their 
way into the language through English, such as: alcali, alcool, blanket, butter, 


46. Persian 1 

Persian has passed through various phases. The primitive 
Iranian had two principal dialects : Iranian of the West or ancient 
Persian, written in cuneiform characters, the most ancient 
inscriptions dating from the time of Darius ; and Iranian of the 
East, confirmed by Avest and written in an alphabet of Aramaic 
origin. The middle form of ancient Persian is preserved in the 
Pahlavi inscriptions, the earliest of which date as far back as 
the 3rd century of the Christian era. Literary Persian makes 
its appearance with the Mussulman dynasties in the 9th century. 
Modern Persian, especially the written language, is full of Arabic 
terms ; there is no word of this origin which has not or could 
not have a place in its vocabulary. Its alphabet is Arabic with 
slight modifications. But its structure remains Iranian. 

Persian was in great vogue in India during the period of the 
Mahommedan domination ; it was the language of the court, of 
the tribunals of justice, and of the official and literary world. 
The first digest of Hindu Law compiled under the orders of 
Warren Hastings The Gentoo Code was translated from the 
Sanskrit into Persian and from this rendered into English. Many 
of the English officials found themselves under the necessity, 
even during the last century, of knowing Persian 2 ; and even at 
the present day there are schools where Persian is taught in 
various parts of the country. The treaties which the Portuguese 
entered into with Mahommedan sovereigns were recorded in 
Portuguese and in Persian. 3 

beer, brush , gallon, gas, glass, lace, race, panorama, piano, pin, pipe, pump, 
punch, matches, soda, yard. 

1 See The Encyclopaedia Britannica. K. Brugmann, Abrege de Orammaire 
Comparative des Langues Indo-europeennes. A. Meillet, Introduction a V&tude 
comparative des Langues Indo-europeennes. 

2 'See W. T. Tucker, A Pocket Dictionary of English and Persian. 

8 * The articles of the treaty having been drawn up two documents were 
framed, one in Persian and the other in Portuguese, the former to be given to 
the Ambassador and the latter to remain in the State archives ... Of this 


47. Arabic 

There are very many works treating of the Arabic influence 
on the Spanish languages but very few dealing with the influence 
of the Spanish languages on Arabic. The reason for this must 
certainly lie in the fact that the influence of the languages of 
the Iberic peninsula upon the language of the Mahommedan 
conquerors was neither so intense, nor lasting nor general. The 
most important work on this subject known to me is that of 
Simonet ; but it does not appear to be a safe guide because many 
of the terms, which he sets down as having been taken over from 
Spain by the Arabs, had, one is inclined to suspect, a different 
origin and a limited range. 

Arabic is the sacred language of the Mahommedans of India 
where there are schools in which it is taught. But very few 
Portuguese words must have been introduced into it by this way. 
Those that I have recorded in the present work are only such as 
belong to Eastern Arabic and not to that which is in use in 
Africa, which has many more. Even these do not offer, generally 
speaking, a sure clue to their Portuguese origin. Lexicographers 
refer many of them, as I have noted in various instances, to 
Greek, Latin, French, and Italian sources. Arabic and Persian, 
therefore, occupy in my work a secondary place. 

48. Other Languages 

Besides the languages already referred to, there are a few 
others whose vocabularies were not the direct object of my 
investigations : they are the Chinese, Jewish, Turkish, and the 
languages of the Philippines. The dictionaries of the other 
languages which I waded through, incidentally mentioned some 
Romanic words which are found in these vocabularies. But few 
of these are, for certain, of Portuguese origin as Uil&o and padre 
are in the Chinese language ; the other Romanic word# may 

declaration on oath two deeds were drawn up, the one in Persian and the other 
in Portuguese.' Diogo do Couto, Dec. V, I, 12. 


have had a different origin. Those that are to be found in 
Tagalo and Bisaio must have been introduced therein directly 
from the Spanish. Romanic words in the Turkish and Jewish 
languages are reproduced from the Glossary of Simonet. Subject 
to this reservation such terms will be found in the present work. 
Andamanese : I examined two dictionaries of the unclassified 
languages of the Andaman Islands, 1 and did not come across any 
Portuguese word in either of them ; this is because no foreign word 
has been included in them and thus the words sab&o (soap), mesa 
(table), tdbaco (tobacco), etc. have been omitted. As the 
Andamanese were uncivilized, it is to be presumed that some 
Portuguese words entered into their speech by way of 
Hindustani and English as has happened in analogous cases. 2 

XIV. Alphabets and their Transliteration* 

It is now an accepted fact among Sanskritists, after the 
palseographic investigations of Dr. Biihler, that the art of writing 
was known in India in the 8th century B.C., although it was not 
then nor much afterwards employed for literary purposes. The 
characters are of Semitic origin and belong to the Phoenician 
type, similar to the Moabite, introduced by traders by way of 
Mesopotamia. The most ancient documents which we possess 
are the stone-inscriptions of the Emperor Asoka (3rd century B.C.). 
which give variants of the different forms of letters. 

1 A Manual of the Andamanese Languages, by M. V, Portman, London 
1887. Notes on the Languages of the South Andaman Group of Tribes, by M. V. 
Portman, Calcutta 1898. 

2 * The vessel was lost among the islands which they call the islands of 
Andramu, the inhabitants of which eat human flesh.' Jofto de Barros, Deo. Ill, 
V, 3. 

3 See Beames, Comparative Grammar of the Modern Aryan Languages of 
India. Caldwell, A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. Arthur 
Macdonell, A History of Sanskrit Literature. Friedrich Ballhorn, Alphabets 
orientalischer und occidentalijcher Sprachen. G. Buhler, On the Origin of the 
Indian Brahma Alphabet. 


The remodelling, the systematisation, and the adaptation of 
the Semitic characters to the Indo-European phonetics resulted 
in the alphabet which is called Brahmi and this in the 5th century. 
And it is from this that all the modern alphabets of India are 
derived, even the Dravidian, though these might appear so 
different at the present day. The most important of the derived 
alphabets is the Nagari (the city alphabet) or Devanagri (that of 
the city of God) in which are chiefly inscribed the literary 
monuments of the Sanskrit language and which in its written 
form dates as far back as the 8th century B.C. 

The following languages follow Devanagri : Hindi, Nepali, 
Bihari, and Kashmiri ; Sindhi and Hindustani use this as well as 
the Arabic-Persian characters ; then Marathi, Konkani only 
partially, and Guzarati make use of this script. Punjabi, Bengali, 
Oriya, Assamese, Sinhalese, Telugu, Kanarese, with Tulu and 
Malayalam, have their peculiar characters, which differ from the 
Devanagri in their form but not phonetically or in their arrange- 
ment. Many of these languages, however, do not use all the 
Devanagri sounds, and there are some that have one or other 
especial sound or additional sounds and letters. 

Among the Dravidian languages only the Tamil alphabet 
differs a great deal from the Nagri, as much owing to the want 
of many letters as by the addition of some consonants, and, 
even more, owing to the use of certain consonants to convey 
two or three different sounds. 

The Arab-Persian characters are employed by Hindustani, 
Sindhi, with a special system of diacritical marks, Malay and 

Burmese, Tibetan, Siamese, Kambojan, Batta, Javanese, as 
well as Sundanese and Balinese and Madurese use their own 
characters, derived from the Aryan script, but a great deal 
modified. The alphabet of Bugui and Macassar have been 
co-ordinated according to the Devanagri system. 

Garo, Khassi, Dayak, Nicobarese, Teto, Galoli, Malagasy, and 
to a partial extent, Konkani, Low Malay, and Sundanese, use the 


Roman alphabet. Annamite, Tonkinese, and Japanese employ 
the Chinese ideographs. 1 

The Congress of Orientalists, which took place in 1894 at 
Geneva, adopted as regards Devanagri a uniform system of 
transcription, which since then has been generally followed by 
Sanskritists. The same system can be, and it is desirable should 
be, used for the transliteration of other alphabets which have the 
same origin, with a especial notation which is easily understood 
for especial letters. 

It is necessary, therefore, to understand, above all, the 
transliteration of the Devanagri alphabet and likewise those of 
Tamil and Arabic-Persian. 

Transliteration of the Devanagri Alphabet. 




Vft, T 

i, ti 

, ^ u, ^ 

?u, ' 

^r, m 

sz 1, 

*re, $ 

ai, ^r 

o, ^ au 





^gha * 




W cha 

f ja 

Hf jha r 




9 tha 


"9 dha ^t 




V tha 


V dha 5T 



^ pa 

*fi pha 


w bha H 


Semi -vowels . . 


T: ra 


^ va 






^ sa 




; ' anusvara m 

; visarga h 


I. A has the sound of a neutral vowel or small a. In Kon- 
kani and in Bengali it approximates to 6 short. A, i, u, r y I are 
short ( = a, 2, u, r, 1) ; a, t, u f, are long. The vowels, r, f, / 
are especial to Sanskrit vocables. E and o are regarded as 
diphthongs in Sanskrit (originally &i and au) and as such are 
long and closed ( = , 6). 

l The Rev. J. Knowtes maintains that ' the alphabets of the Indian Empire 
reach the total of fifty a greater number than those of the languages of the world, 
ancient and modern taken together.' 


II. In the Dravidian and in some of the Neo- Aryan 
languages e and o are short and long. I represent them as g 
and 6 when long and unstressed. Sinhalese has in addition e 
diphthong (=ae), short and long, much palatalised. I trans- 
literate it generally as e and e, or better, as e and e. Konkani has 
e and o open and closed ; I represent them when necessary by 
i and 6 when open and accented, and by i and 6 when closed. 
The Dravidian languages have many terminations ending in u 
very short, which it is usual to represent by u or u. (jrrammarians, 
according to Caldwell, give to such a quarter of the length of 
a long vowel. 

III. Many of the Neo-Aryan languages do not pronounce 
the short a at the end of a word and frequently also not when it 
occurs in the middle of a word, although they write the con- 
sonant whole (without the virama) as though the vowel was a 
part of it. Thus they write ^CPFT Rama, but pronounce it Ram. 
In such cases I drop the a in transliteration. 

IV. The Dravidian and many of the Neo-Aryan languages 
have the sound as well as the letter 35 la cerebral, which in 
Sanskrit is only to be met with in Vedic writings. 

V. Konkani, Marathi, and Telugu have two letters with two 
distinct sounds each of them, without any graphic sign to dis- 
tinguish the phonetic changes ; the normal (before e and i) ch 
explosive (like the Italian c before e and i) and ts almost equivalent 
to zz in Italian ; / explosive (as in English) and z (or dz). 1 I have 
marked the difference when transcribing such sounds. 

VI. For very especial and weighty reasons I have made the 
following alterations in the rules for the transliteration mentioned 
above : ch, chh, I represent by c, ch ; x (palatal) by (or 6) and 
s ; I have employed n, as a rule, not only to convey the sound of 
the nasal dental consonant, but also the guttural n and the 
palatal n. All the nasals, when they figure in the middle of a 
word and unaccompanied by a vowel, are commonly represented 

1 Beames calls ta and dz ' non-assimilated palatals '. 


in Neo- Aryan script by a full point (anuavara) placed over the 
preceding letter like the dot in Portuguese ; f and they are 
distinguished phonetically by the consonant which follows as in 
Konkani : afag for ang, vafojh for v&ftjh, phamt for pha%t, dafat 
for dant, xinipl for ximpl. 

VII. In almost all the polysyllabic languages the accent 
falls on the ultimate syllable if it be long and on the penultimate, 
long or short, if the ultimate be short. But in Sinhalese the 
accent can precede the penultimate, even though it be short as 
in annisiya= pineapple. 1 I have pointed out the exceptions by 
the acute accent when the vowel is long, by an accent and the 
short sign when the vowel is short. 

Transliteration of the Tamil Alphabet 2 
*/a ere < k 4>t ^ ^ 

<5I/ V 

yp 1 (or i) 

<P/ Q. 


er e 

IEJ n \ 

/5 n 



& ch 




@ n 

LD m 


5 ai (or ei) 

L. ^. 

iL y 


6p<sn au 

^5 * 
6WST 9 

h r 

Letters for Sanskrit sounds : sfy sh, <sn> s, ^ h, o h. 


I. The Dravidian alphabet is also syllabic ; a dot on the 
consonant, equivalent to the Sanskrit virama, is an indication of 
the absence of the short a which accompanies it. 

II. Tamil has no aspirate sounds, nor especial letters for 
soft consonants ; one and the same character serves to mark both 
the sounds. 

1 Such Sinhalese words aa have the accent on the anti-penultimate syllable 
have the stress on the fourth syllable, including the suffix ya, or -tx* ; kdmaraya 
from camara (chamber), pukuruva from pucaro (cup), viduruva from vidro 

2 See Caldwell, op. cit. t Percival, Tamil-English Dictionary. 


III. K, ch, t, t, p 9 being medial and simple, that is, when 
not double, sound as g, j (very little used in vernacular words), 
d, d, h. Ch initial, and even intervocalic, is represented at times 
by the unstressed x or the Sanskrit 6 or ; the same is also used 
to mark the sibilant dental s. I transcribe cA, j, and <$, but not 
x which is not much used. The d intervocalic in Tamil and 
Malayalam is very soft like th in English in than, that. I 
am not differentiating it from simple d, nor does Caldwell make a 
difference between them. In foreign words there occur high 
sounding initial syllables. 

IV. The Tamil rule regarding sonorous medials is likewise 
observed in Malayalam, but with distinct letters, except k 
medial which sounds like g weak, almost like h, and is trans- 
literated by a special sign which I omit. 

V. The consonants peculiar to this language are I, y, n 
The first which also occurs in Malayalam ' is pronounced 
differently in different districts,' says Caldwell. According to 
this writer the normal sound of this resembles the English r in 
farm, more liquid and post-palatal. According to Percival it is a 
mixture of r, /, and of the French j. Telugu substitutes it by d 
cerebral and modern Kanarese by I cerebral. 

VI. The f hard, at present used in Tamil and Malayalam, 
has a sound which is midway between the cerebrals d and I as 
in the English crack. 

VII. N, the last letter of the alphabet, is not differentiated 
phonetically from the n dental ; it has, on this account, no 
discriminating mark. 

VIII. Some of the vowels shade off into different sounds 
before certain consonants which I find unnecessary to describe. 
The diphthong ai occurs but rarely. 1 

1 The Dravidian languages generally retain the tonic accent of Portuguese 
words in the syllable on which it falls. 

f a (etc.) 

% ch 

i dh V 


v b 

* 3 

; r 


V P 

^ h 



o t 

r kh 

j z 


o t &> 

a d 

J zh 

is Z 

& th 

3 d 

o* s 

e ' 


Transliteration of the Arabic-Persian-Hindustani Alphabet l 

gh f m 

<- f ^ n 

o q h 

^ k ^ v (w) 

J * 


I. Many of the above-mentioned letters take different forms 
when they are at the beginning, middle or at the end of a word. 
I do not describe them because they do not affect the 

II. The letters th, h, s, z, (d), t, z, ', q, are peculiar to Arabic. 
Kh, dh, z, gh, are common both to Arabic and Persian. The 
letter zh is peculiar to Persian. P, ch, g, are common to Persian 
and Hindustani. The cerebrals t> d, f, are peculiar to Hindustani. 

III. Some of the Arabic letters have a different sound in 
Persian and Hindustani as : th=s ; dh = z ; d = Hindust. z ; t, z = 
Hindus t. t, z. 

IV. The Congress of Orientalists, referred to above, like- 
wise standardised the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet, and 
this I am following, showing however, a preference for such varia- 
tions as are left to option. I am substituting d for z to avoid 
confusion with the Hindustani d, and w for v to maintain harmony 
with the transliteration from the Devanagri alphabet. 

V. As Simonet and other authors adopt various methods of 
transcription which they do not always explain, I am making 
use of different Arabic words employed by them without adhering 
strictly or even uniformly to the method of the Congress. 

1 See Duncan Forbes, A Grammar of the Hindustani Language. David 
Lopes, Textos de Aljamia Portugmaa. 


VI. Malay does not use in its vernacular speech the following 
Arabic letters : fh, h, kh, z, sh, s, d, t, 2, ', gh, /, and employs the 
following in addition to those which it has from the Arabic : ch, 
ng, p, g, ft, or ny. 

VII. Dutch writers in accordance with the genius of their 
language transliterate the letters ch, j, and fi from Malay and 
the other languages of the Archipelago by tj 9 dj, and nj 9 and 
these they pronounce exactly as in Devanagri. c Ch is always 
pronounced as ch in church *. Swettenham. ' Or like the 
Spanish word muchacho '. Favre. c J ought to be pronounced 
as in jury, justice, jew'. Rigg. '^V"is pronounced as gn in 
agneau ; it is the Spanish n '. Favre. 1 

1 *The Dutch language does not contain this sound (ch), and it is con- 
sequently represented by them by tj, which does not convey the sound even 
according to the Dutch use of letters, as j with them has the power of the English 
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Monsignor Sebastiao Rodolfo Dalgado presents to our 
Academy a study very comprehensive in its extent which, I am 
not sure whether any other scholar, Portuguese or for that 
matter of any other nationality, could have satisfactorily 

The subject of this laborious work is the examination specific 
and systematic of Portuguese words adopted in a great number of 
Asiatic languages spoken by peoples with whom we have been 
in more or less intimate and direct contact. In respect of time 
this contact has been extended from the 15th century to the 
present day, and in respect of extent has covered the zone right 
from Ceylon to Japan. This work represents specialisation in a 
field of linguistic study for which its worthy author had not the 
benefit of an earlier model. He had therefore, in the carrying 
out of his objective, himself to evolve a new method adapted to 
an exposition at once clear and convincing. The truth is that 
uptil now, orientalists, by which I mean those who make a 
scientific study of these questions, have preferred to devote their 
time to investigate the origin of exotic vocables of varying 
provenance which have made their entry into European languages, 
and not to examine the influence which these latter have 
exercised over the vernaculars of the other parts of the world. 

The author fully equipped for his task by continuous study 
and by a thorough assimilation of the exact laws of comparative 
philology, shows in every detail of his work, a knowledge of 
scientific literature pertinent to his subject and a conscientious 
grasp of those facts which help effectively to make good his 
thtesis, viz. the considerable influence of Portuguese civilisation 


in its various manifestations over indigenous civilisation, whether 
stationary or progressive. So large, in fact, is the number of 
Portuguese words adopted in so many languages distinct in their 
genius, seeing that they belong to diverse families and possessing 
the most varied grammatical structures, that we cannot help 
inferring that excluding the Greeks and the Romans perhaps no 
other people, unless they be the Arabs, succeeded in spreading a 
part of its vocabulary through so many diverse language fields, 
and this without affecting the integrity of these languages, 
no matter whether the words found an entry into these tongues 
through the spoken word or through written compositions, 
above all liturgical. 

With regard to the grouping of the vernacular languages, the 
learned and worthy orientalist follows the system employed by 
the renowned English glotologist Robert Oust, well-known for 
his model of a book c The Modern Languages of the East Indies, 
not to speak of other works. I am of the opinion that he acted 
well in doing this, notwithstanding that the classification and its 
characteristics are not in complete agreement with the theories 
of the celebrated philologist, the late Frederick Miiller, some of 
which are perhaps antiquated while others are too personal, and 
in spite of differing from the most recent doctrines and theories 
put forward by Finck with regard to grammatical structures 
which has reduced from a morphological standpoint to eight 
types all the languages known in the five continents of the 

I hold that in deciding to follow Oust the choice was most 
happy in relation, at least, to the Asiatic languages, which was 
the sole field of the author's investigations. 

I have already mentioned that Monsignor Dalgado, in the 
absence of any existing model for his work or of one even resembl- 
ing it to guide him, had to set up a method entirely new. In 
fact, if we put aside some of the studies of Dr. Hugo Schuchardt 
on the Portuguese dialects in Asia, one of Aristides Marre and 
two of mine regarding Malay, the first of which was published in 


1896 in the memorial volume * Melanges Charles de Harlez ', and 
the second in the eighth volume of the ' Revista Lusitana* (1903- 
1905), preceded by an incomplete investigation of Dr. A. A. Fokker 
and also of Dr. Murak&mi, which aims at tracing the various Portu- 
guese or Spanish words still to be found in the Japanese of to- 
day, all the other languages of India, those of the Far East, of 
the south of Asia and of Polynesia had to be examined with 
reference to the question in hand, the absorption of Portuguese 
terms in these vernacular tongues. * 

The author does not expound the phonetic laws to which 
each of the languages conformed in accepting the Portuguese 
words and fusing them into their own vocabulary, as I attempted 
to do in the case of words in Malay, a task easy enough, con- 
sidering the phonetic simplicity of the family of languages, to 
which Portuguese words had no difficulty in conforming. 

On the other hand, a study of all the changes which these 
words had to undergo in the idioms of the other linguistic families 
would require arduous and sustained labour if it were to come 
within the four corners of the work which I am here surveying. 
Meanwhile the learned writer has pointed out in a concise manner 
some of the principal changes and among them the most notable 
is that which has reference to the elimination of the initial atonic 
syllable which immediately precedes a tonic syllable in a poly- 
syllabic word, specially if the initial syllable should be a vowel, 
but also, in some cases if it should be a consonant. This pheno- 
menon is well-known and is frequently to be met with when 
words of one language make their way into another, and if the 
transmission should be consequent on the result of hearing the 
spoken word. 

This valuable study which has been entrusted to me for 
examination is preceded by an introduction which, looked at 
from whatever point of view is of very great interest. In it the 
author discloses his extensive learning in this very important 
branch of knowledge, This introduction is elaborated out with 
such art, as to make an appeal as much to the specialist as to the 


ordinary reader keen on being informed, so clear and delightful 
is his exposition, its strictly scientific character however, being 
in no way affected by his extraordinary conciseness both of treat- 
ment and expression. 

In the whole work the author has employed Portuguese 
vernacular idioms with the most meticulous care and has avoided 
the use of even pardonable neologisms or words that betray 
their foreign descent ; the unique exception is the case of certain 
ethnic names, such as khmer, ccbshmiris, which in my opinion could 
have been reduced to our systems of orthography and written as 
ewer, caxemir&s like the others to which the author skilfully 
gave a Portuguese guise. The result in consequence is, that 
he has imparted an atmosphere truly national to the whole 
of his work, which because of its worth and originality does 
much honour to our scientific attainments in a field of human 
knowledge, which unfortunately among us has but few scholars 
Of eminence though it must be said that these are held everywhere 
in great respect and regard. 

It is on this account that the work, as I have said, is of the 
greatest interest, not only to us Portuguese, as testifying to our 
enduring interest, in distant nations and peoples with whom we 
had been and are in contact, but as much also for those outside 
Portugal, who with great honour and distinction give themselves 
up to linguistic studies in their multifarious aspects. 

I feel certain that the publication of this monumental study 
will receive the approbation and applause of scholars of all 
nations dedicated to this branch of learning, and from the public 
in general, and that it will redound to the glory of our country, 
to the well-merited honour of our Academy, and above all to the 
sredit of him who with the greatest selflessness and dedication, a 
spirit truly scientific, and burning patriotism, took upon himself to 
sarry out in an exemplary manner a work so well conceived and 
so useful and withal so difficult and one which belongs to a field of 
knowledge which till now has scarcely been explored. 

In view of all these reasons I am of the opinion that the 


masterly study of which I have just finished making a succinct 
analysis satisfies all the requirements necessary to hare its publica- 
tion sanctioned at the cost of the Academy of Sciences, Lisbon 
And I feel sure that its publication will enhance the reputation 
-which our Academy has ever earned and upheld. 

Academy of Sciences, Lisbon, April llth 1912. 

Joaquim Teofilo Braga. 
Henrique Lopes de Mendon$a. 
Francisco Teixeira de Queiroz. 
Jos6 Duarte Ramalho Ortigao. 
Jos6 Leite de Vasconcelos. 
Aniceto dos Reis Gon9alves Viana. 


Achinese or Atjeh 


Annamite or Annamese 





Batta or Batak 



















Laskhari- Hindustani 








































. . Hindi 








Laskari- Hin- 


. . Batta 





















. . Sindhi 
















. . Tamil 



Malay al. 



. . Teto 


. . Telugu 


. . Galoli 






. . Tulu 


Pidgin- English 




. . Chinese 














. . Tibetan 


. . Rabbinical 


. . Khassi 


. . Turkish 







AT., Arab. 









Cf. (confer) 








et. seq. 


f., fern. 





Geo. Soc. 

Hak. Soc. 







Id. (idem) 






inter j . 










L. Hindust. 





m., maso. 








Malay al. 






n., neut. 

and the follow- 









op. cit. 















Hakylut Society 


the same 

opere citato 






. . Tamil 

q. v. (quod vide) 

which see * < 

> Tel. 

. . Telugu 




. . Teto 




. . Tonkinese 




. . Tulu 




. . verb 



v f int. 

. . verb, intransi- 

s. v. 

sub voce 




v. trans. 

. . verb transitive 



vid. (vide) 

. . see 



avdna&. avdn& 9 avdne; vern. 
terms fuvanpata, pavan-atta, 

M^.y of the Sinhalese 
nou v ir, and especially those de- 
rive r J from foreign sources, 
whbi dre of the neuter gender, 
as are .ill those which denote in- 
anim/ <$ objects, take the suffix 
-7/a,--f!r -va, if they end in -u, 
<s. gunaya ( ( quality ') from 
the Mnsk. guna ; tdlaya ('tone') 
fr >m the Sansk. tola; gara- 
*fo$% j(* rail ing') from the Port. 
gr^i i ; stnuva (' bell ') from the 
Poio. sino ; bebaduva (' drunk- 
ard') from the Port, bebado. 
In tl> middle of a word -ya 
conK %<3 itself usually in g 
long : janelaya, janele (pi. 
janela) from the Port, janela 
(* a window ') ; kamisaya, 
kamise (pi. kamisa) from the 
Port, camisa (* a shirt '). 

Abita (naut., bitts ; fixed 
wooden or iron pin for fasten- 
ing the cable). L.-Hindust. 
abit, habit. Mai. obit (Aristide 
Mar re). 

Abdbora (Cucurbita Pepo\ 
a gourd, a pumpkin). Konk. 
bhoblo ; bobr (us. in Salsete, a 
district of Goa). Bhobli, the 
plant. Mar. bhopld, bhofapld. 
Bhopli, bhompli, the plant. 

Jap. bobura. Ar. bobra, bubra, 
according to Simonet. 1 

In Konkani, bhoblo is used 
figuratively of * a man who is 
fat and lacking muscle/ In 
Konkani, as well as in Marathi, 
the term is used to denote the 
body of certain stringed instru- 
ments, because it is generally 
made of the gourd hollowed 
out, as of the viqd, * the Indian 
lyre,' the salar, ' the guitar, 5 the 
nagsur, 4 bagpipe.' 

With regard to the bh as- 
pirate, cf . cruz, camisa, buraco. 
The loss of the initial a is not 
abnormal, as can be seen in 
the Indo-Port. bobra ; cf. 
acafelar. The substitution of 
the cerebral I for r may have 
resulted from the word having 
found its way into the speech 
of the common people, or may 
also be due to the fact that 
there is a tendency towards 
such a change both in Konkani 
and Marathi. The nasalisation 
of the first syllable in Marathi 
(bhd) has parallels in pimp 

1 Dr. Hugo Schuchardt (Kreoliache 
Studien, ix) says that in the Malay 
spoken in Timor bobera is Cttcurbita 
Melopepo (* the musk melon ') ; but 
Teto and Galoli dictionaries do not 
mention the word. 



from the Port, pipa (' barrel '), 
phint from the Port, fita 
( ( ribbon ') . 

The etymology of the word 
abobora, which is used only in 
the Iberic Peninsula and then 
not in the whole of it has not 
till now been definitely estab- 
lished by lexicographers , The 
Portuguese dictionary, Con- 
temporaneo, says its derivation 
is uncertain ; Dr. Adolfo Coelho 
is of the opinion that it is from 
aboborar, 'to turn soft like 
over ripe fruit'; Can dido de 
Figueiredo derives it from Low 
Latin apopres, which does not 
find a mention in the Glossa- 
rium of Du Cange ; Francisco 
Simonet asserts that it is from 
the Hispano-Latin or Iberic 
apopores, mentioned by St. 
Isidore, Bk. XVII, ch. 10, as 
equivalent to the cucurbita. 

If the word was taken over 
from Portugal, as I believe it 
was, 1 and introduced into the 

1 "They brought many aboboras 
and cucumbers." Roteiro da Viagem 
de Vasco da Qama, 2nd. ed., p. 92. 

Brinjelas, lemons, abobaras, 

which articles none may sell in retail 
except the farmer of this excise, or 
some one who has his permission." 
SimSo Botelho, Tombo do Eatado da 
India, p. 49. 

Konkan country an<!l into 
Japan, at the same time as the 
plant, whose place of origin 
says Dr. D. G. Dalgadoiin his 
Flora of Ooa and Savantvadi is 
uncertain, it is remarkatle that 
it should have given rise in 
Marathi to so many figura- 
tive compounds, with diiferent 
meanings, enumerated by Mo- 
lesworth, who does not, how- 
ever, say what the origin of 
the word is. These are : ohom- 
pld-devatd, ""ft tom-bojs a 
hoyden." Bhompld-suti (adj.), 
" coarse, gross, rude, rough, 
disorderly, slovenly." Bhom- 
pli-kharbuz, "a species of 
musk melon." Bhomplyd-rog, 
" corpulency, obesity." 

There are vernacular terms 
for the other varieties of the 
pumpkin : dudhi, konkno 
dudhi, maharo dudhi, kalo 
dudhi, kumvalo, in Konkani ; 
kovhald, kuSmand, kai-phal t 
dudhyd, kald dudhyd, devdan- 

" Melons, aboboras of Portugal 
and of Guinea, water melons and 
combalengas." Gabriel Rebelo, In/or- 
ma$ao das Coutas de Maltico, in Collec- 
Q&O de Nolicias para a Historia e Geo- 
graphia das Na&ea UUramarinas, Vol. 
XII, p. 172. [Combalenga is a species 
of pumpkin. ] 



gar, in % rathi ; tonasu, kabo- 
cha (.-Kamboja), in Japa- 

jji *he Portuguese dialects 
in ;W\ abobora is corrupted 
into b& a > b br- 

AbfH (April). Konk. Ibril. 
r Cet . Gal. Abril Mai. April 
(M;r'i- See Agosto. 

\^,hmr (to finish). Konk. 
ka'4 -b (trunk, kabdr-zavunk. 
-," >g. M&dr (,m6s.), the 
la^ ; 'ay of the month. In 
I'.,./! Uritani mdjkabdr. See ?nes 
^t*i^ Jl&bson-Jobson, s. v. inas- 

In the Indo -Portuguese dia- 
lect the initial a of acabar be- 
comes eliminated, whence the 
form cabd. 

Acafelar (to plaster ; Indo- 
Port, has the formca/?a). Konk. 
kaphlar-karunk ; vern. term 
chuno-kas kadhunk. Guj. ka- 
phldd (us. as a subst. meaning 
' plaster, lime '). Sinh. kapal- 
druva* Malayal. kabalarikka 
(' to bind stones or bricks with 
a mixture of lime, sand and 
water ') us. in Southern Mala- 

1 " Kabocha (pumpkins) must have 
been introduced from Cambodia." 

2 In Sinhalese, vd is the infinitive 

bar. 8 Mai. kdpor (us. as a 
subst.). 4 

Konkani adds karunk (' to 
do' or 'to make') to the 
transitive verbs in Portuguese 
and zavuhk (' to become ') to 
the intransitive. The excep- 
tion is the Konkani form 
pintarunk. ' to paint ', from the 
Port, pintar (' to paint '). The 
change of / into p is normal in 
Sinhalese which has no corres- 
ponding sound, ph being p 
aspirate, as in Sanskrit ; cf. 
adufa. In Malay alam, as well 
as in Tamil, the surd inter- 
vocalic consonant (Jfc, f, p) 
becomes resonant (g, d, 6). 

A5afrao (saffron ; Indo- 
Port. employs the forms safrao, 
safran). Guj. japhran. Siam. 
fdran. Jap. safuranJ* 

Acerca (prep., about, con- 
cerning). Mai. acerca (Haex). 

Haex does not, as a rule 

3 Ikka is the termination of the infi- 
nitive. Cf. capar. 

* " The tomb of the King of Cochin's 
mother was acafelada with lime and 
fragrant waters." Gaspar Correia, 
Lendas, III, p. 714. 

6 " Mauamotapa sent word that 
Diogo SimOes should send him as 
presents aafrao from Portugal, soap 
pottery....' Antonio Bocarro, Deo. 
XII, p. 588. 



indicate the exact pronuncia- 
tion of Portuguese words, 
taken over into Malay, nor 
does he employ any special 
diacritical marks. He says, 
" the words are entered here 
(in his dictionary) not as they 
are written or joined together, 
but as they are pronounced." 

Achar (an Indo-Port. term 
used to signify 'fruits conserved 
in vinegar or salt,' equivalent 
to the English ' pickles') . Mar. 
achdr ; vern. term lonchem (as 
in Konkani). Hindi, Hindust. 
achdr. Or., Ass., Punj. achdr. 
Sindh. achdru ; vern. names 
athdno, sandhano. Sinh. ach- 
chdr. Anglo-Ind. achar. 
Indo-Fr. achar, achars. Mai. 
achar. Tet., Gal achdr, asdr ; 
vern. term budu. 

The word has its origin in 
the Persian achdr ; it was 
probably met with by the 
Portuguese in the Malay Penin- 
sula and introduced by them 
into the other languages, 
directly or indirectly. The 
authors of Hobson-Jobson 
think it likely that Western 
Asiatics got it originally from 
the Latin acetaria. 

It is worthy of note that the 
term did not find its way into 

Konkani, although cur^ n t in 
the Portuguese dialect o fjoa. 1 

A^oitar (to whip). MaL 
a$otar (Haex). 

In Konkani salt is u^d in 
the sense of * a whip,j and 
saitdr-kddhunk is ' to w 1 ^ ' 

Acudir (to aid, to ;. ,^st). 
Mai. cudir (Haex). T*t <} a l. 

Adem (a duck). ] h? ul ml. 
ddi. Tet. rdde. 

Adeus (adieu). Koi-:. >?des; 
the vern. term in vogue * *< w 
the Hindus is Ram-Ran . uul 
saldm among the Moham- 
medans. Ades karunk, ' to bow 
in token of salutation.' Tet., 
Gal. ad ens ; vern. term bd- 
6na. 2 

1 "When it (Semecarpus anacar- 
dium) is green they make a conserve 
of it with salt (which they call achar), 
and this they sell in the market, as we 
do olives." Garcia da Orta, Coloquioa 
dos Simples e Drogas da fndia, Col. v. 
[ed. Sir Clements Markham, p. 33]. 
" Achar, appetizing curry, and con 
serves in salt." Dr. A. O. de Castro, 
Florea de Coral, p. 137. 

2 From Ram-Ram Gon9alves Viana 
derives the Portuguese ramerrao 
[* onomatopoeic sound suggesting 
routine or every day affair*]. See 
Apostilas aoa Diciondrios Portugueses. 
The same writer admits in Palestrae 
Filol6gicas that "it is possible that 
this curious word may have come 



Adr > { hurch-yard). Konk. 
ddr. "tiiuil ddru. 

Adi fa (lattice, shutter; in 
the P.or'j. dialect of Goa 
adufo \?. also used). Konk. 
aduph,- -Binh. aduppuva, adip- 
puva. , , r 

Th*? "word is used to denote 
the ^ in;| dow shutters commonly 
fitter' (writh the shells of the 
mol] w j bhing, and, therefore, 
called in Konkani bhingajyo 

(lawyer). Kon. 

fi'*:$*:i (the term more in 
vogue in this sense is letrdd) : 
vern. term vakil (1. us. in 
Goa). Tet., Gal. advogddu ; 
vern. term sori. 

Afonsa (the name of a 
variety of the mango- 
fruit, also known as the 
* Alphonso mango'). Konk. 
aphons, liphonsacho ambo. 
Mar. aphos. Guj. aphus. 
Anglo-Ind. afoos. 

The art of mango-grafting 
was introduced into India by 

originally from the chorus of some 
song, which became very popular 
among the people." 

1 | 4< The house in which he lived was 
storied and very beautiful, with hand- 
some windows and adufas, and it all 
looked like a toy." Fr. Caspar da 
Cruz, Tractodo da China, oh. 13. I 

the Portuguese, and the 
varieties of the grafted trees 
and their fruit are differen- 
tiated by Portuguese names, 
which are, sometimes, con- 
verted into the feminine form. 
See Carreira, Colaqa, Peres. 2 

Agosto (the month of Aug- 
ust). Konk. Agost. ?Bihari 
has Agaat (which probably 
owes its origin to the English 
' August,' in the same way as 
does Oktubar or Oktobar). 
Sinh. AgSstu. Mai. Agost" 
Agustu. Tel., Gal. Ag6stu. 

In Goa, as well as in Timor, 
the Portuguese names of the 

2 Other varieties with Portuguese 
names, which are in vogue only in Goa, 
are: Bispo, Costa, Doirada, Dom 
Bernardo, Dom Filipe, Fernandina, 
Ferrtlo, Malagesta, Monserrate, Papel 
Branco, Rebelo, Reinol, Salgada, 
Satyadinha, Santo Antonio, Sacratina, 
Temuda (in Konkani, Chimbud), 
Xavier, Bem-curada, Mal-Curada, etc. 

[The manner in which Portuguese 
names of different varieties of the 
mango are disfigured, almost beyond 
recognition, may be seen from the fol- 
lowing quotation taken from a descrip- 
tion o! a * Mango Show ' held in Bom- 
bay which appeared in the Times of 
India, Hth May, 1928. " Mr. Bodke's 
silver medals were for Mankulas, 

Mushrad Real Pyree " 

* Mankulas/ ' Mushrad,' and Pyree 
are, no doubt, the Portuguese A/a/- 
curada, Monseratte, and Per**.] 




months are in use ; outside 
Goa (in Kanara, Savantvadi, 
Malvan) and in other lang- 
uages, English names of the 
months are adopted. Indian 
months are lunar and do not 
coincide with the European 
months. Some of the Malay 
names, like Julu, Mdrsu, testify 
very clearly to their Portuguese 
source ; the origin of others is 
doubtful, as of Jun, Octuber. 

In Sinhalese, Mdrtu, Juni, 
Juli, are evidently from the 
Dutch, Maart, Junnij, Julij. 
The names of the other months 
may be either Dutch or 

Agradecer (to thank). Mai. 
agradecer (Haex). Tet., Gal. 

Agua benta (' Holy water '). 
Konk. ag-bent ; more common- 
ly used is dlmet. Beng. ag- 
bent. Mai. aguabenta (Haex). 
[In Konkani the form alment is 
also met with.] 

In the Indo-Portuguese dia- 
lects dgua is contracted into 
dgu or ag, and bento into bent. 
In almet, I takes the place of g 
and m of 6, with the absorption 
of the nasal following. 

The Hindus call their sacred 
water by such names as tirth, 

gangd, gangodak. Thj3 Chris- 
tians could have used Ahe term 
pavitr udak, in the salne way 
as in Teto they speak of be 
sardni, ' water Nazarfene or 
Christian, i.e., Holy.' f 

[Aguila, Aquila (tli e name 
of an aromatic wood, Adwilaria 
Agallocha, Roxb. or of Mloexyl- 
lum Agallochum, gro\ Vn in 
Cochin China and at o^ jie time 
highly prized in EVirope). 
Anglo-Ind. eagle-wow!, -I -Indo- 
Fr. bois d'aigle. 1 , H " 

1 f " There (in Champa, coast of 
Cochin China) also grows abundance 
of aloes-wood which the Indians call 
Aguila Calambua. Barbosa, The Book, 
ed. Longworth Dames, Vol. II, p. 
209. ] 

[" In Ceylon there is a wood with 
a scent (which we call aguila brava), 
as we have many another wood with 
a scent; and at one time that wood 
used to be exported to Bengala under 
the name of aguila brava ; but since 
then the Bengalas have grown more 
knowing, and buy it no longer...." 
Garcia da Orta, Coll. xxx ; ed. Mark- 
ham p. 254,] 

[" A big bon-fire of sandal-wood, 
Aaquila, and other aromatic woods.'* 
DamiSo de G6is, Chronica de D. 
Manuel, II, ch. 6.] 

[" From the bois <T aigle, which 
is more or less perfect, according as it 
is more or less resinous. " Raynal, 
Histoire, II, p. 41, cit. in Oloasario.'] 

["The eagle- wood, a tree yield- 




The etyifrtaon is the Malayal. 


agil, fr<;* '0 Hindi agar, Sansk. 
aguru (!* 'U not weighty ; light ') 
or agar u <> l^vhich gave gahdru or 
gdru in Ma^lay. The Portuguese 
converted $ the Mayalal. agil 
into dgpW> which again some 
of thel^^er writers corrupted 
^, which in Anglo- 
Indo-Fr. was mis- 
respectively into 
and bois d'aigle. 
(See ffofason-Jobson, s. v. eagle- 
woojfif ^d Gloss. Luso-Asiatico, 

>''> XT ' I 

*.;. W i^la, dquila, also Garcia 
da 4 4)^, Coll. xxx)]. 

Aia {' dry-nurse '). Konk., 
Mar., Guj., Hindust., Sinh. 
dyd. Or., Beng., Ass. aiyd. 
Tel. dyd. Tul dya. Anglo- 
Ind. ayah. Khas. aiah. Mai. 

ing uggur oil, is also much sought for 
its fragrant wood, which is carried to 
Silhet, where it is broken and dis- 
tilled*'. Hooker, cit. in Hobson-Job- 

[" The fragrant wood call ' aloes' 
in Proverbs, VII, 17, etc., was the 
Aguillaria Agallocha, the Hebrew word 
for which ahalim or ahaloth, is evi- 
dently derived from the Tamil-Mala- 
yalam form of the word, aghil, than 
from the Sanskrit agaru, though both 
are ultimately identical. " Caldwell, 
Comparative Grammar, p. 92 (1875), 
oit. in Qlossario.] 

dya, 1 \ * Indian wet-nurse.' See 
ama. \ 

Simonet finds a remarkable 
similarity between aia (Basque 
zayd) and the Arabic-Persian 
daya, * midwife, a nurse.' In 
the Indo-Portuguese of Goa 
daia is used in the sense of 
' a midwife ' ; the same also is 
the case in Teto. 

The adoption of the word, 
aia, must be attributed to the 
fact that there was no corres- 
ponding term current, which 
was as simple as this. 2 

Ajoelhar (to kneel ; the 
archaic form of the word 
is ageolhar). Mai. ingeolar 
(Haex), injiolar. 

The etymon of ingiolar is 
evidently engeolhar, which, if 
it is not another archaic Portu- 
guese form, must have been 
derived from em geolhos (' on 
knees ') used, since the sixteenth 
century, in the bastard varie- 
ties of the Portuguese language 

1 " The other day, early in the 
morning, the aya who had the care 
of her, went to the place to look for 
her." FernSo Pinto, Peregrincqdes, 
ch. cxcix. 

2 Aydl in Tamil is a vernacular 
term ; it means * mother, wet nurse, 
maternal grandmother. ' 




current in the East. 1 The 
modern Portuguese dialect of 
Malacca has injabel, injubel, 
' on one's knees, to kneel ' ; 
that of Singapore : injilhd ' to 
kneel ' ; of Ceylon : injoelho, 
injivelho, injevejo, in jive jo 
(adv.), ' on one's knees, having 
knelt ' ; that of Damaun : in- 
joelh, * on one's knees, having 
knelt ' ; of Bombay : injvelh, 

* on one's knees ' (pusd injcvelh, 
' to kneel ') ; of Macau : dizelo, 
from de joelhos, ' on one's 
knees.' 2 

Bengali has injuvel^ enjil, 

* knee ', used by the Christians. 
Enjil deon l to kneel. 5 

Ajudante (assistant, adju- 
tant). Konk. djuddnt (us. in a 
restricted sense). Mai. aju- 

Ajudar (to assist, to help). 
Konk. djuddr-karunk (especial- 
ly in the sense of * serving 
Mass ' ) ; vern. terms ddhdr 
divunk, hdt divunk. Tet., Gal. 

1 " Ho stood em giolhos (' on his 
knees') with his hands raised aloft." 
Joao de Barros, Dec. II, x, 3. 

2 Of . impe (' to be on one's leg'), 
impedo, itnpido (' being on one's leg ') 
in the Portuguese dialect of Ceylon ; 
impc, in that of Cochin ; and empido, 
in that of Macau. 

In Teto and G 

does not exist the 

on this account the 1 

j is replaced by d ; 

have : kreda from P< 

(' church '), duiz fr 

juiz (' judge'), ka 

caju (Anacardium oc 
Alar (to haul). L. 

did (us. only in the ii 


Alampada (a lai 

church). Beng. dlam 

among the Christiai 


Alavanca (hand spi 
as lever for moving heavy 
bodies). Konk. lavang ; from 
this has arisen the expression 
lavangdm pdrayo ulaahk, which 
is figuratively equivalent to 
uttering high-sounding words, 
or undertaking a work beyond 
one's scope or powers. Sinh. 
alavdnguva. Tarn . alavdngu. 
Mai. alabanka, albanka. 
Gal. lavanka? 

In Konkani the term is only 
used of the big han^ -spike ; 

3 " The Governor ordered the 
factor Gaspar Paes to get ready plenty 
of lime, timber, mattocks, alavancas, 
pickaxes, mortar-pans, baskets, bar- 
rows for the fortress." Gaspar Correia 
Lenda8 t III, p. 619. 




[In his Olossario Luso- 
As., the author expresses his 
doubts regarding the Gujarati 
origin which he had ascribed 
to the word in the present 
work. The word under various 
forms is found in several 
languages all over India. 
Marathi has balyamv, Gujarati, 
baliyan, Bengali, baulia (used 
chiefly in Chatigao), Malay, 
balang, the meaning of which 
does not square with that of 
baldo. He thinks it very prob- 
able that the birth-place of 
the Portuguese baldo was Mala- 
bar and that its original is the 
Ta mil-Malay alam vallam , ' ' a 
canoe hollowed out from the 
trunk of a tree" (Percival); and 
this is the primary meaning of 
the word. It is not unlikely 
that the Malays received the 
word, like other names of 
boats such as paran and leaped^ 
from the people of Southern 
India, before the arrival of the 
Portuguese. Fryer uses the 
English variant of the word, 
viz., k balloon,' in the sense 
of a 'Barge of State'. See 
East India and Persia (Hak. 
Soc.), I, p. 182. It is evi- 
dently in this very meaning 
that the word is used in 


Siam for the O.E.D. describes 
it as " a Siamese state-barge, 
upwards of a hundred feet 
long, and richly decorated ".] 

Balchao ('a species of 
caviare 5 ). Koiik. balchdmv. 
Beng., Tarn, balcham. Anglo- 
Ind. balachong, blachong. 

From the Malay balachdn, it 
was introduced by the Portu- 
guese, and employed in the 
Portuguese dialects of Asia 1 . 

Balde (a bucket). Konk., 
Mar., Guj. bdldi. Beng., 
Hindust., L.-Hindust. bdldi, 
balti. Sinh. bdldiya, bdliya. 
Tarn, bdldi. Tel. baldi, bddli. 
Tul. bdldi. Anglo-Ind. baity. 
Gar. balti, baltin. -Mai., 
Tet., Gal. bdldi. 

The etymology of balde is not 
clear. The Portuguese diction- 
ary, Oontemporaneo, derives 
it from Low Latin batellus, and 
Candido de Figueiredo asso- 
ciates it, in a doubtful manner, 
with baldo (* unprovided, pen- 
niless ') . Gasper Correia 
regards the word as new and 
assigns to it an Indian origin. 

1 " Besides this the bilirnbina (q. v.) 
are useful in the prepai ation of appet- 
ising balchao." B. F. da Costa, 
Agricultor Indiana, II, p. 216. 




" All this our men will see for 
themselves in the port of 
Cananor, in which there are 
very large vessels, which the 
Captains will send their men to 
see, so that they might give an 
account of everything they 
had seen when they go to 
Portugal ; on these ships there 
are no pumps, only some pails 
made of thick cow's hide, 
tanned in such a way, that 
they last long, and with these 
they bale the water out by 
hand ; these pails they call 
baldes (I, p. 123). 

" Luis de Mello de Mendoga 
set out with his companions to 
help at the baldes, with which j 
they began to bale out the ! 
water " (1546). Diogo de Couto, 
Dec. VI., iii, 3. 

Indian dictionary- writers 
give the Portuguese word as 
the original : " Baity, s. H. 
balti, ' a bucket ', is the Portu- 
guese balde ". Hobson-Jobson. 
B&lsamo (balsam, oint- 
ment) Konk. bdlsm. Hindust. 
balsdn.'i Mai. balasan (Ar.) 
? Mac., Bug. balasdng. Jap. 
hdrsan, barnsamo. Ar. balsam, 
balsam, bolasdn, bolsdn. 

Baluarte (bulwark). Mai. 

baluvdrdi. Jav. baluvdrli, ba- 
lovdrti y balurti. 

Bambu (bot., Bambusa vul- 
yaris\ bamboo). Anglo-Ind. 
bamboo, [bambou]. Indo-Fr. 
bambou. 1 

The origin of the word is 
very obscure. Marsden men- 
tions it as a pure Malay word ; 
but the common name for it is 
buluh. Crawfurd considers it 
to be a term that belongs to 
the west coast of Sumatra. 
Wilson regards it as coming 
from the Kanarese, and Reeve 
mentions it as such ; but the 
usual terms are biduru (Tulu 
beduru) and gala. It appears 
to me that the most probable 
source of the word is the 
Marathi bambu (the same in 
Gujarati), which is the generic 
and common name of the 

The form mambu, which 
occurs in the Portuguese 
chroniclers, might have been 

i " They regarded death as certain 
either from the blows of Bambus (lit. 
* from scourges of bamboos'), or from 
perpetual captivity in the prisons of 
Oantom." Lucena, Bk. X, ch. 26. 

" He wished to reduce the weight 
by taking away from the canga (q. v.) 
a bambu. " A. F. Cardim, p. 199. 




really in use then in the Kon- 
kan, as the authors of Hobson- 
Jobson suppose, and the present 
day Konkani term man 
(' bamboo ') would then re- 
present the contraction of the 
word; or it might be due to 
dissimilation in the mouth of 
the Portuguese. 1 Inversely, 
Bombaim is due to the assimil- 
ation of Mombaim, a form 
employed by Barbosa, Botelho 
Garcia: the vernacular name 
is Mumbai, a corruption of 
Alumbadevi, k the Goddess 
Mumba'. See Gerson da Cunha, 
The Origin of Bombay. 

[The earlier Portuguese 
writers of the sixteenth century 
speak of the bamboo by the 
generic name of * cana ' or 
' cana de India. Barbosa (1516) 
refers to " some canas in India 
which are as thick as a man's 
leg". Cit. in Qlossario.'] 

1 " The people where it grows call it 
fHicar-mambunii which means * sugar of 
tnnmbuin' 1 : because the Indians of the 
place where it grows called the canes 
of that plant maw/m." Garcia da 
Orta, Col. ii. [ed. Markhara, p. 410. 
Bambu in Goa is also ' a measure of 
length,' and the early Portuguese 
writers when referring to it in connec- 
tion with China mean * a scourge of 
bamboos'. (See citation above from 
Lucena). ] 

Banana (the fruit of Musa 
Sapientum, L., plantain). 
Anglo-Ind. banana (1. us.) 
Indo-Fr. banane,, bananier. l 

The Portuguese called the 
bananas, by analogy, ' the 
figs of India ', and as fi,gos they 
are known over the whole 
range of AsioPortugiiese 
dialects, which also employ 
figueira, ' the banana- tree', and 
figueiral, ' a plantation of the 
banana-tree,' and in Goa also 
bananeira (' the banana-tree ') . 
Tome Lopes, who sailed for 
India in 1502, compares bana- 
nas with figs : "A species of 
figos long and big like small 
cucumbers, which is one of the 
most savoury fruits that can be 
had in the world ". 2 Of. the 
German Paradicsfeige* 

1 "There is in China such an 
abundance of mangoes, curambola.i 
(q.r ), jack-fruit, water melon->, 
bananas, and all Indian fruits. 
Lucena, Bk. X, ch. IS. 

2 Navega^no das Indian Orientaes, 
in the Collection of Ramusio, tran- 
slated by the Lisbon Academy of 
Sciences, ch. vi. 

"Another fruit which is like fiyo* 
(' figs ') and has a fine taste/' Roleiro 
de Vasco da Gama> p. <>(). 

3 ' In Mombasa there are many 
kinds of limes, pomegranates, Indian 
figos, and all kinds of vegetables. " 




It is not known for certain 
when and by whom the word 
' banana ' was introduced into 
India, which, according to 
Garcia da Orta, came from 
Guinea. " They also have 
figs in Guinea, where they call 
them bananas." l It appears 
that the term made its entry 

Du.u-te Barbosa, Livro p. 23'.). [Hak. 
Soc., ed. Longworth Dames, Vol. 1, 
p. 21J. 

" Bannanes which the Portuguese 
call Indian figs." Pyrard de Laval, 
Voyage, W.I. fITak. Soc. Vol. !, p. 

'- Hr ordered cooked rice to be 
served out thoro, and this they served 
upon the green leaves of the figucira 
('the bamma-troo '), which arc broad 
like a sheet of paper." (2aspnr 
Correia, I, 17. 

1 "It is possible that there is reason 
for this; it can safely be said that 
the word is not Asiatic in origin, and 
it does not appear to bo 
American/' Condw de Kinalho, Col. 

" But it is the commonest fruit 
which is to be found evory whore all 
Mia year round, and in groat abund- 
ance, not only in these Tndiea (West), 
but also in our India, arid nil over 
Guinea and Brazil, whore it exists, and 
where wo yaw more and better 
specie* than these, and where they call 
them ptmtfanoa, and in our Imlififigoft. 
and in Brazil bananas." Padre 
Gabriel Afonso, in Hinloria tragico- 
mantima. Vol. VI, p. 50. 

(through the Portuguese ?) in 
the seventeenth century as 
being more appropriate, or, 
rather, to mark the difference 
between the fruit of the Musa 
paradisiaca and of the Musa 
sapientum, now reduced to 
only one species. 1 

Anglo-India employs gener- 
ally the term * plantain ', which 
is a corruption of the Spanish 
plantano, another name for the 
* banana.' See goiaba. 

[Mocquet, Voyages (ed. 
1645), calls ' bananas ' fiques 
de platane. Watt (The, Com- 
mercial Products of India) 
says : " The name * banana ' 
is very seldom used by the 
English in India, though it is 
universal in the fruit-shops of 
England. In India all kinds 
are indiscriminately called 
plantains." Yule quotes 
Robertson Smith, the great 
Arabic scholar, who points out 
that the coincidence of the 
name ' banana ' with the Ar. 
banan, 'fingers 01 toes', and 
banana, 'a single finger or toe' f 

l ** Books distinguish between the 
Musa sapientiim or plantain, and the 
Musa paradisiaca ; but it is hard to 
understand where the line is supposed 
to be drawn." Hobson-Jobson. 




can scarcely be accidental. 
The fruit grew in Palestine be- 
fore the Crusades ; and, though 
it is known in literature as 
mauz, it would not follow from 
this that it was not somewhere 
popularly known as ' fingers '. 
He thinks it possible that the 
Arabs, through whom probably 
the fruit found its way to W. 
Africa, may have transmitted 
a name like this. To this 
Dalgado says that it is hardly 
credible that the word should 
have crossed over from Arabia 
to West Africa without leaving 
any trace of itself in the 
languages of the East Coast. 
See Glossario, Vol. T, p. 90.] 

Banco (wooden seat, bench). 
Kpnk., Mar., Guj., L.-Hindust., 
Beng. bank. Sinh. bdnkuva. 
Tarn, bdnku. Tel. bankati. 
Tul., Mai., Sund., Jav. bdnku. 
Ach. bankt. Mad., Day. 
banko. Tet., Gal. bdnku Jap. 
banko. j Turk, bdnqa \ . 

In Konkani, Teto and Galoli, 
the term is also used of ' a 
commercial bank '. The other 
Indian languages adopt the 
English ' bank '. 

Banda (side ; also an orna- 
mental band round the waist). 

Konk. band ; vern. terms 
ku6, bagal\ kamarband. Tet. 
banda ; vern. term kalum. 

Bandeira (flag.) Konk- 
bander ; vern. terms bavjo, 
dhajd.MAl., 1 Batt., Sund., 
Bal. bandem. Jav. banderd, 
gandtro*. Day. bandtra. Ha- 
bandera, to carry the flag- 
Handera , to hoist the flag. 
Mac., Bug. bandem. Paban- 
dera, a flagstaff (pa is a prefix). 
Tet., Gal. bandeira ; vern. 
term sair. Ar. bandeira, ban- 
dera, bandira, bandaira. 
| Turk, bdndara; vern. terras 
bdyraq, sdnjaq. 

Bandeja (a tray). Konk. 
bandej ; vern. term tat vaji. 
Sinh. bandesiya. Anglo-Ind. 
bandejah ( Mai. bandeja, 
bandeya ; vern. terms tdlan, 
tarana. Mac., Tet., Gal. ban" 

Bando (in the sense of * a 

1 " Bander or tfanderra, flag (tiung- 
fiander, fla^-maat)." A. O. da ('astro, 
Florev de Coral. 

2 " Tti Javanese the substitution 
of a labial by a guttural is very fre- 
quent. ' ' Hoy ligers. 

3 ' We placed the letter and books 
in a gilt bandeja from China, and 
with the bandeja in hand we made 
four profound bows." A. F. Oardim, 
p. 80. 




proclamation'). Konk. band] 
vern. terms dahgoro, dandoro. 
Tet., Gal. bdndu. 

Bandola (a shoulder-belt). 
Mai., Mac., Bug. bandola, 
banddla. Ach. banddla. 

[Banean, Banian (a Jain 
trader, and especially of the 
Province of Gujarat or Cam- 
bay). Anglo-Ind. Banyan. 1 

The word was adopted from 
Guj. vaniyo, sing., vaniya, pi. 
(which form appears to be the 

1 ["And in this kingdom (of 
GSuzerate) there is another sort oi 
Heathen whom they cnll Baneanes, 
who are great merchants and traders 

This people eats neither flesh 

nor fish, nor anything subject to 
death ; they slay nothing, nor are they 
willing even to see the slaughter of 

any animal " Duarle Barbosa, 

The Book, ed. Longworth Dames, Vol. 
I, p. 110.] 

[" the Banianes of Cambaia 

which observe Pythagoras lawe " 

Linschoten, Voyage (Hak. Soc.), Vol. 
T, p. 223.] 

f" The baniani are a certain class 
of Hindus who eat neither flesh nor 
fish, and consume grain, vegetables, 

milk, and a great deal of butter 

If the talk is of business, they give a 
ready answer, and are such strong 
arithmeticians that in the shortest 
time they can make any sort of calcu- 
lation, never making a mistake of 
a single figure, They hold it a sin to 
kill any animal." Manucci, Storia do 
Magor, 1, pp. 155-156.] 

immediate source of the Port, 
word), which itself comes from 
the Sansk. vanij, * a trader ', 
and vaniy-jana, * a tradesman'. 
Yule thinks that it is probable 
that the Portuguese found the 
word already in use by the 
Arab traders. Among the 
humours of philology might 
be mentioned P. P. Vincenzo 
Maria's (1672) explanation that 
the Portuguese called the 
Hindu traders of Gujarat 
Bagnani) " because of the fre- 
quency and superstition with 
which they washed themselves 
throughout the day ". Bagndre 
in Italian means ' to bathe '. 
The early European travellers 
applied the term to the follow- 
ers of the Hindu religion 
generally. The old Portuguese 
writers, with the exception oi 
da Orta, say that " all the 
baneanes follow the doctrine oi 
Pythagoras ", whereas the 
truth is that Pythagoras drew 
a large part of his doctrine 
from India. There is a thirci 
sense in which the term is 01 
was used in Calcutta, viz., oi 
an Indian broker who is gener 
ally attached to Europear 
business houses in India. 
One compound in which 




* banyan ' figures is the 
' Banyan-tree ' (Ficus Indica) , 
called in Hindi bar, and in 
Guj. vad. "The Franks call 
it the tree of the Banians, 
because, in places where there 
are any of these trees, the 
idolaters sit under them and 
cook there. They reverence 
them specially, and generally 
build their pagodas either 
under or close to one of 
the great trees." (Tavernier, 
Travels in India, Ox. Univ. 
Press, Vol. II, p. 155.) An- 
other more modern compound 
is " banian-hospital ", which is 
the equivalent for what is 
commonly known as pinjra- 
pole, derived, according to 
Crooke, from pinjra, a cage, 
and pola, the sacred bull re- 
leased in the name of Siva. 

The form bunya used in 
Anglo-Indian homes to describe 
the dealer in ghee and grain is 
borrowed directly from Hindi 
and not from Portuguese.] 

Bangue (' the dried leaves 
of Canabis saliva '). Anglo- 
Ind. bangue, bang. Indo-Fr. 
bangue. Pid-Engl. bangee. 1 

1 ** And the revenue from opium 
arid bangue. " Siuuto Kotelho, Tombo, 
p. 53 

The source word is the Neo- 
Aryan bhang from the Sansk. 
bhangd. [Crooke (Hobson-Job- 
aon, s. v. bang) remarks that 
though the word is usually de- 
rived from the Sansk. bhanga, 
'breaking', Burton derives 
both it and the Ar. banj from 
the old Coptic Nibanj, " mean- 
ing a preparation of hemp ; and 
here it is easy to recognise the 
Homeric Nepenthe ".J 

Baptismo (baptism : the 
old and popular form of the 
Port, word is bautismo). Konk. 
bavtijm . Beng . bavtijmd. 
Sinh. bavtitimaya.1 Mar. bap- 
tismd.? Guj. baptijhma. 
?Hindi, Hindust. baptismd. 
?Tel. baptismam.M&l&g. ba- 
tisa ? Jap. baputesuma. 

The appearance of p in 

'* And 1 will now satisfy you res- 
pucting the nature of banue, viz. 
the plant and the seed." Garcia da 
Orta, Col. viii. [ed. Markham, p. 53.] 

" In all this land of the Kaffirs 
(Cafreff) a certain lierb is grown which 
tho Kaffirs cultivate and which they 
call bangue ; it has the appearance of 
coriander run to seed." Jorto dos 
Santos, Ethiopia Oriental, Vol. I, p. 88. 
' Oh Manaraotapa banguelro ! 
(which is to say drunk, because he 
used to eat certain herbs which they 
call ban&ue, the effect of which is to 
intoxicate). Bocarro, Doc. xiii, p, 500. 




some of the words seems 
to indicate that their source is 

Baptizar (to baptise). 
Sinh. bavtiadr karaqava (lit. 
' to make to baptize '). In 
Konkani the common expres- 
sion is bavtijm divunk, ' to give 
baptism '. 

Baralhar (to shuffle cards). 
Konk. baralhdr karunk.Tet. 
bardlha : vern. term kdkul. 

Baralho (a pack of cards). 
Konk. bardlh. ? Mar., Guj., 
Pers. (according to Moles worth) 
bardt. ? Tel. baredo. In Ma- 
rathi and Persian it means 
' one of the suits of cards, se- 
quence of cards '. 

The origin of the Portuguese 
word is uncertain. Spanish 
has baraja. Hindi and Hindu- 
stani, more allied to Persian, 
do not use bardt. Oanjiphd, 
used in the Indian languages 
for 'a pack of cards', is of 
Persian origin. 

Barba (beard). Mai. barba 
(Haex) ; vern. term jdngut. 

Barca$a (a big bark or 
boat). Konk., Guj. bdrkas. 
Malayal. varkkas. Ar. bar- 
kus. 1 

1 " He boarded a big barca^a." 
Diogo de Couto, Dec. VI, iv, 5. 

Barqueta (a small bark). 
Mar. barkatd. " A small barque 
or boat, the same as barkin or 
barquinha. " Moles worth. 

Barquinha (a small boat). 
Mar. barkiq. " A little barque 
or boat of a particular des- 
cription. Barkuqi (current 
in the Malwdn-pr&nt). A small 
kind of hodi or planked boat." 
Molesworth. 1 

Barracas (a rude shelter,' 
hut, tent). Tel. barkdau ; 

Barriga (belly). Mol. 
bariga, camphor of medium 
quality. 2 See cabeca and pe. 

" But the men of the barca^as and 
galleys, which now here, now there 
were firing their guns." Id., Dec. 
VIII, i, 35. 

1 " He himself carried. . . .Dom 
Andr6 in the barquinha to the shore." 
Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 486. 

2 Garcia da Orta says (Col. xii) : 
"The Hindus, Banians, and MOOFH, 
who buy this article, divide it into 
four kinds, viz., Cabeca (' head '), peito 
('breast'), pernas (Megs') and p? 
('foot'). " And Conde de Ficalho 
makes the following comment : 
" Rumphius (Herbarium Amboinense) 
also describes the qualities according 
to which it is classified : big pieces, 
each approximately as big as a nail, 
they call Cabesaa, which he says means 
4 head ' ; grains or very thin layers are 
called Barriga, or ' stomach ' ; and the 
kind in the form of powder or in very 



It is probable that the terms 
had been in use in other parts 
of Insulindia and that they are 
now obsolete. 1 

Barrete (birreta, square cap 
worn by a priest). Konk. 
barret. Tet., Gal. barreti. 

?Barrica (cask) Malag. 

Barril (barrel, cask). ,Konk. 
barl, Tet., Gal. barril. Ar. 
barmil, bermil, birmil, baramil, 
variL | Turk, vdril \ . 2 

In other languages they use 
pipa for ' barrel.' 

Barrote (beam, joist). Guj. 

Basta (verb, stop, it is 
enough). Konk. bast (1. us.); 
vern. term puro. ? Mar., 
Hindust., Sindh., Khas., Pers. 

minute grains is called Pees, which 
means *feet '. " 

1 The early Portuguese writers also 
peak of coral de perna ( coral of the 
leg-kind'). "He sent in a box a 
quintal [118 Ibs.) of coral de perna to be 
wrought. " "And a box of coral de 
perna, the best that was to be had/' 
Caspar Correia, I, pp. 89 and 101. 

*" Rumeoan went all over his army 

taking measures which seemed 

to him necessary ordering that 

the walls be covered with many barris 
(the pi. of barril} of tar. " Diogo de 
Couto, Deo. VII. iii, 10. 

bos. ? Anglo-Ind. bus. Mai. 
basta (Haex). 

Indian dictionary-writers 
give the word a Persian origin. 
[Yule does the same.] 

Bastao (staff, cane). Konk. 
bastdmv (1. us.) ; vern. terms 
bit, beto, betkathi.Sinh. 

Bastarda ('a species of old 
canon '). Bug. bisatirida. 

?Bastiao (bastion). Mai. 
bartion (Haex). 

Basto (the ace of clubs). 
Mao., Bug. basdltu. See az. 

Bata (an extra allowance 
made to soldiers or public 
officers). Anglo-Ind. batta, 
ration, foodstuffs; allowance, 

The word is Indian, and the 
corresponding Portuguese term 
employed by the old Portu- 
guese writers is mantimento 
(' subsistence money ' or 'allow- 
ance'). 1 Simao Botelho says 

1 * And there are six artisans, 
blacksmiths, who work in the smithy 
for two pardaos a month, in addition 
to their mantimento ('allowance') of 
rice, fish, fuel, as aforesaid. 1 ' Simao 
Botelho, p. 237. 

" All those who served in Malacca, 
whether by sea or land, were to be 
paid six months* salary in advance* 
and also were to receive monthly two 




(p. 237): "And for two 
ffarazes ('porters ') two pardaus 
each per month, and four 
tangas for bata." The editor of 
Botelho's Tombo do Eatado da 
India, Bodrigo Felner, remarks 
that bqta appears to stand for 
bate, i.e., ' paddy', or * rice in 
the husk'. But there is no 
error in the text ; because 
bate is itself a corruption of 
bata 9 (a), Marathi-Konkani bhdt 
Kanarese bhatta. 1 But the 
author does not use the word 
in this sense, but in that of 
' ration ', as is seen from the 
text and the item that follows : 
" And for the chief gunner, 
thirty eight thousand nine 
hundred and twenty reis per 
year, inclusive of mantimento." 
In this case, bata is the same 
as the Hindust. bhata, bhatta, 
or bhdtd ; Mar. bhatta bhata, or 
bhatim ; Konk. bhatevh. 

Reeve says that bhatta is 
a Kanarese corruption of a 
Sansk. word, which cannot be 
other than bhakta t ' food ' in 
general, and ' cooked rice ' 

cruzados towards mantimento, cash 
in hand." (Caspar Correia, II, p. 267. 
1 Of. the Portuguese cote or (cato) 
from kdta ('catechu'), betele from 
vettila (< betel-leaf '). 

in particular, which is the 
principal diet of the Indian 
people. 1 In this last accepta- 
tion bhdt (masc.) is current in 
Hindustani and Marathi ; but 
in Konkani it is less used than 
iit ; in Sinhalese bhakta, batta t 
and bat. 

With the lapse of time bhdt 
(neut.) came to be the prevail- 
ing name in Marathi and Kon- 
kani of ' rice in the husk ' and 
of the ' rice-plant ' itself, sup- 
planting other terms like sal, 
dhdni it then passed into 
Kanarese and was found side 
by side with the vernacular 

Naturally, bhdt in its two- 
fold meaning, of 4 cooked rice ' 
and * rice in the husk ', did not 
take long to designate, first, 
' ration of cooked rice' then, 
' uncooked rice ' or ' money 
to buy the allowance of un- 
cooked rice ', and finally, 
* food-stuffs, allowances, gra- 
tuities '. And to denote these 

1 " In Calicut there is little rice, 
which is the chief mantimento ('staple 
food"), as wheat is among us.** 
Castanheda I, ch. 73. 

2 NbH is used in the Port, dialect of 
Malacca, and Candido de Figueiredo 
mentions it as a term old and inedited. 




secondary meanings, it as- 
sumed, in Marathi and Kon- 
kani, the specific form of 
bhattm. See Hobson-Jobson. 

[Prom a citation made by 
Dalgado in his Glossario (Ap- 
pendix) from P. E. Pieris, 
The Kingdom of Jafanapatam, 
p. 4., it is perfectly clear 
that Simao Botelho, in the 
aforesaid work, used bata 
in the sense of * allowance', 
and not in that of 'paddy'. 
" The Canarese sailors were 
allowed batta at five faname 
a month and the mocadaens 
double that amount."] 

Batalhao (battalion). Konk. 
btitalhdrtiv ; vern. term palfan 
(1. us.) Tet., Gal. batalha, 

Batao (' difference in ex- 
change ' or * agio '). Anglo-Ind. 
batta. e 

The original word is the 
Hindust. ba^du (baftd, bdttd)^ 
whence Mar. vatdv, Konk., 

Batata (potato not sweet). 
Konk. bafflo. Bafajin is used 

1 " Besides this there is the bat&o, 
which is difference in exchange or 
agio/' Ant6nio Nunes, Livro doa Pesos 
da Ytndia, p. 40. [See Hobson-Jobson 
s. v. batta (b)]. 

of a certain medicinal bulb. 
Mar. batata ; vern. term alu. 
Guj. batata. Sinh. batdla (' the 
sweet potato ', the other is 
called artapal, from Dutch). 
Malayal. batata* (" sweet 
potato", Rheede) ; vern. term 
kappalilangu. Kan. batafe ; 
vern. term uralagadde. Tul. 
batate, pafati. | * Mai. batattas 
(according to Rumphius) ; the 
vern. term is ubi castila 
(' Castilian or Spanish yam '). | 
Nic. patdta (' sweet potato '). 
Malag. batata. 

It is not probable that the 
Indian words owe their ori- 
gin to the English 'potato', 
because, besides appearing 
without the initial syllable 
pa, they are to be found in 
the language-field which was 
more influenced by the Portu- 
guese ; the Konk. 6afafm is, 
undoubtedly, derived directly 
from the Port, batatinha (di- 
minutive). With regard to 
the cerebral M, cf. atalaia y 
abobora, sorte. 1 

1 In the Portuguese in vogue in Goa 
they speak of batata de Surrate that is 
the potato which found its way to the 
Indian market through the English 
factory at Surat; Fr. Clemen te da 
Ressurreicfto (1782) calls it batata 
inglesa ('English potato '). 




The sweet potato (Convol- 
vulus batatas), native of 
America, was introduced into 
India by the Portuguese, to- 
gether with its name in the 
place of origin, which some of 
the languages preserved, whilst 
others replaced it with vernac- 
ular ones. Subsequently, the 
English imported the ordinary 
potato (Solanum tuberosum) , 
and this as Yule and Burnell 
observe robbed the former of 
its name. The Portuguese in 
India must have distinguished 
the one kind from the 
other by the names batata doce 
('sweet potato'), and batata de 
Surrate ('Surat potato') or 
Inglesa (' English potato ') ; 
and the vernacular languages 
must have restricted the use 
of the name batata to one 
species or the other. 

" There is another which produces 
tubers similar to the small English 
potatoes." (In Agricultor Indiana, 
of B. F. da Costa, II, p. 339.) In the 
island of St. Nicholas, Cape Verde, 
they also speak of batata inglesa. (See 
Jour. (*eo. Soc. Lisb., 3rd. ser., p. 
354.) In the Island of Madeira, the 
sweet potato is called batata, and the 
other kind semilha. Spanish uses 
batata of the sweet-potato, and the 
kitchen variety it calls patata. 

Bate (' rice in the husk ' ; 
also * growing rice'). Anglo- 
Ind. battee or batty ; formerly 
used in the south of India, 
now supplanted by paddy. 

The source-word is the 
Marathi-Konkani bhdt. See 
bata. * 

The Anglo-Indian paddy 
is from the Malay pddi, Jav. 
pdri, which Crawfurd identifies 
with bate and seems to think 
that the Malayo-Javanese word 
may have come from India 
with the Portuguese. But 
Yule and Burnell think "this 
is impossible, for the word 
pan, more or less modified, ex- 
ists in all the chief tongues of 
the Archipelago, and even in 
Madagascar, the connection of 
which last with the Malay 
regions certainly was long 
prior to the arrival of the 
Portuguese ". 

1 " (At Bacaim) the mura (q. v ) of 
batee, which is rice in the husk, con- 
tains three candis" Ant6nio Nunes, 
Livro doa Pesos, p. 40. 

' ' From this rice which they calj 
bate, the kingdom is called Batecalou, 
which is interpreted as meaning ' the 
Kingdom of Rice '. " Jo&o <le Barros, 
Dec. Ill, ii, 1. 

" In the fields (of Ceylon) there is 
plenty of rice, which they call bate." 
Lucona, Bk. II, oh. 18. 



Btega (a metal basin ; here 
used in the sense of 4 metal 
tray' or 'platter'). Konk. 
bdtk', vern. terms tdt, vafi, 
vafe'rh. Tet. batik 1 Tonk. 
bat, porringer. ? Mai. bdtil. 
?Mac., Bug. bdtih. 

In the sense of 'metal basin', 
the term is obsolete in Portu- 
gal, but is in vogue among the 
corrupt Portuguese dialects 
under the forms of bdtica and 
bdtic. See Elucidario of 
Viterbo. 1 

[The derivation of batega is 
open to doubt says Dalgado 
(Glossario, s. r.). Old Portu- 
guese writers sometimes ex- 
plain the word when they use 
it, a proof that it was not 
much in vogue. The Ar. bati/a 
is generally given as its 
original, but Dozy says that 
the insertion of g is singular 

* " In this kingdom of Pegu there 
is no coined money, and what they 
use and employ as money are bategas, 
pans and other similar ware, made of 
metal." Antonio Nunes, p. 38. 

" Then they bring him ten batygas, 
which are plain latten or brass platen 

and they drink the water which 

is contained in other bategas." 
Qaspar Correia, III, p. 715. 

"And food stuffs in bategas of 
silver. " Damifto de G6is, IV. ch. 10. 

and the etymology of the word 
is far from certain. It would 
be interesting to know if the 
word was in use in Portugal 
before the discovery of the sea 
route to India. The Indian 
batica, ' a plate ', has been sug- 
gested as a possible source- 
word. ] 

Bateira (a little bark or 
vessel). Jap. battera. 

Batel (little boat). Konk., 
Guj., Sindh. bdtelo. Mar. ba- 
teld. Anglo-Ind. batel, batelo, 
botella, botilla. Whit worth 
also mentions the form buteela. 
? Mai. bahatra.l Mac., 
Bug. batard. Matthes points 
to the Sansk. v ahitra * as the 
source word. 

Bateria (battery ; set of 
guns). Konk. bateri. Malay al. 
vatteri. Tel. batteri, phatteri. 
Brown gives as the source 
bateri in Arabic characters, 
but does not say to which 
language it belongs. Mai. 
bateria, teria ("to shout, to 

1 " The batel having moved away 
from the land, they soon came to it 
in an almadia (q. t>. )." Id. y I, ch. 38. 

" Because the batel in which they 
were going required more draught.' ' 
Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 392. 




hawk ", Haex). Ar. battariya, 
ship's bridge. 1 

Bail (a trunk, box). Konk. 
bail ; vern. term p6$. Guj. 
ban, bdvufa. Hinduat. baold. 
Gal. baban bau* 

PBazar (a permanent market 
or street of shops). Mai. 
(bazar, according to Bikkers), 
Low Jav., Sund., Mad., Batt, 
pdsar. Mac. pdsara. Bug. 
pdsa. Tet., Gal. bdsar. 

4< From Persian bazar, a per- 
manent market or street of 
shops. The word has spread 
westward into Arabic, Turkish, 
and, in special senses, into 
European languages, and east- 
ward into India, where it has 
generally been adopted into 
the vernaculars." Hobson- 

But Dr. Heyligers says that 
in the Malayan languages it 
was probably introduced by 
the Portuguese, who might 
have received it from the 
people of the Levant or from 

i ' The other day they dealt with 
the manner of directing bateria 
againct the fortress." Bocarro, Dec. 
XIII, p. 643. 

2 " A small baull valued at a thou- 
sand and five hundred reis." (1601) 
A. Tomas Pires, in Jour. Qeo. Soc. 
Lisb., 16th aer., p. 724. 

the Moors of the Iberic penin- 
sula, " because it is not at all 
probable that before that time 
Persia had commercial rela- 
tions with the Far East ". But 
the Arabs and the Indians had 
such relations, and they must 
have been then employing the 
word. Dr. Schuchardt's con- 
jecture is that the Malays re- 
ceived it from Southern India. 
" The people of Kling (Kalinga, 
on the Coromandel Coast) car- 
ried on a big trade with the 
Archipelago before the arrival 
of the Europeans." Rigg* ' 

Joao de Souaa observes that 
bazar is an old word in Portu- 
guese but little known, and 
Simao Botelho (1554) explains 
what the bazar of Chaul is : 
c The rent of the bazar, that 
is of the shops where things 

1 The old Portuguese writers when 
speaking of Malacca frequently men- 
tion Quelins, mercadores Quelius 
(' Quolin merchants') and the Quelin 
quarter of the City. 

[Quelin is the Portuguese trans- 
literation of K&ling, the name applied 
in the Malay countries to the Tamil 
traders settled in those parts. The 
Anglo-Indian form is * Kling'. " The 
name is a form of Kalinga, a very 
ancient name for the region known as 
the " Northern Circars". Hobson-Job- 




are sold by retail." 1 [Dalgado 
(Contribui$des, p. 88) is con- 
vinced that the word found 
its way from India to Portugal 
and was not introduced there 
by the Arabs.] 

Bazaruco (a coin formerly 
current at Goa and on the 
Western Coast). Anglo-Ind. 
budgrook. In the Indo-Port. 
dialect of Bombay budruc 
signifies ' money in general '. 2 

The derivation of the word 
is uncertain. See Hobson- 

[Linschoten (Hak. Soc., Vol. 
II, p. 143) says: " Bezar in 
the Indian speech signifieth a 
market or place where all vic- 
tuailes are kept and solde, and 

1 "The Indians even more corruptly 
call it (the Bezoar stone) pedra de 
bazar which means * stone of the 
market -place or fair ' ; for bazar 
means a place where they sell any 
thing." Garcia da Orta, Col. xlv. [ed. 
Markham, p. 34.] 

2 ' Twenty-four leaes make one 
barguanim, which is equal to twenty 
four bazarucos." Simao Botelho, 
p. 46. 

" The Governor ordered bazaruqos 
to be coined in Cochin, as they were 
in Goa, and also ordered that they 
should be current at the rate of fifty 
bazarucos for one tanga." Gaapar 
Correia, IV, p. 331 

or the same cause they call 
the smallest money Bazaru- 
jos, as if they woulde say 
market money." Burnell, in 
a note, remarks that the origin 
of the name is obscure, but 
the statement in the text is 
certainly wrong. But Gray, in 
his Pyrard (Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
p. 68), edited four years later, 
thinks that " basaruco " is per- 
haps connected with " bazar". 
Crooke is not quite exact in 
stating (Hobson- Jobson) that 
Burnell and Gray are of one 
view regarding the origin of 
this difficult word.] 

[Leaes (the plural form of 
leal) were small copper coins 
struck at Goa under the orders 
of Afonso de Albuquerque. 
The name is the Port, leal 
( l loyal ') and was given, accord- 
ing to Castanheda (Historia, 
III, ch. 4), owing to the love 
of loyalty of the Portuguese. 
The leaes are the same as the 
bazarucos which were current 
under the Mohammedan rule 
in Goa and on the Western 
coast. The subject of Portu- 
guese coinage in India offers 
many difficulties. Even in 
1554 Antonio Nunes, who 
compiled a book on the coins 




and weights of India (Lyvro dos 
Pesos da Ymdia e asi Medi- 
das e Moedas), says that 
monies exhibit such variations 
that it is impossible to write 
anything certain about them. 
To have an approximate idea 
of the coins mentioned either 
in the text or the citations, it 
will be useful to know that in 
the early sixteenth century, 
for purposes of account, a tanga 
branca, equivalent to 120 reis, 
was divided into 4 barganins, 
and each barganim into 24 
leaes, and each pardao into 5 
tangas. For barganim see 
Hobson-Jobson, s. v. bargany]. 
Beatilha (the name of a kind 
of muslin). Anglo-Ind. betteela, 
beatelle. Mai. bitila. 1 

1 "From Chaul and Dabul they 
bring thither great 8tore of beirames 
and beatilhas." Duarte Barbosa, p. 
275. [Hak. Soc., ed. Long worth Dames, 
Vol. I, p. 129. Beirame is a very fine 
cotton stuff calico in various 
colours, formerly produced in India. 
It is the Pers. bairam, bairami.] 

"Very finely woven pieces of bea- 
tilha from Bengal." Antonio Tenreiro, 
Itinerario, oh. xvii. 

"There are other kinds of fabric? 
which are made near the suburbs of 
Maaulipatan in the country of the 
King of Golconda, and these pieces are 
called Betilles." Tavernier, Voyages 
(1676), v, p. 201. 

[Yule thinks that the Sp. or 
Port, beatilla or beatilha, *a 
veil ', is derived, according to 
Cobarruvias, from "certain 
beatas, who invented or used 
the like". Beata is a religieuse. 
Compare the modern English 
use of ' nun's veiling '. Crooke 
quotes from the Madras Admin. 
Man. Gloss, p. 233 to show 
that beatilha is the same as 
what is known at present 
under the name of * organdi '.] 

Bebado (a drunkard). Konk. 
bebdo ; vern. terras sarekdr 
(which likewise signifies * a 
liquor-seller'), sard piyetalo, 
saro-laglalo, and similar others. 
Bebdul, a sob. Bebdikdy, beb- 
depaq, drunkenness. Sinh. 
bebaduva, bebaduvu, bebadda, 
bebayiya ; vern. terms bimat- 
kardya, bonaya, viri. Bebedu- 
kdma, drunkenness. 

Beijoim, benjoim (a kind 
of incense, derived from the 
resin of the Styrax benzoin, 
Dryander, in Sumatra). Anglo- 
Ind. benzoin, benjamin. Indo- 
Fr. benjoin. l [See Hobson- 

i "There is here much lac, and 
beijoim of two kinds, white and 
black. " Roteiro da Viagem de Vaaco 
da Gama, ed. 1838, p. 112. 

" In the inland country beijoim is 




Jobson s. v. benjamin. Yule 
says that it got from the Arab 
traders the name luban-Jaw, 
i.e., * Java frankincense', cor- 
rupted in the Middle ages into 
the various European forms 
extant. According to D. G. 
Dalgado (Glassifica^do Bota- 
nica, p. 5), Garcia da Orta was 
the first European to describe 
correctly the origin of this in- 
cense. He distinguishes three 
varieties of it : amendoado or 
that filled with sort of white 
a^' 'ends, which was considered 
''? a, good ; preto or black, 

, - vnc^jegg valuable; and 

, ^ 
tlil v "*Q8 or 

' flowed (beefl^JC^nfe, &&$ err 
citation below), which was 
worth ten times as much as 
the others. Their present 
trade names are respectively : 
Siam, Sumatra and Penang 

found ; it is the resin o! a tree which 
the Moors call /jo&aw." Duarte Bar- 
bosa, p. 369. [Hak. Soo., ed. Long- 
worth Dames, Vol. II, p. 164. Lobam 
IB for luban, Pers. for frankincense. '] 
" The sweet-smelling beljolm which 
our men because of its sweet smell call 
beijoim de boninas. " Jofto de Bar- 
ros, Dec. Ill, iii, 3. [Bonina in Port, 
is the name of a little and delicate 
flower. See cit. from da Orta above.] 


Bem-ensinado (adj., ' well- 
brought up ') Mai. bemr-ensi- 
nado (Haex). Of. mal-ensinado. 

Bern pode (ser.) (adv., per- 
haps ; might well be). Mai. 
ben pode (Haex). 

Ben^ao (blessing). Konk. 
bemadrhv (in use among the 
Christians); vern. terms a&irvdd, 
atirvatsan. Beng. bemsdmv. 
Tet. bensa (also in the sense of 
' to bless ') ; vern. terms diak 
sardni. Gal. ben$d ; vern. 
term Idlan. 

Bentinho (scapular). Konk. 
bentin. Tet., Gal. bentinh. 

Benzer (to bless). Konk, 
benhdr-karuhk* Benhar is also 

lAfcJtSvl \*^5 t* * t> rv .V *a*- r\ m tMO 

sense of * blessed '. Tam ven- 

Beringela (bot., Solatium 
Melongena, L., ' the egg-plant'). 
Hindust. berinjal; vern. terms 
bhanfd, baigan, baingan. 
Anglo-Ind. brinjaul. Mai. ber- 
injal ; | vern. term throng. \ 
Tet., Gal. beringela ; vern. term 
bumdran, pumdran. l 

1 ' To fetch more rice and beans 
cooked with beringellas." Fernfto 
Pinto, ch. cxix. 

"There are (in Angola) cucumbers 
different from those of that place, but 
very good, and pumpkins and mangue- 




The word is originally Sans- 
krit (bhaqfaki), brought to the 
Spanish Peninsula by the 
Arabs and carried by the 
Portuguese, with the vegetable 
from India, to Malacca. See 

[Yule says that probably 
there is no word of the 
kind which has undergone 
such extraordinary variety of 
modifications, whilst retaining 
the same meaning, as this. 
"The Skt. is bhantaki, H. 
bh&qta, baigan, baingan, P. 
badingan* badilgan, AT. badin- 
jan 9 Span, alberengena, beren- 
gena, Port, beringela, bringiela, 
bringella, Low Latin msb**-' 
golus, merangolus, Ital. melan- 
gola> melanzana, mela insana, 
French aubergine (from alber- 
engena), melong&ne, merang&ne, 
and provincially belingtne, 
albergaine> albergine, albergame 

It looks as if the Skt. 

word were the original of all. 
The H. baingan again seems to 
have been modified from the 

goaa wLioh are like Berengelas." P. 
Baltasar Afonso (1685) in Jour. Geo* 
800. Liab., 4th. aer., p. 376. [We have 
nob been able to identify manguegoas* 
Portuguese dictionaries do not men- 
tion it.] 

P. badingan, [or, as Platt 
asserts, direct from the Skt. 
vanga, vangana, ' the plant of 
Bengal ',] and baingan also 
through the Ar. to have been 
the parent of the Span, beren- 
gena, and so of all the 
European names except the 
English egg-plant. ' "] 

B6tele, b6tel, betle, bet ere, 
betre (bol., the betel ; the leaf 
of the Piper betel). Anglo-Ind. 
betel Indo-Fr. Utd. 

From the Malay al. veftila. 
" All the names which are not 
Portuguese are Malabar 
(Malayalam), For instancy 
betre, chuna, JL similai othere ; 
T&dy&r&io, ?.v!t Bebdikdv&sher- 

i man; patamar, a courier." 
Garcia da Orta, Col. lix. 1 
pd. Markham, p. 477. The 
Malayal. veHila is itself a com- 
pound of veru. ' simple or 
mere,' and ila, 'leaf,' i.e., 
' simple or mere leaf.' The 

1 Neo- Aryan languages also use 

i " This be tele we call folio India, 
('the Indian leaf) ; it is as broad as 
the leaf of the plantain herb." Duarte 
Barbosa, p. 286 [Hak. Soc., ed. Long, 
worth Dames, Vol. I, p, 168. The 
4 plantain herb ' referred to is the 
Plantago lanceolate, the common 
plantain weed, and not the Indian 
plantain or banana.] 




the name pan, 4 leaf,' from 
which is derived pawn used by 
modern Anglo-Indians, and 
pan-vel, ' the plant or creeper.' 
Where, as in Goa, pan is also 
the name for * tobacco ' (see 
under tabaco), the one is distin- 
guished from the other, when 
necessary, by the terms : 
khavunchem pan, ' the leaf for 
eating,' and odhcherh pan, ' the 
leaf for smoking.'] 

Bezoar (bezoar stone). Jap. 

Bicho do mar (sea-slug or 
holothuria). Anglo-Ind. beech- 
de-mer. Tndo-Fr. biche-de- 
mer. 1 

Bife(beef). Konk. biph. 
Tarn., Tet., Gal. biphi. 

It is possible that the word 
in Konkani and Tamil was 
introduced directly from 

Bilimbim (hot., the fruit of 
Averrhoa bilimbi, L.). Konk. 
bilambi, bimbli (the tree) ; 
bilambtfa, bimbl&fo (the fruit). 
Mar. bilambi, bimbld (the 

1 Bicho de mar, Holuthuria, " 
the name which the Portuguese gave 
it and by which it is known, though 
some English writers speak of it as 
" sea-slugs. *' Calado Crespo, Gousaa 
(la Chin**, p. 232. 

tree) ; bimlem (the fruit). 
Hindust. bilambu. Malayal. 
vilimbi, \ vilumba \ Tul. 6i- 
limbi, bimbali, bimbili, bim- 
bull. Anglo-Ind. bilimbi, 

blimbee. 1 

From the Malay balimbiny, 
very probably introduced into 
India by the Portuguese. 

Bin6culo (binocular). Konk. 
binokl. Tet. binokulu. 

Biscoito (biscuit). Konk. 
bisku(. Mar. biskut. Hindi 
visku(. Hindust., Beng. bis- 
kuf. Sinh. biskottu, viskottu, 
viskottuva. Tain. viskah. 
Tel. biskotthu. Tul. biskotu. 
Nic. biskut. Tet. biskoitu. 
Jap. bisukoto, bisyko. 

It is possible that the cere- 
bral ( in some of the words 
is due to the influence of the 
English ' biscuit,' which does 
not, of course, mean that they 
owe their origin to English 
(see batata). Biscuit was in- 
troduced by the Portuguese at 
the very beginning of their 

1 "It (carambola, q. v.) is called 
in Kanarese and in Deccani camartr(?), 
and in Malay balimba. '' Garcia da 
Orta, Col. xii. [ed. Markham, p. 98. 
Oamariz is probably a corruption of 
Sansk. karmara or of khamrak, the 
name by whioh the fruit is known in 
Upper India,] 




contact with India. In the 
Lembranfas das Cousas da 
India there appears, among 
the " prices fetched by goods 
in Dm and their actual cost, 
"a maund of biscuouto 7 
fedeas." Maund and fedeas 
are Indian terms. And Cas- 
tanheda says that Afonso de 
Albuquerque arranged with 
Meliquiaz (Malik Ayaz) in Diu 
" to havebizcoyto made there, 
so long as there was wheat, " 
and that he left behind "for 
making the bizcoyto a new 
convert to Christianity called 
Andrade." 1 

The Achinese have meskut, 

^&f&cffl5t" l nave come from 
English, because Langen says 
that the word is specially used 
of Huntley and Palmer's bis- 

Bispo (bishop). Konk. 
bisp. [Bism is more current.] 
Beng. bispa. Tarn., Kan., 
Tet., Gal. bispu. 

Bissexto (leap-year). Konk. 
bisist (\. us. and only in Goa). 
Bug. bisesetu. 

* " The admiral -ship began to make 
water from the stern (in 1506), and of 
this they were not aware, because the 
water entered in the biscouto store- 
room." Gaspar Correia, I, p. 635. 

Boa tarde (good afternoon). 
Beng. bovds tardiyd. Tet. b6a 
tdrdi. They also use bda noiti 
('good night'). 

Bobo (buffoon). Konk. 606 ; 
also 606 dekamtd (from 6060 de 
comedia, ' the clown of the 
comedy ') ; vern. terms bhdqdo, 
bhorpi. Tet., Gal. bdbu ; vern. 
term lore. 

Bqcal (mouth-piece). Konk. 
bukdl ; vern. terms kdnfli, 
toqd. ? Mai. bo kar (box, 
casket). Ar. buqdl. 

Boceta (box, casket). Konk. 
buset\ vern. terms petul, dabo. 
Mai. boetta (Haex). bosseta. 1 

BO! (*'a palanquin bearer; 
one who carries an umbrella, 
a menial '). Anglo-Ind. boy. 

Neo- Aryan languages bhtii, 
Dravidian bdyi. 

In the sense of * servant, or 
personal attendant,' 'boy' is 

B6i is no longer in use in 
the Portuguese of Goa; the 
form that enjoys a currency is 

1 " Make search in their chests and 
boetas (' boxes')." Gaspar Correia, 
II, p. 299. " And they found in a 
bueta a book in which he had written 
many things about India.*' Id., IV, 

p. 18. 

" They were bringing, in a boceta 
of gold. ..." Luoena, Bk. II, ch. 23. 




boid, which is the vocative 
singular and the nominative 
plural in Konkani, bhoyd. 1 

[The Portuguese used moco 
(' boy ') in the same way as the 
English did * boy' for * a ser- 
vant. ' As Yule and the 0. E. 
D. remark, * boy ' came to be 
especially used for ' slave-boy,' 
and was applied to slaves of 
any age. " In * Pigeon English' 
also * servant ' is Boy, whilst 
* boy ' in our ordinary sense 
is discriminated as ' smallo- 

Boia (buoy). Guj. bdyu 
bdyuib. L.-Hindust. boyd. 
Beng. bayd. Mai. feot/a. 2 

Boi5o (pot, generally, of 

1 "They hired for worl , by means 
of tickets, almost all the boias in the 
market square. " UHramar, of 16th 
July, 1912. 

" Shaded by sotnbreiros (q. v.), which 
are curried by men whom they call 
boys." Castanheda, I, ch. 16. 

*' And the said captain has three 
b6ys for carrying water, and one 
umbrella boy." Simfto Botelho, p. 206. 

" And there are men who carry 
this umbrella so dexterously to ward 
off the sun, that even though their 
master should go on his horse at a 
trot, the sun does not touch any part 
of his body, and such men are called 
in India boy." JoSo de Barros, Deo. 
Ill, x, 9. 

2 Untied the cable of the boya." 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. V11J, i, 8. 

clay or porcelain). Konk. 
buydihv ; vern. term barni. 
Hindust. boyam. Beng., ASP. 
bhoydm. Sinh. bujdma. Tul. 
biyam, biyamu. Khas. buiam. 
?Mal., Day. buyong. 

The Portuguese dictionary, 
Contemporaneo, and also that 
of Candido de Figueiredo de- 
rive boi&o from bo jo (' belly, 
swell, paunch'). Go^alves 
Viana, relying on a passage of 
Diogo do Couto, cited by 
Morais, 1 regards the term as 
originally Asiatic, belonging 
either to Malay or some of the 
monosyllabic languages of 
Indo-China. Fernao Pinto 
employs the word without 
explaining it : " S fi os, dam- 
asks, and three big-sized 
boyoes containing musk " 
(Ch. 55). Whatever be the 
origin of the word, there can 
be no doubt that in India the 
term was introduced by the 

Bola (a ball). Konk. bol\ 

1 " In a boiao from Pegu rice was 
cooked." [This is the same as what 
at one time was known as nwrtaban, or 
Pegu jar, a glazed pottery famous all 
over the East and exported from 
Mar tab an. See Hobson-Jobson s. v. 
martaban, and Barbosa, ed. Longworth 
Dames, Vol. II, p. I58n.] 




vern. terms gulo, cheqdu. 
Sinh. bolaya ; vern. terms 
golaya, panduva, tandukaya. 
Mai., Sund., Jav., Mad., bola. 
Meja-bola (lit. ' a table of 
balls'), a billiard table. 
Malag. bolina. 

Bolacha (sweet- biscuit) 
Konk. buldch (more in use is 
biskut). Tet. bolacha. 

Bolina (naut., bow-line). L.- 
Hindust. bulin. Bulin Ted 
kunhiydn or kunhyd ( = Port. 
cunha, ' wedge '), cringle. Bulin 
kd pdm or pad, bridle of the 
bow-line. Mai. bulin. 

Bolinho (a small cake). 
Konk. bolinh (in use among the 
Christians) . Beng. bolinos, 

and distributed on the feast- 
day of St. Nicholas Tolentine 
in the Portuguese Churches in 

B61o (cake). Konk. b6l 
Tarn., Mac., Tet., Gal. bdlu 
? Ach. boi Jap. 6dm. 1 

B61sa ( purse ') . Konk . 
Ml*, bolas. Mai. bolsa (Haex). 
Tet.. Gal. bolsa. 

In the ecclesiastical sense of 

i Two bolos of millet and nachinim 
to each person. Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. V, vii, 9. [Nachinirh is a very 
tiny cereal, Eleusine Coracana.] 

'burse for the corporal,' it is 
used in different other lan- 

Bomba ('a water-pump'). 
Konk. bdmb. Mar. bamb. 
Guj. bafab, bartibd. L.- 
Hindust. bambd, bumbd. 
Beng. bomd (by assimilation). 
Sinh. bdmbaya. Tel. bom- 
bdsu, bombdsa (from bombas, 
the pi. of bomba). Kan. 
bdmbu. Anglo-Ind. bumba. 
Mai., Tet., Gal. bomba. 1 

In pomba, which is another 
Malayan form, it appears that 
there is the influence of the 
Dutch pomp or the English 
' pump.' Macassar has pompa, 
which Matthes derives from 

Bomba (' bomb-shell '). 
Konk. bdrtib ; vern. term kulpi- 
gul6 f Hindust. bam kd guld 
(lit. 'shot of the bomb'). 
Ass. boma-gola (lit. 'bomb- 
shot'). Mac. bong, which 
Matthes derives from the Dutch 
fc om . Tet., Gal. bomba. 
? Malag. bomba, bumba. z 

1 " They rather found every time 
that the water was increasing because 
neither bombas nor barrels could 
exhaust it." Diogo do Couto, Deo, 
VII. v, 2. 

2 The rest passing thiough those 




Bom dia (good day). 
Konk. bofo di (I. us.). Beng. 
Devus boms diyd. Also Devus 
boms nouti (' good night '). 
Tet. bom dia. 

Bombardeiro (bombar- 
dier). Mai. bombardero (Haex) . 

Bon6 (cap, also the cap of j 
an infantry soldier). Konk. I 
boneth (sometimes used of ' a j 
hat'). Gal. bout. \ 

Boneca (a doll). Sinh. 
bSnikka ; vern. term reka- 
daya. Mai. bontka, bonika. 
Sund. boneka. Jav. bonekS. ! 
Tet., Gal. boneka ; vern. term 



Bonito (a species of the 
tunny fish, Thynnus pelamys, \ 
Day). Anglo-Ind. bonito. i 
Indo-Fr. bonite. 1 

clouds of great shot, and arrows, and 
the flames of bombas " Diogo do ' 
Couto, Dec VF1, ii, 9. 

1 "They used to store dry fish 
which they call moxama, which is the 
loin of the bonitos which they dry in 
the sun, because in the Maldive 
Islands there is no salt/' (Caspar 
Correa, p. 341. 

" From the saw-fishes and bonitos 
which are caught on this coast, the 
King of Ormuz derives a big revenue." 
Id., I, p. 792. 

" There were also big ones, such as 
bonitos and albacoras." Pyrard Via- 
gem, I, p. 8. [Hak. Soc. Vol. I, p. 9.] 

Fr. Joao de Sousa derives it 
from the Ar. bainito, which 
appears to be the Portuguese 
adjective bonito (* delicious ') 
used as a noun. 

Bonzo (' a Buddhist priest 
in Japan or in China*). Anglo- 
Fnd., Indo-Fr. bonze. 1 

The word is of Japanese 
origin, bozu or bdnzu, first 
mentioned by Jorge Alvares, 
and, a little after, by St. 
Francis Xavier in his letters. 
It appears that bdnzu is trace- 
able to the Sanskrit vandya, 
' venerable ' f applied to the 
Buddhist clergy in Nepali, in 
the form band-hya, and in 

["From the stomach of the great 
sperm whales bonitos and albicores 
have been taken/' Illustrated London 
News, Nov. 26, 1927, p. 948.] 

1 " Three Bonzos who were there 
(they are their priests)." Fernfio 
Pinto, ch. xc. 

'* They (the Emperors of Japan) 
confirm their Bonzos, who are the 
chiefs of their religion. Diogo do 
Couto, Dec. V, viii, 12. 

" Bonzos is the name common to 
the ministers who are appointed to 
the worship of the gods Camis" 
Lucena, VII, ch. 8. [Camis is the 
plural form of the Japanese Kami, the 
name of the divinities of the Shinto 
religion; these are illustrious men 
deified whose number is said to total 
about eight millions ] 




Tibetan in that of bandhe or 
bande. See talap&o. 1 

?B6rax (borax). Guj. 

Bordo (board ; ship's side). 
Konk., Mar. bodad ; vern. term 
bdn. Guj . buddu. L,-Hind- 
ust. burdu. Tel. boda. Tul. 
bordu. Mai. bordo, bordu. 
Mac. borold, barolo. Bug. 

Borla (tassel on a biretta or 
cap). Konk. borl ; vern. term 
gondo. Tet. borla. 

B6rra ('lees of wine'), 
Konk. bdrr ; vern. term mur, 
r6d. Sinh. bora ; vern. term 
rodi, kelata. 

Sinhalese has no double r. 
Of. burro, forro. 

Bota (boot). Konk. bot. 
Tet. bota. 

Bota -fora (the act of 
launching a vessel ; used fami- 
liarly also of bidding farewell 
to a traveller by accompanying 
him up to the place of depar- 
ture). Mai. botafdra, botapora, 
batapora, coin to go into a 

1 " From Japan the Portuguese 
brought with them the following 
names: biombo (bidbu or bidmbu), 
screen, bonzo (b6uzu or bdnzu), a 
religious person." Goncalves Viana, 
Palestraa Filoldgicas. 

Botao (button). Konk. 
butdfav. Mar. butav6ih ; vern. 
term gundi. Hindust. botdm ; 
vern. term tukmd Beng. 
botam. Sinh. bottama. Tarn. 
botan. Tel. butaum, bottam. 
Gar. butam. Khas. budam. 
Mai. butan, botam; vern. term 
kanching. Tet., Gal. buta. 
Jap. butan, botan. Hazari- 
butan, an ornamental button. 

Hepburn derives the Japa- 
nese botan from the English 
'button.' Botton t another 
Sinhalese form, betrays its 
English origin. < > 

? Bote (boat). Konk., Mar. 
bot* Siam bote. Mai. bot. 

In Konkani, as in Marathi, 
dg-b6t (lit. ' fire*vessel ') signi- 
fies 'a steamship.' The cere- 
bral f leads one to suspect that 
the original of the word is the 
English ' boat,' pronounced in 
the same way as the Port. 
bote. As Malay and Siamese 
have no cerebral (, it is also 
possible that bote and bot are 
derived from the same English 

Boto in Japanese has also the 
same origin, which is testified 
to by the expression boto-reisu 
= * boat-race.' 

?Botelha(' bottle'). Konk. 




boil ; vern. term madtel. 
Hindi, Or. botal. Hindust. 
botal, bottal. Beng. botal, 
botol. Pun j . bodal. Sinh . 
bdtale, botalaya. Gar. botal. 
Khas. butol. Mai. botol, 
botuLE&tt., Sund., Bal. 
botol. M a c. hotel 6. T e t . 
boteL Gal. botir. 

It is not quite clear whether 
the source-word is the Portu- 
guese botelha or the English 
* bottle,' though, it is true, in 
none of the languages mention- 
ed above there appears the J 
cerebral, which corresponds to 
the English t. Matthes de- 
rives the Macassar word from 
botelha. Dutch has bottel, and 
African Arabic botelya and 
butelya. 1 

BdtH, in Marathi and Guja- 
rati, is evidently from English. 
Sindhi has buti. The Port, 
dialect of Macau has botle, and 
that of Ceylon, botle, hotel, and 
bottal. In Kanarese, battalu 
signifies * a cup, a small vessel,' 
and is regarded as a vernacular 
term by W. Reeve. The 
Persian butri is, without doubt, 
a corruption of * bottle.' 2 

1 The difficulty is to ascertain 
whether the word botelha was used in 
Portugal in the 16th and 17th centuries. 

2 " Three botelhas of Venetian glass 

Botica (a retail shop). 
Konk. butik (us. in the sense of 
an * apothecary's shop '). 
Anglo-Ind. boutique (a common 
word in Madras and Ceylon for 
a small shop, or booth). 1 

Botiqueiro (a shop or stall- 
keeper). Anglo-Ind. botickeer. 
The Konk. butkdr is a corrup- 
tion of boticario, ( apothecary.' 

Botiqueiro is no longer used 
in Portugal but is current in 
the Indo-Portuguese dialects 
in the sense of * a stall-holder 
or shop-keeper.' 2 See Bluteau. 

Bouba (buboe)^ Mai. boba 
(Haex). Tet., Gal. boba. 

Bra^a (a measure of extent ; 

valued at three tostoes" (1613) A. 
| T6mas Pires, Materials, etc., in Jour. 
! Geo. Soc. Lisb., 16th ser., p. 746. [A 
I toslAo was a Port, silver coin valued at 

six pence three farthings sterling.] 

1 "And the revenue from the other 
buticas, where are sold silks, camlets, 

! cloth from Portugal, porcelain, and 

' other knick-knacks." Sim^o Botelho, 

I p. 51. 

j " The people of the land used to fit 
up botlcas, in which they used to sell 
food-stuffs in great plenty." Caspar 
Correia, I, p. 024. 

2 "The botlqueiros will not keep 
their shops open on feast-days, unless 
after the mass of the terce." Decree 
of the Council of Qoa in 1567. 

44 Also a botiqueiro called Lounddo 
was arrested." O Ultramar, 12th 
February, 1912. 




naut., a fathom). Konk., L.- 
Hindust. bras, bards. 1 

[In Guj. and Mar. bras, ' a 
measure for a heap of stones,' is 
from the same source. In both 
these languages the word is also 
used to denote one hundred 
cubic feet. In Goa a bras is a 
little over fifty cubic feet or, to 
be very exact, fifty-six and a 
quarter cubic feet.] 

Braf al (* a species of brace- 
let'). Konk. barsdl. Sinh. 

In Konk. bar- for bra- is 

[Branco (adj., white ; in the 
pi. form, Brancos is used of 
* whites ' or ' Europeans '). 
Anglo-Ind. blanks. 2 ] 

Brandal (nant., swifters, 
shrouds). L.-Hindust. bran- 
dal, branddl, bardndal, baranda. 

Brava (the palmyra tree or 
Bomssus flabellifer). Anglo- 

1 "The piece of wall was thirty 
bra^as long." Diogo do Couto, Dec. 
VI, viii, 7. 

* [1718. The Heathens too shy 

to venture into the churches of the 
Blanks (so they call the Christians), 
since these were generally adorned 
with fine cloths and all manner of 
proud apparel." Ziegenbalg and 
Plutscho, Propagation of the Gospel, 
etc. Pt. I., 3rd ed., p. 70. cit. in Hob 
son-Jobson, s. v. blanks.] 

Ind. brab (us. as a noun). Of. 
amargosa and pintado. 

[Bravo, adj., in Port, means 
'wild,' and the Portuguese 
spoke of this palm as 'wild,' 
whence the English corrup- 

? Bruga (' clothes-brush '). \ 
Konk. burns. Guj. bards. 
Malayal. buruss. | Tel. 
barusu \ . Gar. burns. Mai. 
brns t berns. Malag. bnrnsi. 

It appears that the English 
' brush 5 ought to be accepted 
as the original of these words. 
The dictionary of Candido 
de Pigueiredo mentions brn$a 
as a word no longer in use 
and synonymous with brossa 
(' brush ')> Other dictionary- 
writers do not mention it. The 
Dutch at the Cape have bras. 

Bucha (' cork '). Mar. buz. 
Guj., L.-Hindust. bnch. 
Sindh. bnnji ; vern. term dafo. 
Punj. bujd, bnjjd, bujji ; 
\ vern. term gaftd. Malayal. 
bnrchcha. Tul. bnchi, bnchn. 
? Bur. bn-zo. 

Bufalo (buffalo). Anglo- 
Ind. buffalo. 1 

1 " The quilted coats (laudeis) were 
furnished with iron plates and bufaro 
horn." Damifto de Go is, Chronica 
del-Rey D. Manuel, IT, 39. [Laudel, 




[The form most used by the 
early Portuguese writers is 
bufara. It is interesting to 
note that at an early period of 
the English connection with 
India the name ' buffalo * was 
given erroneously to the com- 
mon Indian ox and the true 
Indian domestic buffalo was 
spoken of as the 'water buf- 
falo.' See Hobson-Jobson.] 

Bula (bull, a papal edict). 
Konk. bul. Tet., Gal. bula. 

Bule (tea-pot). Konk. bul. 
Sinh. buliya. Tarn, bulei. 
Tet. buli ; vern. term dardon. 

The origin of the Portuguese 
word is not a matter of certain- 
ty. Gon^alves Viana derives 
it from the Malay buli, ' flask,' 
or 'small bottle.' Rigg says 

pi. Imtdei*, in the sense of 'quilted 
coat ' is a Portuguese word and used 
by them before their arrival in India. 
It is supposed to be the Latin lodix. 
SeweH's suggestion (A Forgotten 
Empire, pp. 268 and 276) that it is the 
Kanarese lodu t 'a stuffed cloth or 
cushion,' is without foundation.] 

["There is also much cattle, 
bufara 8, cows, bulls, and other live 
stock." Chronica de Bisnaga, p. 82.] 

['*They brought for sale some big 
cuts of bufaros and other game, with 
which all that land is plentifully 
provided." Manuel Perestrelo. Hist. 
Tragico-maritima, [, p. 110.] 

that buli-buli in Sundanese is 
" a covered cup ordinarily used 
to keep oil." In Konkani, bul 
also stands for a porcelain 
snuff-box shaped like a small 
flask. 1 

Buraco (a hole). Konk. 
burdk ; vern. terms bi\ t biluk, 
vivar, bhonk, bhonto, domplo. 
Mar., Guj., burdkh. Kan. 
birdku, biriku, biruku. 

The reason why the Portu- 
guese word was adopted is not 
known. Persian and Hindus- 
tani have surakh with the same 
meaning : I do not know 
whether it has any etymologi- 
cal relation with the Portu- 
guese buraco. The Portuguese 
dictionary, Contemporaneo, de- 
rives it from the Latin fora- 
culum, and Candido de 
Figueiredo from High German 
bora. Gon9alves Viana is of 
the opinion that the former 
suggestion is the more probable 
one and, in support of his 
view, refers to furaco met with 
in some of the Portuguese 

l " Tt was a sort of mania in Si am 
to collect bules, just as in other parts 
they collect stamps, monograms, etc." 
H. Prostes, in Jour. Oeo. Soc. Lisb.> 
4th. ser., p. 3fl9. 




? Burrico (ass-colt) . Malag. 
borika, boriki. 

Burro (an ass). Konk. burr 
(us. in a fig. sense; in the 
ordinary sense, gadhum) ; vern. 
term gaddhd. Sinh. buruva, 
bureva ; vern. terms ko\aluvd t 
kotalivd, garddabhayd. Sure is 
used in the sense of ' asinine.' 

Why should the Portuguese 
word have found an entry into 
Sinhalese ? Perhaps owing to 
its frequent use in the figura- 
tive sense, which was also the 
very reason for its introduction 
into Konkani. 

?C& (abbreviated form of 
aqui, here). Mai. ca (Haex). 

Cabaia (a long tunic with 
wide sleeves used in the East). 
Konk., Tarn, kdbdy (a kind of 
tunic). Mar. kabdy, kabai. 
Sinh. kabdya (coat). Mai., 
Sund., Jav., Tet., Gal. kabdya. 
Mao., Bug. kobdya. In the 
Indo-Portuguese dialect of 
Ceylon cabaya, cabai, cuobai 
are psed in the sense of * a 
coat.' 1 \ ' , 

1 " He (the Sultan of Mozambique) 
used to be wrapped up in a Cabaia of 
white cotton cloth, which is a tight 

From the Pers.-Ar. qabd 
(adopted in Hindustani), 'a 
vesture,' introduced into India 
by the Portuguese, according 
to Yule and Burnell. Matthes 
derives it from the Persian 
qabay. 1 

fitting garment." Castanheda, Bk. I, 
ch. 6. 

"A garment which they call cabaya, 
which the Moors commonly use in 
those parts ; it has long sleeves, is 
provided with a cincture, and is open 
in front with one flap over another in 
the manner of the dress of the Vene- 
tians.' 1 Jo3o de Barros, Dec. II, iv, 2. 

"Cabaya is a garment such as the 
pelote is among us." Gaspar Correia, 
I, p. 14. [Pelote in Portuguese is the 
name of a robe with broad flaps, used 
in former times.] 

" They brought to the King a costly 
cabaya, which he with his own hands 
put on the Governor, and this was the 
highest honour which he could bestow 
on him according to thel usages." 
Id., Ill, p. 620. 

44 The Kabaia is a kind of white 
dressing-gown made of cambric and 
furnished with lace. The complete 
outfit of a Malay woman is called 
Sarang- Kabaia." Albert Osorio de 
Castro, p. 146. 

1 In an analogous meaning the word 
quimao, from the Japanese kimono, 
was used formerly in Konkani, but at 
the present day the term is used only 
of a bodice worn by girls. "Dressed 
in a purple quim&o in the manner of a 
long loose robe, embroidered with 
pearls." Fern&o Pinto, ch. cxxii. 




[Gray in his notes to Pyrard 
(Hak. Soc. Vol. I, 372) seems 
to think that quotations from 
Correa, and Albuquerque (Com- 
mentaries) point to the ex- 
istence of cabaia in Eastern 
parlance prior to the Portu- 
guese arrival, and to its being ; 
previously unknown to the 
Portuguese. " Gabaya is a 
garment such &sa,pelote is with 
us " (Correa, in Stanley's Three 
Voyages, p. 132); " Cabayas, 
or native dresses of silk " (Alb., 
Comm., IV, 95). He also 
observes that " Kabdya is still 
a common word in Ceylon for 
a coat or jacket, worn by a 
European or native."] 

Cabea (the head of a top). 
Mai. kembesa. Mol. cabessa 
(kabesa) , used of the best 
quality of camphor. See 

Cabide (a clothes-rack). 
Konk. kabid., vern. term 6%, 
dandi. Tet., Gal. kabidi. 

Cabo (in the sense of ' hilt 
or handle'). Malayal. kdbu ; 
vern. term pidi. 

[Gabo in Portuguese also 
means ' a corporal in the 
army.'] As a military title, 
the term is employed in Konk- 
ani, Teto, and Galoli. 

Cabouco (in the sense of* 
* laterite ') . Sinh. kabuka. 
Anglo-Ind. cabook. 

[" Mr. Fergusson says that 
the Ceylon term cabook is a 
corruption of the Port, pedras 
de cavouco, ' quarry -stones,' 
the last word being by a 
misapprehension applied to the 
stones themselves." Crooke 
in Hobson-Jobsony s.v. cabook. 
The ordinary meaning of 
cabouco in Port, is * ditch, 

In Konkani konker is used in 
the same sense as the Port. 
cabouqueiro, ' a quarry man.' 

Caboz (a kind of fish belong- 
ing to the order Gobius). Mai. 
kabos (Schuchardt). 1 

Cabra (she-goat). Nic. 
kdpre, sheep. Kodn-kdpre t 
lamb. Ok-kdpre, the fleece of 
the sheep. Anha-kdpre, 
sheep's mutton. 

The Nicobarese very likely 
became acquainted with the 
sheep (and perhaps the goat) 
through the Portuguese, who 

1 | "Owing to the inundations of 
rivers two other species are carried 
across to these lands, but these are 
not so common as the Gobius, in 
Malay Cabus." Rumphius, Herb. 
Amboinense, VIII, ch. 30 | . 




also gave the name Cobra to 
one of the small islands, which 
in the vernacular is called 
Komvdfta. In Indo-Port. 
cobra includes also 'sheep.' 
The Nicobarese me, 'she-goat,' 
is onomatopoetic and, perhaps, 
of recent date. 

Ca?ar (to hunt). Mai. 

In Konkani the form Ms is 
used in the sense of 'game.' 
Kas maruhk [lit. ' game to kill'j 
is ' to go out in pursuit of 

Cagarola (casserole ; a heat- 
proof earthenware vessel). 
Mai. kasrol (Marre). 

Gacau (cacao). Konk. 
kakdv. Tet., Gal. kakau. 

Gadeira (chair). Konk. 
kadlr (1. us.), kodel\ vern. 
terms are kur6i, chavdy, as in 
Marathi, but little used. 
Beng. kaderd, kadard. Sindh. 
kadela, gadela. Tarn, kadera 
(1. us.) ; vern. term pidam. 
Malayal. kasela. Mai., Mac., 
Bug. kadera. Nic. katere. 
Katere-ol-ldl, sofa. Tet., Gal. 
kadeira. "] ; 

Gadernal (naut., luff- 
tackle). L.-Hindust. katarndL 

? Gaffe (coffee). Konk. 
kapho (plant and the whole 

berry ; pi. kaphe) ; kaphi 
(' coffee ground or prepared 
into a beverage '). Mar.,Guj., 
Or. kaphi. Beng. Ass. kdphi 
Sinh. kopi. Tarn, kdppi, 
koppi. Malayal. kdppi, kappi- 
kkuru. Tel. kopi. Kan.,Tul. 
kdphi. Gar. kopi. Bur. kap- 
phe. Khas. kaphi. Kamb. 
cafe. Siam. kafe, khdofe. 
Ann., Tonk. cd-phe. Mai., 
Sund., Mac., Bug. kopi. Day. 
kupi.Tet., Gal., Malag. 
kafe. | Chin, kid-fe \ . 

It is not known by what way 
the term found its way into 
India. The first syllable of the 
Indian term for it (ka-) is iden- 
tical with that of the Portu- 
guese, and the second (-phi or 
-pi) with that of the English 
or Dutch (coffee, koffij). But 
Turkish also has kaphe. 
Hobson-Jobson gives no cita- 
tion from any early Portu- 
guese writer on this point. The 
use of coffee had already been 
introduced into Arabia in the 
fifteenth century. 

["The history of the intro- 
duction of coffee into India is 
very obscure. Most writers 
agree that it was brought to 
Mysore some two centuries ago 
by a Muhammad an pilgrim 



named Baba Budan, who, on 
his return from Mecca, brought 
seven seeds with him. This 
tradition is so universally be- 
lieved in, by the inhabitants of 
the greater part of South India, 
that there seems every chance 
of its being founded on fact. 

In Ceylon it is be- 
lieved coffee was introduced 
by the Arabs prior to the Por- 
tuguese invasion of that is- 
land." Watt, The Commercial 
Products of India, p. 367.1 

But in 1782 Fr. Clemente 
da Ressurrei9ao, in his Treatise 
on the Agriculture (of Goa). 1 
says : " There is another plant 
which could yield a safe and 
growing income to the owner 
of a plantation (provided its 
cultivation was increased), and 
it is the caf6 (the coffee plant) 
because of the high esteem and 
relish in which it is held among 
the European and Muslim 
peoples. From its berry is 
prepared a very exquisite be- 
verage, stimulating, promoting 
digestion, and nutritive, though 
it is attended with evil effects 

1 Published by Bernardo Francisco 
da Costa in his Manual pratico do 
agiicultor indiano, Vol. IT. 

to the nerves if taken in excess ; 
these injurious effects are miti- 
gated by mixing milk with it, 
as is done in Europe and all 
over Turkey." 

The term is derived generally 
from the Arabic qahua, which 
originally meant * wine ' and 
which was afterwards employ- 
ed to denote the ' infusion of 
coffee.' Bunn, in Arabic, is the 
name given to the plant and 
the berry. Both these terms 
have been adopted by some of 
the Indian languages. 

It is, nevertheless, not un- 
likely that the real origin of 
the word is to be found in the 
geographical name Kaffa, in 
Abyssinia, which is the primi- 
tive habitat of the plant. 

[Sir George Watt ( The Com- 
mercial Products of India), 
however, says : " The names 
given to the plant, its fruits . . 
.... are mostly derived f rom 
either of two words: " kah- 
ivah" an Arabic term that ori- 
ginally denoted '* wine," and 
" Zwn," the Abyssinian name 
for the coffee plant or its 
beans. From these we have 
cahua, kawa, chaube, kapi, 
edve, kava, caf6, coffee, and 
cajeier ; also boun, bun, ban 9 




ben, bunu, buncha. The earliest 
Arabic writers, however, used 
the Abyssinian name by itself 
or in combination : thus 
Avicenna (llth century) calls 
it buncho, and Rhases bunco. 
It was by them viewed as a 
medicinal plant and one very 
possibly that came from 
Abyssinia, so that the appear- 
ance of the Arabic name kah- 
wah may with safety be accept- 
ed as marking the progress 
into the final development as 
a beverage."] 

Cafre (in the sense of 
* negro'). Konk. khdpri. Beng. 
kdphiri. - - Ass. kdphri. 
Tarn., Malayal., Tel. kdppiri. 
Kan. kdphri. Tul. kdpri, 
kapiri Anglo-Ind. caffre, 
caffer, caffree, Bur. kap-pa-li. 
Mai. kdpri, kdfris. Ach. 
kafiri. Day. kdpir. \ Nona 
kdpri ia Anona reticulata. \ 

In Konkani, khdpurdo (a 
diminutive form) is ' a little 
negro'; khaparUrh (neut.), 'a 
riegress,' and, khaparpan, 
6 coarseness, barbarousness. ' 
In Indo-Portuguese cafrona 
means ' a negress '. 

The word is derived from the 
Arabic kdfir, t infidel, unbelie- 
ver.' In some of the languages 

this sense is retained. 1 With 
regard to the kh aspirate in 
Konkani, cf. camisa, cruz. 

Gairel (narrow gold lace). 
'Malayal. karaL - - 

Cairo (the fibre of the coco- 
nut husk). Anglo-Ind. coir. 
Indo-Fr. caire. 

[Yule seems to be of the 
opinion that the Anglo-Indian 
form coir was introduced by 
the English in the 1 8th cen- 
tury. Crooke refers to the 
O.E.D. which gives ' coire ' in 
1697; 'coir' in 1779. 'Coir' 
was less likely to have been 
used by the Portuguese because 

1 " Beyond this country lies the 
groat kingdom of Bcnametapa which 
belongs to the Heathen whom the 
Moors call Cafres." Duarte Barbosa, 
p. 234. [Hak. Soc., ed. Long worth 
Dames, Vol. I, p. 9. The origin of 
Benametapa or Monomotapa is uncer- 
tain. In some Bantu languages it 
means ' Lord of the Mountain.'] 

" And by another name which is com- 
mon they also call them Gafres, which 
is to say people without law, a name 
which they give to every heathen idola- 
ter; this name of Gafres is applied 
among us to the many slaves which 
we have from this people." Jofto de 
Barros, Dec, I, viii. 3. 

" Among us, the Cafres are the 
Heathens from Cafraria." Fr. Jofto da 
Sousa. ['Cafntria' is the land of the 
Cafres, or Kaffirs/ a very large tract 
in the southernmost part of Africa.] 



coiro in their language is 
' leather '. See Hobson-Jobson, 
s.v. coir.] 

The word is the Malay al, 
kaya$u, * rope made out of the 
fibre V [The fibre is called in 
Malayal. jaggari.] 

Caixa (a coin). Anglo-Ind. 
cash. 2 

The word is the Dravidian 
kdsu, derived from the Sanskrit 
karsha, * a weight of silver or 
gold \ 3 [ " From the Tarn, form 

1 " From the first outside rind which 
coversi it (the coco-nut) is made cairo 
..after they have soaked, beaten and i 
spun it in the manner of fibre from 
flux." Joao do Uarros, Dec. Ill, iii, 7. 

** The first outside rind is very 
woolly and from it is made Cairo, so 
called by the Malabar* (in Malayalam) 
and by us." Garcia da Orta, Col. 
xvi [ed. Markham, p. 141 J. 

" From the outer rind of these coco- 
nuts, which they call cairo, ropes are 
made." Kr. loao dos Santos, Kthiopia 
Oriental, I, p. 21)9. 

- According to Antonio Nunes, one 
caixa of the Moluccas was worth 3/10 
of a rial and that of Siuula, 3/5. [The 
rial is n Portuguese coin equal to , j-J, d* 
The plural form of the word is rci* and 
accounts were kept in Bombay in 
rupees and r/is down at least to Novem- 
ber 1834. Twenty five rein then made 
an anna. See Hobaon-J obson, s.v reas, 

3 " It is a copper coin of the size of 
ourceitijs. . . .which they call caixas." 
JoAo de Barros, Dec III, v, 5. 

kasu, or perhaps from some 
Konkani form which we have 
not traced, the Portuguese 
seem to have made caixa, 
whence the English cash." 

Caju (bot., Anacardium Occi- 
dentale). Konk. kazu ; &az(the 
name of the plant but, in cer- 
tain parts, also of the fruit). 
Kajel, a spirit distilled from 
the juice of the fruit. Mar. 
kazil (plant, fruit, and nut) ; 
kazugold (us. in the Konkan), 
fruit. Guj. kdju, kdjum 
(neut.; ( the sugared nut ' is 
masc.) Benp:. k*iju. Sindh. 
khdzu, khdzo, the nut. Sinh. 
kaju, kajjit ; kaju-geha, the 
plant. Tarn. kdju-palam ; 
kdju-niaram, the plant. Mala- 
yal. ka&u., kdsn-mdru . Anglo- 
Ind. cashew. Mai. kdju, gdjus. 
Sund ; kdju ; vern. term 
jambu mede. Tet., Gal. kaius, 
kaidil. | Chin, kid-tsa. \ 

[*' The Tamil name (for caju) 
is, e.g., Mundiri, referring to 
the form of the nut, and * 
" kaju " is only found in Dravi- 
dian dialects (e.g., Malayal am) 
influenced by the Portuguese. 

" They have the head shaved for only 
one copper coin which they call caixa. ** 
Gaspar Correia, IV. p. 301. 




The Malays have a name 
(" Buwa frangi", Flax., p. 64), 
which shows that it is not 
indigenous in the Archipelago, 
though they also use "kaju". 
Burnell in Linschoten (Hak. 
Soc.), Vol. II, p. 27. 

The evolution of a new form 
cadju in Anglo-. Indian voca- 
bulary is evidenced by the 
following passage taken from 
The Times of India, June 23, 
1928: "The story of a leper 
living among the beasts of the 
jungle and subsisting entirely 
on fruit is being used to 
support the claim that the 
Cadju fruit (Anacardium Occi- 
dentale) is a cure for the 

The suffix -s in Malay and in 
Teto and Galoli are due to the 
Portuguese plural form, cajus, 
as in meias ('socks'), uvas 
{' grapes '), tiras (' strips of 
oloth '), apas (' rice-cakes '). 

The word is Brazilian : acaju. 
The cashew-tree is one of the 
most useful plants introduced 
by the Portuguese into India 
and is now perfectly natural- 
ised. 1 

1 "Spirit distilled from cane and 
from caju has enormous sale in the 
crown lands." Caldas Xavier, in Jour. 
Oeo. Soc. Lisb.. 2nd ser., p. 485. 

[Garcia da Orta does not 
mention the tree in his Collo- 
quies (1563), but Christoval 
Acosta does in his Tractado 
etc. (1578). Linschoten writing 
about 1590 speaks of them as 
being in great numbers all 
over India. ] 

Calaba^a (calabash) . 

Anglo-Ind. calabash, the dry 
rind of a gourd used as a bottle 
or float. 

[The Portuguese word is 
itself derived from the Arabic 
garah, 'a gourd', and aibasah, 

Calafate (a caulker).' ^ Hindi 
kalapatti. Hindust. kalpatti, 
kaldpatiyd Or. kalapati. 
Beng. kalapati. Sinh. gala- 
patti(-kara nava, ' to caulk '). 
Tain, kalappar-radi, to caulk ; 

See Conde de Ficalho in the Colloquies 
of Garcia da Orta, Vol. I, p. 67. [In 
the passage referred to above Conde de 
Ficalho expresses surprise that da Orta 
makes no mention of the caju tree, 
which, a few years later, was de- 
scribed by Acosta (1578) and by Lins- 
ohoten. From this he concludes that 
the interval between the publication 
of the Colloquies (1563) and Acosta's 
Tractado de las Drogaa y Medecinaa 
de las Indias Orientates (1578) marks 
the period when the tree must have 
been introduced into India from 




kalapparradippal, a caulker. 
Tel. kalapati. Anglo-Ind. col- 
puttee. Ma.fca/epef, | kalpdt. \ 
Ar. qalafat, qalfat, qdllaf. 1 

The Portuguese dictionary, 
Contemporaneo, derives the 
Portuguese word from the 
Italian calaf attar e. Fr. Joao de 
Sousa and Devic refer it to 
Arabic. Dozy and Jal have 
doubts about . this derivation 
and prefer that from the Latin 
calefacere. Yule and Burnell 
favour the Arabic origin, but 
admit that the word in the 
Indian languages owes it origin 
to Portuguese. 

[Calaim (tin). Anglo-Ind. 
kalay. Indo-Fr. calin. 2 

1 " The Governor Jorge Cabral 
placed Dom Jo&o Lobo in charge of the 
calafates." Diogo do Conto, Dec. VI, 
viii, 5. 

2 ["Tin, which the people of the 
country call Calem." Castanheda, 
111, 213.] 

["The baar of calaim is in every 
respect like that of cinnamon." 
Antonio Nunes, Lyvro dos Pesos, p. 6-1 

[ " They hold in great esteem tin, or 
Calaim, and it is valued among them 
(the people of Madagascar) as much as 
silver, for women's ornaments." Diogo 
do Couto, Dec. VII, iv, 5, cited in 

[ " Each calaim was worth, accord- 
ing to an appointed law, eleven reis and 
four ceittts." Commentaries of AJonao 
Dalbuquerque, Hak. Soc., Ill, p. 78.] 

The original is the Ar 
qal'ai, which has been adopted 
by the Indian languages, and 
which probably is related to 
the Malay kalang, the name for 
tin, and which, according to 
Yule, may have been the true 
origin of the word before us. 
Some Arab geographers derive 
the word from a place called 
Qalah or Qaleh, which was 
certainly somewhere about the 
coast of Malacca, which even 
to-day is famous for its tin- 
mines. In Malay Nagri- 
Kdlang, ' Tin-Country,' is the 
ancient name for the State of 
Selangor. See Hobson-Job- 

The old Portuguese chron- 
iclers also give the name calaim 
to a coin made of tin current 
in Malacca.] 

Cal^ado (subst., foot-wear ; 
boots). Konk. kdlsdd. Mai., 
Ach., Batt., Sund., Jav. kdsut. 
Mac. kdsu. Ar. (popular) 
kalsat, socks (Simonet). 1 

[ *' He (The Uovernor of Malacca) 
gave them (Portuguese prisoners) ten 
thousand calains worth of Cam bay tm 
stuffs." Id., p. 45. Birch, the tran- 
slator of the Gommetitaries, erroneously 
remarks that " Calaim signifies a very 
fine kind of Indian copper."] 

1 " By kasut is meant the ' surtout ' 


Calfao (in the sense of 
' trousers '). Konk. kalsdrhv, 
kalsdmv. Mo(vem kalsdrtiv, 
breeches or 'shorts'. Sinh. 
kalisama, kalasama. Tarn . 
kal-chatfei (lit. ' puts on trou- 
sers '). -Malayal. kal~chchatta. 
? Malag. kalisanina (perhaps 
from the Fr. cale$on). Jap. 
karusan. In Galoli kdlsa, 
trousers. 1 

Cal$ao, properly speaking, 
signifies in Portuguese ' breech- 
es,' but in Indo-Portuguese 
it is used in the sense of 
' trousers '. 

It appears that kaus, l shoe ', 
of the languages of the Malay 
Archipelago, is not derived 
from the Port. cal$a which 
formerly meant, according to 
Viterbo, * sock or stocking', 2 

of a Malay shoe, which is a kind of 
sandals or leather soles fastened by 
means of laces." Favre. 

1 " Calsoens, hats, shoes, to be 
distributed there among the soldiers." 
Diogo de Couto, Dec. VI, vi. 6. 

2 " One night with cala ( * breeches ' ) 
loaded with sand, they give him such 
cal^adas (' basting '), that it is report- 
ed he died of it. Document of 1458, 
quoted by Viterbo. [Linschoten 
(Hak. Soc. Vol. I, p. 195) describes 
how the Portingals "use long bagges 
full of sand, wherewith they will 
breake each others limmes, and make 
them lame." Burnell in a note to this 

nor from the Dutch kous, 
' sock '. It makes its appear- 
ance already in the first quarter 
of the seventeenth century. 
" Caous (pronounced kaus), 
sock ; caoua sa-paris t a pair of 
socks " (Haex). Swettenhani 
and Favre attribute it to an 
Arabic origin ; but in Arabic 
there is no such word. Rigg 
says that in Sundanese kaus 
signifies, at the present day, 
* sock ' and admits it is from 
Dutch. The same is the 
opinion of Hardeland in respect 
of Dayak, and of Matthes with 
reference to the Macassar 
kdusu and Bugui kdusu & koso. 
Langen doubtfully gives 
' kaus ' as corresponding to 
the Achinese kaus. It is quite 
possible that kaus is the abbre- 
viation of kdsut, from cal$ado, 
'shoes', which in Macassar loses 
the t, or it may subsequently 
have felt the influence of 

Galdeirao (a boiler, a large 
kettle). Sing, kalderama, kal- 

Caldo (broth)? Konk. kdld. 
Beng. kdldo (in use among 

says that " this is a common method 
of torture in 8. India at the present 
time, and is originally Indian."] 




the Christians). Sinh. kdlduva. 
Mai., Sund., Jav., Mad. 
kdldu, kdldo. 

Calibre (caliber, the diame- 
ter of the mouth of a gun)- 
Bug., livara. 

The first syllable is dropped 
as in dilu, which is from the 
Portuguese codilho, ' eodille, a 
term in a game of cards '. 

Calis (a chalice). Konk. 
kdl*. Beng., Tain., Tet., Gal. 
kalis. Ann. calice ; vern. term 
chen thdnh (lit. * sacred cup'). 
Jap. karisu. 1 

Calmaria (a calm at sea). 
L.-Hindust. kalmariyd, kar- 
mariyd. Karmariyd padnd, to 
be becalmed. 2 

[Galumba (Jateorhiza 

palmata, Miers). Anglo-Ind. 
columbo root, 9 calumba root. 

The plant is a native of East 
Africa and its roots are largely 
exported to India from Mozam- 
bique because of their medi- 
cinal properties. Kalumba is 

1 " Altar-stones, calices and other 
things." Diogo do Couto, Dec. VII, i, 2. 

2 On the way met with many 
calmarias." Diogo do Couto, Deo. 
VI, ix, 4. 

3 [" Calumba, a root. . . .is an excel- 
lent remedy against tertian fever, 

stomach-ache " Fra Paolino, 

Viaggio (l!SQ) t p. 363.] 

the name by which it is called 
by the natives in Africa. The 
O.K.D. derives it from 
Colombo, the capital of Ceylon, 
from a false notion that it was 
supplied from thence.] 

Gama (a bed). Konk. kdm ; 
vern. terms bdz, khatlem ; 
anthrun-pahghrun, sej. Mai. 
camma (Haex). Tet., Gal. 
kama ; vern. term phdtik. 

C&inara (a room). Konk. 
kdmr, kdmbr ; in the sense of 
a ' room', the term is little used 
in Goa, but it is current in the 
sense of * a municipality * 
(cdmara municipal). There is 
a popular saying, kambrachyd 
kiistdr kalvantdth nachtdt, ' the 
dancing girls perform at the 
costof the municipality 1 , [which 
is another way of saying * to 
enjoy at another's cost,' or, as 
it would be expressed in Eng- 
lish, 'the municipality pays 
the piper, but some one else 
calls the tune.'] Hindi 
kam'rd. Hindust. kdmard, 
kamard, kamera, kam'ra 
(more used). It also means 
' a cabin in a ship '. Khane 
ka kamrd, dining-room. Or. 
kam'rd. Sing. kdmaraya, 

kdmare. Tel. kamard y kamerd, 
kamrd, kamiri ; kameld (* the 




round-top of a ship's mast '). 
Anglo-Ind. cumra. Khas. 
kam'ra. Mai. (kdm&rd, 

Wilkinson), Bat., Sund., Jav., 
Mad. kdmar. Bug. kamdli. 1 
Tet., Gal. kdmara. \ Turk. 
qdmara. \ Rab. kamaron. 2 

Dr. Hugo Schuchardt refuses 
to accept the Portuguese origin 
for the Mai. kdmar, as also for 
musik (' music ') and pistol 
(* pistol '), and prefers instead 
the Dutch kamer, musiek, pis- 
tool, as the originals of the 
Malay forms. He lays down 
that "the criterion for dis- 
tinguishing one from the other 
is principally the termination 
which these words have in 
Malay : if it is vocalic, the 
immediate source of the word 
is Portuguese ; if consonantal, 
then it is Dutch ". And Gon- 
9alves Viana observes that 
" these two laws to which Dr. 
Schuchardt refers are of the 
greatest importance ". 

It appears that the above 
criterion is not after all very 

1 Matthea derives this term from the 
Port, cama (* a bed '), and mentions 
the compound kamdli levuranna, 
"iemancTs slaap-kamer, bed-room." 

2 "Withdrawing with him to a 
camara, he spoke to him these words." 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. VII, i. 9. 

safe, because there are other 
words the Portuguese origin of 
which is unquestioned which 
have a consonantal ending, 
that is, after losing the vowel 
termination of the parent word, 
as for example : karpus from 
Port. carapu$a (' a kind of cap 
protecting one from cold'), 
martil from martelo (' a ham- 
mer ') , gargalet from gorgoleta 
( ( water- jug'), bulin from bolina 
(' bow -line '), prum from prumo 
('a plummet '). 

In respect of kamer and 
musik, it may be said that the 
especial reason for the elimina- 
tion of their last syllable is the 
necessity of getting rid of words 
accented on the ante-pen- 
ultimate syllable, in view of the 
fact that the Malayo-Polyne- 
sian languages have no pro- 
paroxytones. If it can .be 
established that mdrmar 
(' marble ') is derived from 
the Port, mdrmore, then we 
have another instance in proof 
of our view. Perhaps, almdri 
or lamdri from the Port. 
armario ('cupboard'), obey 
the same law.\. 

Camarada (a comrade). 

l The Malay o- Portuguese dialect of 
Tugu has cdmber. ' < i' 




Konk. kambrdd ; vern. terms 
sahgati, samvgadi, gadi. Tet. 
kamarada ; vern. term belu. 
In the Portuguese dialect of 
Ceylon, cambrado. 

Camisa (a shirt). Konk. 
kamis, khamis. Mar. kamiz, 
khamis. Guj. khamis. Hindi 
qamiz. Hindust. qamis, qamij. 
Beng. kamij. Sinh. kamise, 
kamisaya, kamiseya. Tam. 
kamisei. Malay al. kamis, 

kamisu, kammisu. Tel. 

kamisu, kamsu. Kan. kamisu. 
Tul. kamisu . Anglo-lnd. 
cameeze. Gar. kamij. Mai., 
Aoh. kamija, kameja. Sund., 
Day. kameja. Jav., Mad. 
kamejo. Tet., Gal. kamiza. 
? Ar., Pers. qamis. 1 

Loma kamisaya (lit. * a wool- 
len shirt'), a singlet or an 
undervest, in Sinhalese ; in 
Konkani, kham6i is used of a 
4 child's frock '. 

St. Jerome is the first Euro- 
pean writer to mention camisia 
in The Epistle to Fabiola? 
Oandido de Pigueiredo derives 

1 *'Vasco de Gama received him 
very kindly and ordered camisas to be 
given to him." Castanheda, 1, ch. 25. 

2 Simonet says that it is also used 
by Fostus and derives it from the 
Latin-Spanish vama. 

the Port, vocable from " Low 
Latin camisia, the origin of 
which is uncertain ". Fr. Joao 
de Sousa assigns to it an 
Arabic origin. l [Skeat derives 
camisa from Celt and says that 
the Arabic qamis is from Latin. 
The O.E.D. is of the view that 
the Ar. qamis, ' a tunic ', is 
from the Lat. camisia of St. 

The initial q of Hindi and 
Hindustani and, perhaps, the 
kh of Marathi and Gujarati, 
indicate the direct source or 
influence to be Arabic. The 
initial k becomes sometimes 

1 " Faria wishes to regard it as a 
Punic word; but it is without a doubt 
Arabic ; on this account it occurs more 
than ouce in the Alcoran in the chapter 
on Joseph." 

** Although the name of this garment 
may have come to us through the 
Arabs, it is necessary to search for its 
earliest origin. The Arabic word is 
derived from the Sanskrit kschuma 
(kschaumi) t linen, kshaumas, made of 
linen ; the garment has received this 
namo from the material from which it 
is made/' Engelmanu, Glossaire. 

" These Moors of Ormuz go about in 
very fine long white cotton camisas of 
very rine texture.'' Duarte Barbosa, 
p. 261. [The translation by Longworth 
Dames in the Hak. Soe.'s ed. does not 
square with this version and is the 
result apparently of some variation in 
the texts. S<^ Vol. I, p. 79.] 




aspirated in Konkani. Cf. 

Camisola (an undervest, a 
singlet). Konk. kdmizol (a 
lady's chemise). Tet. kami- 

Catnpainha (a bell) . Konk. 
kampin ; vern. term ghanfii. 
Tet., Gal. kampainha. 

Campo (a field). Konk. 
kdmp (in the sense of ' the plot 
of land fronting a church over 
which processions pass 5 ). 
Mar., Hindust. kampu, field of 
battle. Anglo-Ind. campoo, a 
camp. ? Mai., Sund., Jav., 
Mad., Mac. kampong, kampung, 
a village protected by an en- 
closure of hedges or bamboo. 
Tet., Gal. kdmpu , vern. term 
kles. 1 

Some philologists regard 
kampong as a vernacular term 
of the Malayan languages, and 
not of Portuguese origin. Yule 
puts up a strong case in favour 
of the Malay kampong being the 
original of the Anglo-Indian 
' compound ', but he admits 
the possibility of the Malay 
word itself being " originally a 

1 " And by land he throw up works 
half a league from Malacca, in that 
part which is called Campochina." 
Jofto de Barros, Dec. Ill, x, 3. 

corruption of the Port, campo. 
taking the meaning first of 
camp, and thence of an enclos- 
ed area." See Hobson-Jobson, 
s.v. campoo and compound. 

[Crooke, in Hobson-Jobson 
s.v. campo, refers to White- 
way's note that both Castan- 
heda (Bk. VI, ch. ci, p. 217) 
and Barros (see below) speak 
of a ward of Malacca as 
Campu China, which de 
Eredia (1613) calls Campon 
China, and he thinks this last 
name may supply a link be- 
tween Campoo and Kampung. \ 

PCana da fndia (Indian 
cane). Bur. kyane. 

[Cana da fndia was also 
called Cana de Bengala and is 
the Arundinaria Wightiana, 
Ness, or Bambusa arundo, Dak. 
and Gibs., which grows in 
Bengal and from which were 
obtained walking sticky highly 
prized in early Portuguese 
days. But besides the mean- 
ing of * walking stick ' it also 
implied a staff of office, prin- 
cipally a sort of baton, used 
by military officers. The term 
and its different acceptations 
have been discussed at length 
in Dalgado's Contributes, 




Canada (a measure in 
Portugal containing three 
English pints). Sinh. kandde 
(pi. kandda). 1 

Canal (canal). Konk. kandl 
(us. only in Goa). Tel. kandli. 

Brown assumes that kandli 
is from French. 

Canape (a couch). Konk. 
kannpo (pi. kanape). Sinh. 
kandppuva. Tet., Gal. kan- 
<ipe | Turk, qdnape. \ 

Canario (a (Canary-bird). 
Konk. kandr. Jap. kandrit/a. 2 

? Candelabro (a candela- 
brum ; a large, branched, can- 
dle stick). Sinh. kandaldruva. 
In the Port, dialect of Ceylon : 
candelar, candeler. Probably 
from the Dutch kandelaar. 

? Candil (in the old accepta- 
tion of 'a lamp', now obsolete) . 
Guj. kandil, a glass lamp. 
Hindi, Hindust. qandil. Kan. 
kandila. Mai. kandil. Ach. j 
khandel. Jap. kantera, a hand 

1 According to Antonio Nunes 
(Livrodos Pesos da lndia > p 34), Canada 
was in use in Cochin ; but dictionaries 
do not mention the word. 

2 '* Specially certain (birds) which 
they call inhapures, which resemble 
very much canaries in colour and 
song." Joilo dos Santos, Ethiopia 
Oriental, I. p. 134. 

In all probability the word is 
imported directly from the 
Arabic qandil. 

The origin of the Japanese 
terra is doubtful ; perhaps it is 
from the English * candle', not- 
withstanding the difference in 
meaning. Goncalves Viana 
believes that it is from the 
Spanish candela, ' a candle '. 

Canela (the shin bone). 
Konk. kanel, the shin of a 
cow. Tet. kanda, the bark 
of the cinnamon tree. 

Canequim (a thick cotton 
fabric formerly made in India). 
Jap. kanekim. 1 

1 " A white, quilted, robe made of 
canequim." Expolio de Balthazar 
Jorge (1549), in Jour. Geo. *Soo. Lisb., 
4th ser., p. 290. 

44 Canequis, bo] eta*, bcyrames, 
sabdgagis.* Dio^o do Couto, Dec. IV, 
1. 7. 

[The above are names of different 
cotton fabrics which were formerly 
woven in India and exported to 
lOurope. It is very true what Yule 
and Burnell observe that it is most 
difficult to draw intelligible distinc- 
tion between the various kinds of 
cotton fabrics which under a variety 
of names were formerly exported to 
Europe. Bofetas is the same as the 
Anglo-Ind. baftas, a kind of calico 
made especially at Broach (sec 
Hobson-Jobson, s.v. bafta) ; for 
beyrame* see under beaiilha. Saba- 
gagis is mentioned as one of the text- 



[The original of the word is 
the Marathi khankl.] 

? Canga (an ox-yoke). Mai., 
Jav., kang, bridle [Anglo- 
Ind., cangue.] Pid.-Engl . 
cango, " a species of chair or lit- 
ter suspended from a pole and 
carried by two men ". Leland. 

Swettenham regards kang as 
a vernacular Javanese term, 
and not without reason, 
because of the difference in 
meaning between it and the 
Portuguese word and, secondly, 
because the Javanese word has 
no vowel ending, which normal- 
ly words in Malay borrowed 
from the Portuguese retain. 
See cdmara. 

Leland says that cango is a 
Japanese word ; but the dic- 
tionaries which I have consult- 
ed do not give it the meaning 
which he says it has. These 
are the meanings which they 
give : " Chinese words ; attend- 
ing to the sick ; safe custody ; 

iles produced at Cambay ; Dalgado 
(Olossario) says he cannot trace its 
etymology with any sense of certainty. 
It is no doubt the Ar. sab* (* seven*) 
and gaz ('a yard'), i.e., cloth sold 
seven yards to the rupee. "| 

" And from above one canequim 
spread out." Antonio Bocarro, Dec. 
XIII, p. 538. 

rigorous imprisonment. ' ' Hep- 

Leland and Yule notice 
another vocable with the same 
meaning, viz., cangue, which 
Joaquim Crespo describes in 
Cousas da China as follows : 

" The canga is a weighty 
square board, 80 centimetres 
wide and 5 thick, having a hole 
in the centre wherein the neck 
of the delinquent is held fast 
and locked." 

There is, according to Yule t 
a genuine Chinese word noted 
in a dictionary of the eleventh 
century under the form kang- 
giai (in modern Mandarin 
speech hyang-hiai). From 
kanggiai is derived the Canton 
form k'ang-ka, ' to wear the 
canga ', and probably the An- 
namite gang. 1 He thinks it 
probable that the Portuguese 
took the word from one of 
these latter forms and asso- 
ciated it with their own canga, 
'an ox-yoke', or ' porter's yoke 
for carrying burdens'. But 
Gongalves Viana says that the 
Portuguese word canga implied 
"either from analogy of the 

1 In Siamese, kha'ng means ' to 
imprison '. 




form or its use the board which 
i.s used in China for punish- 
ment." But there is no evi- 
dence that, in these meanings, 
canga was at that time in 
use in Portugal, nor has its 
origin, up to now, been investi- 
gated ; the presumption is that 
it comes from con(ju)gar ('to 
join or unite '). 

Fernao Pinto calls the 
Chinese * canga ', collar (' a col- 
lar '). " Ordered us to be put 
into a narrow prison with fet- 
ters on our feet, manacles on 
our hands and collares on our 
necks." But Cardim in his 
Batalhas da Companhia de 
Jesus (1650) employs the term 
in its Chinese acceptation : 
" Andre was arrested for being 
a Christian and taken to the 
prison where they put round 
his neck a canga, which, as I 
have already said, is made of 
two thick pieces of wood in the 
shape of a ladder, and weighted 
more or less according to the 
crime of the offender/' 

[Crooke notes that the 
O.E.D., on the authority of 
Professor Legge, rejects Yule's 
view (see above) and main-' 
tains that ' cangue ' is from 
the Portuguese canga, ' a yoke '. 

Professor Giles is also en- 
tirely of the opinion that the 
word is from Portuguese and 
not from any Chinese term. 
As against all this, Dalgado, 
in his Gon$alves Viana e a 
Lexicologia Portuguesa pub- 
lished four years after the pre- 
sent work, inclines to the view 
that canga, in the acceptation 
of * a wooden board worn round 
neck by Chinese criminals ', is 
not from the Portuguese 
canga, ' a yoke for oxen ', but 
has its origin in an Annamite 
word. His reason for this 
view are: (1) The earliest 
Portuguese chroniclers of 
India speak of this * pillory of 
wood ' as colar, and tabua 
('board'). One of them who 
describes very minutely * this 
instrument of torture ' calls it 
by the Chinese name kiahao ; 
none use the term canga. (2) 
the earliest reference to canga, 
in the Chinese acceptation, is 
in Cardim's Batalhas (see 
above), but beforehim, in 1635, 
Antonio Bocarro refers to ganga 
in the same sense. " With his 
hands tied, they placed him in 
a boat and, accompanied by a 
bell, they took him with some 
speed along the whole fleet, 




and finally threw him into a ] 
sort of cage with a ganga round 
his neck " (in Pegu). Palgado, 
therefore, is of the view that the 
source word of canga is not the 
Portuguese canga but the An- 
namitegrany, which afterwards, 
following the laws of attraction, 
became transformed into canga. 
Cardim's reference to canga is 
als.o in connection with An- 
name. The Chinese name for 
this portable pillory is kid. 
See Yule, Cathay, 1, p. 179.] 

CSnfora (camphor). Konk. 
kdrhphr ; vern. term Icdphur, 
kapur, from the Sanskrit kar- 
pura, which is the mediate 
source of the Portuguese word. 
Tet., Gal. kdnfora. 

Canhao (a piece of ord- 
nance ; also a shirt-cuff). 
Konk. kanhdthv. (in the sense 
of k a cuff '). Tarn, canhao (in 
the same sense). 1 ? Beng. 
kamdn, cannon. Bug. kanhdo, 

Canivete (penknife) . 

Konk. kdnvet ; vern. term 
chdku (I. us.). Tet., Gal. kani- 

Canja (' rice gruel'j) . Anglo- 

1 A friend writes to me that the 
word is pronounced in the same way as 
in Portuguese. 

Ind. conjee (in the sense of 
* rice gruel ', and also in that of 
' a medicinal drink made of 
rice decocted with spices and 
herbs ').* Indo-Fr. cange. In 
Konk. * rice gruel ' is called 

In Sanskrit and the modern 
Prakrits kdnji stands for 
water in which rice has been 
boiled and allowed to become 
acid ', such as is used for 
starching by Indian washer- 
men. 2 Yule says that the 
English received the term from 
the Portuguese ; perhaps he 
says this because of the identity 
of meaning of the two words, 
though congee is nearer the 
Indian word. 

l "They give the patient rice water 
to drink with pepper and cummin 
seed which they call canje ". Garcia 
da Orta, Col, xvii [ed. Markham, 
p 158]. 

"The Chinaman held his tongue, 
and immediately gave orders for a 
large supply of rice canja to be pre- 
pared, which was sufficient to enable 
all to recover from the hunger which 
every one felt." Bocarro, Dec. XIIT, 
p. 168. 

2 " This word is improperly used by 
ladies and ayahs for gruel." Candy. 

"Their white clothes are washed 
with water in which rice has been 
boiled, and thereby they become well 
starched." Gaspar Correia, p. 357. 




[I cannot trace the refer- 
ence for this statement of the 
author. In Hobson-Jobson, 
Yule connects the Anglo-Ind. 
' conjee ' with the Tamil kanjl> 
' boilings '. It is true that 
in Sanskrit and the modern 
Prakrits, as has been said 
above, kanji signifies the usual 
starch of Indian washermen ; 
but in Tamil kanji has both 
meanings : ' rice gruel ', and 
' starch ', whereas in Malay- 
alam the word is used only in 
the former sense, the latter 
being conveyed by the com- 
pound kanjippaSa = starch 
from ' congee'. From this it 
might be inferred that the 
Portuguese word was derived 
from Malayalam. See Dal- 
gado, Glossario, and Contribui- 

Cano (a pipe, a conduit). 
Konk. kdn ; vern. terms nal, 
sdrni. Sinh. kdnuva. Tubak- 
ka kdnuva, the barrel of a gun. 
Tet., Gal. kdnu. 

Cantar (to sing, to chant). 
Konk. kantdr-karuhk. Kdntdr 
or kantdr (subst., masc.), a 
song. Mai. kantar. 

Canto (in the sense of * a 
corner'). Mai. kdntu. 

Capa (a cloak) . Konk. kdp, 

a cloak, an envelope for letters, 
a priest's cope, and a capot in 
a game of cards. Beng. , Tarn . , 
Malay al. kappa, pluvial, long 
cloak used as ceremonial vest- 
ment. Tel. kappu, a super- 
scription. Siam. kdb, cloak ; 
vern. term song muen. Mai. 
capa (Haex). Mac., Bug., 
Tet., Gal. kdpa, cloak. Jap. 
kappa. Ama-gappa, rain-coat 1 
? Ar. qabd. See cabaia. 

Gapado (gelding, he-goat 
castrated). Sinh. kappddu, 
kappddu-kala (lit. * made a 
gelding ') . Kappddu-karanava , 
to geld or castrate ; vern. term 
kara-ambanava . Kappddu- 
kerima, castration ; vern. term 
kara-embima. K appdduva, 
the animal that is castrated ; 
a eunuch ; vern. term napum- 
sakayd ( Kappddu- 
kala kukuld, a capon. Gal. 

In Konkani kapdmv, ' cast- 
rated ', kapdtnv-karunk, * to 
castrate ', from the Port, capao 
( 4 a castrated cock 5 ), are in 
use. 2 

1 K intervocalic becomes g in Japan- 
ese, as in ama-gasa, from ama and 
kasa> * rain-coat'; ko-gatana, from ko 
and katana, ' pen -knife *. 

2 Kapanava, ' to cut, to amputate ', 
in Sinhalese, is a vernacular verb. 




Gapar (to castrate). 
Malayal. kapparikka (also used 
in the sense of * castrated '). 
Tet., Gal. kdpa (also in the 
sense of ' castrated '). 

Gapaz (capable, clever). 
Konk. kapdz ; vern. term 6akt, 
samarth, salav. Tet., Gal. 
kapds ; vern. term matenek. 

Gapela (in the sense of * a 
chapel'). Konk. kapel (also 
* a chapleb of flowers '). Tarn. 
kapelei. Tet., Gal. kapela. 

[The Port, capela also 
signifies ' a garland or chaplet 
of flowers.'] 

Capitao (a captain). Konk. 
kdpitdniv ; kopit (also ' a chief 
or leader'). Guj. kaptdn, 
kapattdn. Hindi, Hindust. 
kaptdn. Sinh. kappita, kap- 
peta. Malayal. kappitdn. 
Khas. kaptan, koptan (probably 
from the English * captain '). 
Mai. kapitdn, kapitan. Ach., 
Sund., Jav., Day., Tet., Gal. 
kapitan. Bug. kapitan-moro 
( = Port. capitdo mor, * chief 
captain'). Pid-Engl. cab-tun. 
Jap. kapitan, ' a ship's cap- 
tain ; the leader of a company 
of workmen.' j Turk, qdp- 
tan 1 | . 

1 "The very title of capitao-mor 
(' the chief -captain ') which used to be 

Capote (a cloak). Konk. 
Teapot. Bal. kaput. Tet, 

kapoti ; vern. term phdru boti. 
? Malag. kapoti. Ar. kabut, 
kabdbit. | Turk, qdput l \ . 

? Garabina (carabine) . 

Mar., Hindust., Punj. karabin. 
Sindh. karabinu. Mai. kar- 
rebin (Marre). Karabini, cara- 
bineer, in Punjabi. In 
Marathi the vern. term is 
dama. | Turk, qdrabina \ . 

Some Indian lexicographers 

given to the Portuguese governors 
passed into these languages (Malay, 
Javanese, Sundanese), which used it 
first to denote those and subsequently 
fche governor-generals of the Dutch 
nolonies. In Hitu, the chief part of 
the island of Amboyana, the title of 
kapitan hitu was borne for many 
centuries by the principal indigenous 
chief upon whom this title was con- 
ferred by Antonio do Bnto, Governor 
of the Molucas, at the beginning of the 
16th century, as a reward for services 
rendered to the Portuguese." Hey 

" The song in Malay begins thus : 
Capitao Dom Paulo ba poram de 
Pungor, anga dia malu, sita pa tau 
dar " Rendered into English gives : 
'* Captain Don Paulo fought in Pungor 
and preferred to die rather than yield 
a foot." Diogo do Couto, Dec. IV, 
viii, 11. 

1 "The hidalgos of that time did 
not repose their vanity in capotes 
(cloaks*) and breeches." Couto, 
Dec. VI f x, 8. 




admit that the immediate 
source of the word is French, 
The term is a modern one in 

Carambola (hot., Averrhoa 
carambola) . Anglo-Ind. caram- 
bola. Indo-Fr. carambole, 

The source word is the 
Mar.-Konkani karambal [or 
karmal from the Sansk. karma- 
ranqa] l . 

? Caramelo (a caramel, a 
sweetmeat). Jap. karameiru, 
karumera, karumeira, sugar- 

Gon^alves Viana is of the 
opinion that the source of the 
Japanese word is probably 

. Carapu?a (a cap; covering 
for the head). Mai. karpiis, 
karpiiz. Sund., Batav. kart- 
pus. Jav. kdrpus, krdpus* 

1 "Antonia, pluck from this tree 
Home carambola, for this is how they 
are called in Malabar." Garcia da 
Ota, Col, xii |ed. Markham, p. 97. 
See also quotation under bUimbim]. 

" Thoro is in China as great an abund- 
ance of carambolas as of mangoes. " 
Lucena, Historia, Bk. X, ch. 18. 

' Divers kinds of fruits, such as 
mangoes, jack-fruit, carambolas." 
Jofto dos Santos, Ethiopia Orietital, 
II, p. 270. 

2 And on the head over a coif of 

Caravela (small, light, fast 
ship). Anglo-Ind. caravel, 

[The Port, dictionary, Con- 
temporaneo, says that the 
derivation of the word is un- 
certain. Yule, because of the 
character of swiftness attribut- 
ed to the caravel, suggests, but 
half-heartedly, the Turki kara- 
wul y ' a scout, an outpost, a 
vanguard ', as the source word. 
The O.E.D. says that it is pro- 
bably the diminutive of Sp. 


Cardamomo (cardamom). 

Sinh. kardamunga ; vern. term 

ensdl. 1 Mai., Jav. kardamon. 

Mac. garididong. Bug. 

garidimonq ; vern. term kapul- 


Caridade (charity). Konk. 

kariddd (1. us.) ; vern. terms 

dharm, dayd. Tet. karidddi ; 

vern. term didk. 

Cari! (curry). Anglo-Ind. 

curry. Indo-Fr. carry. Tet., 

Gal. karil. 

gold, a velvet carapu^a." Joflo de 
Barros, Dec. II, x. 8. 

*' And on the head a round carapu^a 
which did not cover- the ears.'* 
Gaspar Correia, Lendas, 1, 2. 

1 In Malabar it is called etremilly, 
and in Ceylon enfal." Garcia da Orta, 
Col. xiii [ed. Markham, p. 100.). 




Kari in Tamil, kadhi in 
Marathi and Konkani. 1 

[Either of these may be the 
source of the Portuguese word 
but presumably the latter. 
That the Port, word took to 
itself a final I is nothing 
strange ; the phenomenon is 
observable in the Port, candil, 
a measure, from Mar. kandl ; 
Tarn, kandi.} 

[Carrane (agent or factor ; 
supercargo of a ship, in India). 
Anglo-Ind. cranny? tl In 
Bengal commonly used of a 
clerk writing English, and 

1 " They also make dishes of fowl 
and flesh which they call caril." 
Garcia da Orta, Col. xvi [ed. Markham, 
p. 142]. 

2 [" You can safely send to the ships 
the factors and carranes of the place 
to whom all the ships will be shown." 
lnatru$des de D. Manuel, in Alguna 
Documentas da Torre do Tombo (1500), 
p. 98, cit. in Qlossario. ] 

[C. 1590." The karranf is a writer 
who keeps the accounts of the ship, and 
servos out the water to the pas- 
sengers." Aln (c. 1590), ed. Bloch- 
mann, I, 280, cit. in Hob son- Job son ] 

[" Doubt you not but it is too true, 
howsoever the cranny flatters you 
with better hopes." Danvers, Letters, 
1, 117, cit. by Crooke in Hobaon-Jobson.] 

[" The karanes are the offspring of 
metizo and Indian unions, and are 
proud of their descent. De la Boullaye 
de Gouz, Voyages, etc., p. 226.] 

thence vulgarly applied gener- 
ically to the East Indians, or 
half-caste class, from among 
whom English copyists are 
chiefly recruited/' (Hobson- 
Jobson) . 

The Portuguese borrowed 
the term from the Malayal. 
karana, Hindust. karani, 
which in its turn is the Sansk. 
karan, the present participle 
of kar, ' to do '. 

Longworth Dames (in a note 
to Canarins, Duarte Barbosa, 
Vol. I, p. 62) opines that 
Kararii, as applied to the class 
of Eurasians, is the metathesis 
of Ganarim. It is needless to 
say that such a view is entirely 
without any foundation, and 
that the two words are distinct 
in meaning and etymology. 
For the meaning of Canarim 
see under Casti$o.] 

Carreira (the name of a 
species of mango-tree and its 
fruit). Konk. karel. Mar. 
kurel. Cf. Afonsa and Colaqa. 

Carreta (in the sense of 
' carriage, cart ') . Konk. karet 
(also used of 'a jagging-iron 
such as pastry cooks use ') ; 
vern. term gadL Sinh. karette 
(pi. karatta), kareltiya, ka-rdt- 
taya, kar&ttuva ; vern. term 




rathaya (Sansk.), gela. Karet- 
ta-kdraya, coacliman. Asva- 
karattaya (lit., 'horse-car- 
riage'), a coach, chaise. 
Karattayen genaydma, trans- 
port, freight. Siam. kra-td. 
Mai. kareta, kereta, kreta, krita. 
Kreta api (lit., "cart of fire'), 
locomotive. Batt., Sund. 
kareta, krta. Jav. kareta, 
kar6to, kreta. Mad. karetd. 
Day., Mac., Bug. kartta. Tet., 
Gal. karreta. 

Carr&ta, in the sense of a 
* carriage ', is also used in the 
Portuguese dialects of the 
East. 1 

In Arabic karrus, kdrusdt are 

1 " They (the women of Cambaya) 
go in horse -caretas (' carriages ') 
entirely covered, so that nobody can 
say who travels within." Duarte Bar- 
bosa, p. 272. [Hak. Soo., ed. Long- 
worth Dames, Vol. I, p. 121.] 

" The carretas (of Surat) in which 
he and the Portuguese travelled were 
elaborately wrought and furnished 
with silk hangings." Gaspar Correia, 
II, p. 369. 

"And from there came many car- 
retas laden with this uplot" Garcia 
da Orta, Col. xvii [ed. Markham, 
p. 149. Uplot according to da Orta is 
the Gujarati name for the Costua Ara- 
bicua, the root of Auklandia Gostus, 
Falconer. Dymock (Mat. Med.) men- 
tions that the name is still in use in 
Gujarat in the form ouplate.] 

[Wilson suggests a probable 
Portuguese origin for the 
Anglo-Indian * hackery ,' the 
common bullock-cart of 
Bengal, from acarretar, f to 
convey in a cart '. To this 
Yule says, " It is possible that 
the mere Portuguese article 
and noun ' a carreta ' might 
have produced the Anglo- 
Indian hackery. But it is al- 
most certain that the origin of 
the word is the Hindi chhakra, 
'a two-wheeled cart'." See 
Hobson-Jobson y s.v. hackery.] 

Carta (playing-card) . 

Konk. kart. Mai. kdrta, kdrtu. 
Sund. kdrtu (also ' a geo- 
graphical chart '). Jav. kdrtu. 
Mad. kertd.Mol. kertu, 
kerto. Jap. karuta. 

In Japanese the compound 
consonants (with the exception 
of st) of foreign words are 
separated by the intercalation 
of u : Furansu = France ; 
burashi = brush ; daruma = 
dharma (Sansk.). But Kiristo 
= Christ, by assimilation ; 
saberu=z sabre. Cf. pis tola. 

Malayalam has char it a, a 
writing, document ; chdrttuka, 
to execute a deed ; chdrttu- 
pafi, a catalogue ; chdrttu- 
a deed in writing. 




Wilson, in his Glossary, thinks 
it probable that the word is of 
Portuguese origin. In which 
case, the change of the c, in 
the first syllable, to ch is to be 

PCarta or cartaz (in the 
sense of * paper '). Siam fcra- 
dart, Kamb. credas. Bier 
credas, game of cards. Mai., 
Sund., Jav. kdrtas, kertas. - 
Ach. kertas. Day. kardtas, 
krdtas. Mac. kardtasa. Bug. 

** It is probable that it is 
one of these two words whose 
transformation gave rise to the 
Malay, Javanese, and Sunda- 
nese karlas or kertas, ' paper '. 
Although Arabic has the word 
kralas otherwise qartas 
(from the Greek chartes), kartas 
is not of Arabic origin, because 
in the Dutch Indies it is pre- 
cisely the European and the 
Chinese paper that is called 
kartas" Heyligers. Michell 
also attributes a Portuguese 
origin to the Siamese word. 

Notwithstanding these 

views, the Portuguese origin 
appears very improbable, 
especially, because of the 
divergence in the meaning of 
the word in Portuguese and 
the Eastern languages. 

There is no evidence to show 
that the word carta had ever 
been employed in Portuguese 
to mean 'paper'. Cartaz was 
employed in India in the sense 
of ' a passport ' or 4 sailing- 
licence ' ; arid in this meaning, 
it appears to be of Arabic 
origin. [The Ar. qirtas, ( paper, 
document.'] "Sailors from 
Coulao would send to Cochym 
for the certificate which they 
call cartaz.'* Gaspar Correia 
(I, p. 298). "They had gone 
to Bassein to obtain a pass 
(which they call cartazes) 
from the captains." Diogo do 
Couto (Dec. IV, ix, 2) 1 . 

Gartucho (a cartridge). 
Konk. kartus. Guj., Hindi, 
Hindust., Punj. kartus. Tel. 

1 "Send me a cartas (' safe-con- 
duct') in your own hand-writing for 
my lancharas and jurupangos to enable 
them to sail in safety in all weathers."' 
Fernao Pinto, ch. xiii. [Lancharas and 
jurupangos are names of vessels men- 
tioned in Portuguese histories o the 
16th and 17th centuries. They are 
both supposed to be derived from 
Malay. See Glossario, and for lanchara 
also Hobson-Jobson.] 

"He will give cartazes to the ships 
of Idalxa ( Adil Shah '), so that they 
may sail to all parts.. .The said factor 
to give cartazes to the vessels which 
might sail from the said port." Simao 
Botelho, pp. 43, 44. 




kdto,ru,8u, katanusu, ? kdkitamu. 
Gar., Khas. kartus. Mac., 
Bug. karatusa. Tat., Gal. 
kartus. 1 

Tonkinese has cat-tut, which 
must be a corruption of the 
Fr. cartouche. 

Casa (slit to receive fasten- 
ing; a button-hole). Konk. 
Me. Mar. kdj ; vern. terms 
gundicherh ghar, birdem. Guj. 
gdja. Beng., Hindust. kdj. 
Tarn. kdju. Rottam-hilu (lit. 
' a slit for the button ') is the 
Sinhalese equivalent. 

Casado (married). Sinh. 
kasddaya, kasdda-bendima, 
marriage ; vern. terms vivdha- 
bendima, vivdhaya (Sansk.). 
Kasdda-bendinavd, to marry. 
Kasdda-benddpu, married. 

Casar (in the sense of 

i " The Condestabre (' Captain-Gene. 
i-i\] ') of Luis do Mollo discharged a 
small cannon which ho was carrying 
with stone cartuxo ('ball') in its 
muzzle." Diogo do Couto, Dec. VII, 
vi, 2. 

" When they saw from this side that 
what was hoped for had been carried 
out, they began to get ready the arms 
and artillery and to prepare cartuxo s 
and other requisites of war" (1604). 
In Historia trayico-maritima vii, p. 11. 

'* We fought until we had only two 
barrels of gun powder and twenty- 
eight cartuxos left." Ibid., IX, p. 9. 

c a Christian marriage'). 
Konk. kdzdr. Kdzdr-karuhk, 
to give in marriage. Kazdr- 
zavunk, to marry. Kazro, an 
ill-sorted marriage. It is also 
the name of the nu,v vomica 
tree. Kdzdri, married (to 
distinguish from a bachelor or 
a widower). Kdzdracho (kaza- 
rachi, fern., kazdrdchem, neut.) 
marriageable, nubile. 

Many Portuguese verbs are 
employed in Konkani as neuter 
substantives, as for instance : 
pintdr from Port, pintar, ' to 
paint', is used in Konk. to mean 
' a painting ' ; razdr and kum- 
sdr, from Port, rezar, ' to pray ' 
and confessar, 6 to confess ', are 
respectively used in Konk. in 
the sense of ' prayer ' and 
* confession. 51 

Caso (a happening, an inci- 
dent). Konk. kdz ; vern. 
terms ghadni, go$t ; parvd. 
Tet. kdsu. 

1 As an exception to the rule 1 have 
hitherto followed, I arn registering 
here the Portuguese word casar, 
though it has been adopted only by 
Konkani. I am doing this because of 
the various derivatives from the word 
which are in use in that language. 
There are various terms for marriage 
among the Hindus ; lagn, vardd, vcirdik, 
hati, vavar, vivdha. 




Gasoar (a cassowary) . Jap. 
kasovdru, kasvaruchd. 

The original of the Portu- 
guese word is the Malay kasu- 

Casta (caste). Konk. kdst ; 
vern. terms zdt, varn. Anglo- 
Ind., Indo-Fr. caste. Mai. 

In the Konkani of Goa the 
terms kastist, 'one who is 
keenly alive to caste distinc- 
tions,' and kastijm, 4 a strong 
caste sentiment ', are met with. 
Both these terms are borrowed 
directly from the Portuguese 
spoken in Goa which has the 
forms castista, castismo. 

Yule says that Duarte Bar- 
bosa (1516) does not apply the 
word casta to the divisions that 
obtain in Hindu society, but he 
calls these divisions so many 
leis de gentios, i.e.. ; laws' of the 
heathen. But this view is dis- 
proved by the following passage 
(p. 334) : " There are, besides 
the divisions mentioned above, 
eleven others composed of the 
lower classes . . . which prevent 
one casta from mixing with 
another casta *." [Ed. Long- 
worth Dames, Vol. II, p. 59.] 

1 "As regards the castas, the 
greatest impediment to the conversion 

[" Caste, the artificial divi- 
sions of society in India, first 
made known to us by the 
Portuguese, and described by 
them by the term casta, signi- 
fying breed, race, kind, which 
has been retained under the 
supposition that it was the 
native name/' Wedgwood, A 
Dictionary of English Ety- 
mology. But a most fanciful 
derivation of the word is given 
by W. Hamilton, Descr. of 
Hindostan, 1, 109, quoted by 
Crooke in Hobson-Jobson : 
1820 " The Kayasthas (pro- 
nounced Kaists, hence the 
word caste) follow next.] 

Castanha (a chestnut). 
Mai. kesten, a knock on the 
top-head in the game of tops. 
Ar. kastdna, kastdnia. Turk. 

Castela (Castile, the name 
of one of the two kingdoms of 
Spain). Mai., | Bal. | katela* 

of the Hindus is the superstition which 
they maintain with regard to their 
castas; this prevents them from 
touching, communicating or mingling 
with others, in the same way as 
superiors will not mix with inferiors : 
members of one observance with those 
of another." Diogo do Couto, Dec. 
V. vi. 4. 

1 In katela " the a is elided, and the 



a species of potato. | Jav. 
katelo (idem) \ . Mac. kasa- 
tela, a potato. Jap. kastera, 
kasutera. a sponge-cake. 

In one or the other of the 
above vocables another mean- 
ing is perhaps also implied. 
Cf. cambric, cashmere, etc. 
In Italian they speak of pane 
di Spagna, and Yule conjec- 
tures that the English term 
' sponge cake ' is a corruption 
of * Spanish cake '. ; \ , 

Casual " V(candle-stick). 
Konk. kastisdl. Tarn, kasti- 
sdl, kastrisdl. Tet. kastisdl. 

Casti?o (a child of Portu- 
guese parents, born in India). 
Anglo-Ind. castees (obs.). 

According to Dr.Schuchardt, 
castiqos are, among the 
Germans and the Dutch, the 
offspring of marriages between 
Europeans and mestizos. 
See mestizo and topaz. 1 

word thus acquires the form usual with 
names of plants and parts of plants." 
Dr. Fokker. 

1 "Next are those born in India of 
Portuguese fathers and mothers and 
called castios" (1616). Pyrard. 
Viagem, II, p. 32 [Hak. Soc. Vol. II, 
p. 38]. 

" The Castissos are those who are 
born of father and mother who are 
reinols (* European Portuguese'); this 
word is derived from caste; they are 

[The distinction between the 
pure Portuguese and their 
mixed descendants, as far as 
nomenclature is concerned, is 
succintly given by Teixeira 
Pinto, Memorias sobre as 
Possessoes Portuguezas, p. 168, 
and will bear quoting: "The 
Portuguese, whether of Europe 
or Brazil, are at Goa called 
without distinction F^angues 
or Fringuins or Reindes ; those 
born in India of pure Portu- 
guese blood, Castifos, corres- 
ponding to the Creoles of 
America ; half-castevS are called 
Mestizos ; children of native 
Christians are Canarins ; those 
of Hindu parents are Conka- 
nos." Canarim, correctly 
speaking, is a native of Kanara, 
but the Portuguese from the 
earliest times erroneously 
spoke of the people of Goa, 
who geographically are Konk- 
ani and ethnically Indo- Aryan, 
as Canarim. In modern times, 
and at the present day, the 
Goans regard the term and its 
application to them as offens- 
ive, just in the same way 
as Indians regard the term 

held in contempt by the reinols." Le 
Gouz de la Boullaye, Voyages (1643). 




* natives ' when used by Eu- 
ropeans to designate them.] 

Castigar (to punish). Mai. 
castigar ( Haex) . S J ^ " / * ^ 

Gastigo (punishment). 

Konk. kastig (1. us.) ; vern. 
term khfot. Tet., Gal. kastigu. 
vern. terms ukum, bdku. 

* Castor (beaver ; also a 
beaver hat). Mai., Sund,, Jav. 
kasturi, kastori, musk, a civet 
cat. Mac., Bug. kasaturi. 

Gon<jalves Viana regards the 
Portuguese origin of these 
words as certain. Dr. Heyligers 
.is of the opinion that they are 
derived from Sanskrit. In 
fact, kasturi, in Sanskrit, 
means ' musk ', and kasturi- 
mrga, ' a civet cat '. And in 
this sense these terms are 
employed as vernacular all 
over India. In Goa, however, 
castor, even at the present 
day, is the name for the * black 
silk top-hat '. 

. Catana (a large broad- 
sword). Tet., Gal. katdna. 

* Jap. katana. 

Wenceslau Morais (Day- 
Nipp^n) gives catana as a 
Portuguese word, introduced 
among the Japanese. Candido 
de Figueiredo is undecided as 
to whether it is derived from 

Japanese or Italian. Bluteau, 
Morais, and Dr. Adolfo Coelho 
regard it as of Japanese origin, 
and Gon9alves Viana (Apos- 
tilas) says that this view is 
unquestionable. 1 

In the Portuguese of Goa, 
catana is employed in the same 
meaning as the Konkani koyto, 
' a large kitchen knife, or a 
wood-cutter's knife'. 

Gatanar, caganar (a priest 
of the St. Thomas Christians 
of Malabar). Anglo-Ind. cat- 
tanar, cassanar. c\ - ^ - . 

The word is the Malayal. 
kattandr (' chief '), derived 
from the Sansk. kartr. The 

1 " There are no better armourers in 
the lands we have discovered, for these 
out through our iron with their cata- 
nas, as though it were soft wood." 
Lucena, Bk. VII, ch, 6. 

" Manuel Kodrigues took a cata- 
na which he had with him and with it 
suddenly dealt the captain a terrible 
catanada ( blow with a broad 
sword').*' A. Bocarro, Dec. XIII, 
p. 361. [Catanada is built up on the 
analogy of facada (* thrust with a 
knife') from Port, /aca, a knife. 
Similarly from cris 9 the Port, form of 
the Malay o- Jav. k&res or kris, a Malay 
dagger, they formed crisada, * a thrust 
or blow with the cris\'] 

4 'Ga tanas, bucklers, and other 
small arms without number" (in 
Tonquin). A. F. Cardim, Batalkas da 
Companhia de Jesus, p. 217. 




term is not to be found in 
Portuguese dictionaries. 1 

[Dalgado (Qloasario, s.v. 
ca$anar) quotes Fr. Vincenzo 
Maria (Viaggio (1656)) and La 
Croze (Histoire du Christian- 
isme (1724)) who derive cas- 
sanar from the Syriac qasis 
('priest') and the Malayalam 
nayar (' Nair '), that is, * priest 
of the Nair ', or * noble or Nair 
priest," and thinks that this 
derivation of the word is not 
improbable. The word is not 
mentioned in the O.E.D.] 

Catarro (a catarrh). Tet., 
Gal., Jap. katdru. - .': 

1 "The Christians of St. Thomas 
call their priests Gasanares." Anto- 
nio de Gouveia, Jornada do Arcebixpo 
fie Goa, 1606, p. 28. 

"With all their priests (whom they 
callCassanares)." Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. VII, viii, 2. 

" And it was owing to the Providence 
of our Lord, for it was the same route 
which was followed by the Cacenar 
whom the Bishop sent the year 
before.. .There 1 found the same 
chatim who had gone with the Cace- 
nar " (1603). In O Chronista de Tis- 
suary, III, p. 186. [Chatim in Port, is 
the same as the Anglo-Indian * chetty* 1 , 
a member of any of the trading castes 
in Southern India, corresponding to 
the Bania of Northern and Western 
India. The word is the Malay al. chetti 
(See Hobson-Jobson s.v. chetty.) 

It might be that the Japanese 
term is not derived immediate- 
ly from the Portuguese, but, 
like many others, is of modern 

? Catavento (a weather- 
cock ; ventilator ; also the 
space from the main mast to 
the stern of a ship which is 
occupied by the ship's officer 
who directs its course). L.- 
Hindust. kdtvai. 

[In India, the Portuguese 
employed the word catavento 
to describe a sort of wheel with 
boles, set at the top of the 
houses, to draw in the air and 
refresh the house. " Al their 
house? (at Ormuz) are flat 
above, and in the toppes there- 
of they make holes to let the 
ayre come in, like those of 
Cayro, and they use certaine 
instruments like Waggins 
(' swings ') with bellowes, to 
beare the people in, and to 
gather winde to coole them 
withall, which they call Cat- 
taventos." Linschoten (Hak. 
Soc.), Vol. I, p. 51.] 

Gate, cato, cchu (' an ex- 
tract from the wood of several 
species of Acacia'). Anglo- 

Ind. catechu, cutch, caut. 
Indo-Fr. caoutchouk. 




Gate is from the Marathi- 
Konkani kat, Sansk. kvatha or 
kvatha. Kdchu is a Dravidian 
form. 1 

[The Anglo-Indian ' catechu ' 
18 a compound of kdt and kdchu.] 

Catecismo (archaic form 
catequiamo, - a catechism). 
Konk. katesizm, kalekizm. 
Beng. katekisma. Sinh. kate- 
kismaya. 2 

Catdlico (a Catholic). 
Konk. katolk. Mar., Guj. 
katholik. Hindi, Beng. katho- 
lika. Sinh., Mai. katolika. 
Tarn., Malay al. katolik. -Tel. 
katholiku. Kan., Tul. katho- 
lika. Jap. katorikku. Ar. 

It is possible that in some of 
the languages the word may 
have felt the influence of, or 
Tseen derived from, English. 

[Catre (a light bedstead, a 
folding bed). Anglo-Ind. cot. 9 

1 "Gate, which here (Ormuz) is 
called cache." Antdnio Nunes, Livro 
dos Peasos, p. 22. See Gongalves 
Viana, Apostilos. 

2 4< It is for the (religious) brother to 
remain to help in Christian doctrine, 
catecismo, and the conversion of the 
infidels." Lucena, Bk, VI, ch. 3. 

3 [As one entered the corridor (of 
the palace), he saw a catre hanging 

from two silver chains Ghronica de 

Bisnaga (1525), p. 120.] 

The etymon of catre is the 
Malayal. kattil, in the mean- 
ing of ' bed, sofa,' derived 
from the Sansk. khatva, which 
gave khaf in Konkani and 
Marathi, and also the diminu- 
tive khdtlefo, * a cheap rough- 
hewn bed '. It is interesting to 
note that, just as the Malayal. 
vettila assumed in Portuguese 
the forms betele, betel, betle, 
betere, betre, so likewise kattil 
took the forms catele, cdtrl, 
catle, cdtere, catre. 

The Spanish Academy Dic- 
tionary mentions catre in the 
sense of ' a light bed-stead 
intended for one person only ', 
and derives it from cuatro, 
' four ', with reference to its 
four legs. But the mere 
mention of such a word in 
the Spanish dictionary is no 
proof that it is a genuine 
Spanish word, for coco, manga, 
palanquim, bazar are also to 
be met with in Spanish dic- 
tionaries, and these are un- 
mistakably Indian words which 

["A catre valued at 8,000 reis." 
T6mas Pires, Materiaes (1548), in 
Jour. Oeo. Soc. Lisb., XVI, p. 703.] 

["The better sort sleepe upon 
cots, or Beds two foot high, matted 
or done with girth-web " (1634). Sir 
T. Herbert, Travels, p. 149.] 




had been taken over to the 
Iberic Peninsula by the Portu- 
guese and were adopted not 
only by Spanish but also by 
other European languages. 

Yule very properly remarks : 
" Cot, though well understood, 
is not in such prevalent Euro- 
pean use as it formerly was, 
except as applied to barrack 
furniture, and among soldiers 
and their families. Words 
with this last characteristic 
have very frequently been 
introduced from the south. 
There are, however, both in 
north and south, vernacular 
words which may have led to 
the adoption of the term cot in 
their respective localities. In 
the north we have Hindi khat 
and khafwa. . . . , ; in the south, 
Tarn, and Malay al. kattil, a 
form adopted by the Portu- 

The form catre, to judge 
from the quotations in the 
GlossariO) was used as early as 
1525, and acquired great cur- 
rency in Portuguese. Besides 
the meanings of * bedstead ' 
and * folding bed ' noticed 
above, the word has been used 
in various other senses. In 
Port. India it is even at the 

present day used of a sort of 
hammock-litter or a palanquin. 
In the early Portuguese days it 
meant a throne, especially of 
the Malabar kings. For cita- 
tions to support these accepta- 
tions see Glossario. Prof. S. H. 
Hodivala (Notes on Hobson- 
Jobson, Indian Antiquary, 
Vol. LVIII, 1929) quotes from 
Alberuni's India (c. 1030) 
showing that katt was used in 
the sense of throne '. He 
also gives a fourteenth century 
quotation in which khat is used 
of a ' bedstead '. 

Oof was first used by Sir 
T. Herbert in his Travels 
(1634), according to the 
O.E.D., and this, as well as 
the fact that the form catre 
would more easily than the 
Hindi khat give 'cot', inclines 
us to the view that the Anglo- 
Indian word is the same as the 
Port, catre.] 

Catur (' a small and swift 
Indian rowing vessel ') . 
Anglo-Ind. and English cutter. 1 

1 " After some time as Siinam 
Rranjel and a companion were return- 
ing to Cochin in a paguer of the Moors, 
they were captured by caturis from 
Calecut." A. de Albuquerque, Cartas, 
I, p. 29. [J'agvel, paguer* pagur, pajer 




The origin of the word is 
uncertain. Yule says that he 
has not been able to trace the 
name to any Indian source. 
Burton, who is cited by Yule, 
derives it from the Arabic 
katireh, 'a small craft'. Fr. 
Joao de Santo Antonio Moura 
derives it from the Persian 

are the different names by which a 
cargo vessel was known on the southern 
coast of India. Dalgado, in his Glos- 
sario, says that Malayalam dictionaries 
do not mention any word correspond- 
ing to it, and that it is not unlikely 
that it was already in use in the 
Malabar Coast at the time when the 
Portuguese arrived there in the form 
pagala, equivalent to the Marathi 
bagala, which represents the Ar. baqala, 
and is the name commonly given on 
the Western Coast of India to Arab 
vessels of the old native form. It is 
not impossible that the Arabic baqala 
is itself a corruption of the Spanish 
bajel, baixel or baixel. For the form 
payer employed by Gaspar Correia, see 

" And twelve thousand reis from the 
catur or fusta " (q.v.). SimSo Botel- 
ho, Tombo, p. 246. 

' He entered a catur with only one 
page, intending thereby to disarm the 
covetuousness of the king which would 
have been roused if halberdeers had 
accompanied him." Lopo de Sousa 
Coutinho, Hist, do Cerco de Diu, 
p. 70. 

"He dispatched a very swift catur 
with letters for ChristovSo de Sousa." 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. IV, i, 2. 

katur, ' a small ship armed in 
time of war '. But it is not 
certain whether such terms 
exist in Arabic and Persian. 
It appears to me that the true 
origin of the word must be the 
Malay al. kattiri or the Neo- 
Aryan katar, from the Sanskrit 
kartari, ' a scissors ' ; literally 
' a cutter ', from the verb k?t, 
'to cut '. The craft whose 
distinguishing feature was its 
narrow shape, especially at 
the prow, which enabled it to 
cut through the water with 
ease, a fact noticed by the 
Portuguese chroniclers, might 
well earn the denomination 
katar. This term is employed 
in various metaphorical senses : 
for instance, in Konkani, katar 
is used to denote ' a cross piece 
of timber to hold fast larger 
beams, a pyramidical struc- 
ture, an obelisk '. The word 
was current in Malabar and 
in the Konkan when the 
Portuguese arrived there ; and 
if to-day it is not in use, it is 
because similar craft do not 

[The O.E.D. regards cutter > 
as an English word from * to 
cut '; though this view does not 
agree with the author's which 




would have * cutter ' indebted 
to the Port, catur, yet by anal- 
ogy it helps to lend strength 
to the derivation proposed 
above for catur, namely, from 
a Sansk. word implying ' to 

Cavala (Garanx' caballus ; 
a species of horse-mackerel). 
Anglo-Ind. cavally (us. in 

Gaspar Correia says (I, p. 
71): " There was (in Calicut) 
a lot of fish like sardines, which 
they called cavalinhas." 
The Portuguese called it by this 
name, not the people of Mala- 
bar, even as in Indo-Portu- 
guese this fish is called cavala, 
because it resembles so much 
the small mackerel *. 

* Cavalo (a horse).^ Kamb. 
capal, a ship. Captil chtim- 
bang, a man-of-war. Capal 
phlung, a steamer. Capcil 
kdong, a sailing vessel. 
Siam. kampdn. 2 Mai., Ach., 

1 "These Moucois ('Mukkuvar') 
fishers (of Malabar) catch a large quan- 
tity of a sort of little fish which is no 
longer than the hand, and as broad as 
a little bream; the Portuguese call it 
cavalla." Pyrard, Viagem, II, p. 328 
[Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 388]. See Ho6- 

2 The final I is pronounced n in 
Siamese. See rial. 

Batt., Sund., Jav., Mad., BaL, 
Day. kdpal, a large ship ; (in 
Batta there is an additional 
form hopal). Kdpal-dpi (lit. 
*fire horse'), a steamer. Of. 
Mar., Konk. dg-bot- Mac. 
kdppala. Bug. kavdlu, a 
horse (vern. terms titingang, 
anharang) ; kdppala, a ship. 

Yule and Burnell, following 
Marsden, say that the Malay 
word kdpal was imported from 
Tarn, kappal, 'a ship,' which 
is undoubtedly a vernacular 
term, for in the Roteiro da 
Viagem de Vasco da Oama 
there appears capell as the 
equivalent of the Port, naoo 
('ship'). Haex mentions the 
word in the same identical 
form and with the same mean- 
ing (cappal, ' a ship'), but not 
as of Portuguese origin, and 
distinguishes it from capalla, 
' head ', which is from Sanskrit. 

If the source of the word is 
really Portuguese, it is a matter 
for wonder that a foreign word 
should be employed in a sense 
so far-fetched, without being 
used in its proper meaning or 
one having any relation to it. 
But Dr. Heyligers bears wit- 
ness to the fact that only in 
High Javanese " the true 




meaning has been retained 
by the side " of the other. It 
is, however, possible, and very 
probable, that the word which 
means ' a big ship ' has come 
to signify metaphorically in a 
poetical language, like High 
Javanese, a ' high horse ', and 
not vice versa. W. W. Hunter 
mentions Jcapal as the verna- 
cular name for the horse in 
Krama (High Javanese), and 
gives jdran as its equivalent 
in Ngoho or Low Javanese 1 . 
Bugui makes a distinction 
between kavdlu and kappala. 

Again, there is no satis- 
factory explanation as to why 
the Malays adopted the Portu- 
guese cavalo when they had 
their own word Icuda. The 
adoption of koveM or torvelu, 
from Port, coelho, * rabbit ', in 
Malay and Javanese, and of 
koelhu, in Teto and Galoli, 
must be attributed to the fact 
that the animal was unknown 
among those people, owing to 
which there was no vernacular 
term for it. In the same way 
there is no especial name for 
the rabbit in India and it is, 

1 A Comparative Dictionary of the 
Languages (Non-Aryan) of India and 
High Asia. 

therefore, called by the 
name as the * hare '. " The 
Marathas make no distinction 
between the hare and the rab- 
bit." Candy. 

Cavilha (a wooden pin used 
in ship building; bolfc). L.- 
Hindust. kavila, kabila. 

Gear (to eat one's supper). 
Mai. cear (Haex). 

Cemiterio (a cemetery). 
Konk. simiter ; vern. terms 
masan, pretbhuniy (the burning 
ground of the Hindus). Beng. 
semiteri. Tarn., Kan., Tet., 
Gal. semiteri. 

[Centopeia (many-footed 
crawling animal). Anglo-Ind. 
centipede 1 . 

The O.E.D. says that the 
forms centipie, centapee, in 
West Indies and among the 
early navigators were probably 
from Spanish.] 

Cepilho (a plane used by 
joiners). Malayal. chippuli. 
Tet. sepilho, sebilo. 

Cerco (a siege,/also a fence). 
[Konk. cerk, a fence.] Mai. 
cerco (Haex). 

i [1662. "There is a kind of worm 
which the Portuguese call un centopfe, 
and the Dutch also ' thousand-legs ' 
(tausend-bein)." T. Saal (1662), 68, 
cit. in Hobson-Jobson.] 




Cerimonia (a ceremony). 
Konk. sermon; vern. terms 
nt, kriyd, parvad. Tet. sere- 
moni ; vern. term kndl. 

Ceroilas (drawers ; sleeping 
pant). Konk. serul. Guj. 
survdl, suravdla. Sinh. saru- 
vdlaya, sarwdlaya. Mai. sera- 
val, servdl, seluvar, seluar. 
Batt. saravar. Sund. serdvel. 
Jav. seruval Mac., Bug. 
saluvdra. 1 ' \ 

The Portuguese word comes 
from the Persian shalvdr, 
through the medium of the 
Arabic sirudl. In the group 
of Malayan languages it stands 
for ' trousers ', as in Persian. 

Cerveja (beer). Konk. 
servej. -Tet. serveja. 

Cevadeira (naut., a sprit- 
sail). L.-Hindust. sabdord, 

Cha (tea). Konk. chd, chdv. 
Mar. chahd. Guj. chd, 
chdha, chdhe. Hindi, Hindust. 
chd, chdh, chdy, chde. Nep. 
chiyd. Or., Beng. chd. 
Assam, chdh, chdi. Sindh. chd, 
chdhi. Punj. chahd. Kash. 
chdi. Tarn, chd (also te). 

i Breeches, ceroulas, stockings 
from the knee downwards, with shoes 
having holes in their soles." Ant6nio 
Tenreiro, Itinerario, ch. vi. 

Malayal. chd, chdya (also teyila, 
lit. ' the tea-leaf '). Kan., 
Tul. chd. Anglo-Ind. chaw (1. 
us.). Gar. cha. Khas. sha. 
Tib. Ma; so-ch'a (honorific 
name). Ch'a-pa, tea-slab. 
Siam. Ja. Ann., Tonk. che 
(also tra). Nic., Tet., Gal. 
chd. Pers. chdi. Ar. shai. 
| Turk, chdy \ . 

Chahaddn,chahadani (Mar.), 
chddani (Guj.), chaddn (Hind- 
ust.), a tea-pot. 

The Chinese ideograph 
which stands for the tea plant 
answers to two phonetic forms : 
chhd in the * Mandarin dialect ', 
and te in the dialect of Fuh- 
Kien. The first was adopted 
by Japan and by Indo-China, 
by Portugal, Greece, and Rus- 
sia ; and the second, by the 
other European nations, as 
also by the Malayo-Polynesian 
group of languages, and four 
Indian languages : Sinhalese 
and Telugu, Tamil, and Malaya- 
lam. The last two have alsa 
the other form. 

It is not known for certain 
whether tea was known in 
India before the Portuguese 
arrival there, nor to what ex- 
tent the propagation of tha 
word is to be attributed to- 




Portuguese influence, nor by 
what route the other form 
found its way to the Coro- 
mandel coast and made its 
entry into Ceylon. In the old 
Portuguese chroniclers there 
are not many references either 
to tea or coffee. The first 
mention of it, according to 
Gongalves Viana (Apoatilas) , 
is made by Frei Gaspar da 
Cruz in his Tratado da China 
(1569): ''Whatsoever person 
or persones come to any mans 
house of qualitee, hee hath a 
custome to offer him in a fine 
basket one Porcelane. . . with 
a kinde of drinke which they 
call cha, which is somewhat 
bitter, red, and medicinall, 
whibh they are wont to make 
with a certayne concoction of 
herbes." [See Da Cruz in 
Purchas, III, 180.] And Joao 
Lucena (1600) says: "The 
Japanese attach a value to 
the most trifling and ridicul- 
ous things, as are the stuffs 
used in preparing a decoction 
from the herb which is called 
cha." Bk. VII, ch. 4. 

Mandelslo, quoted in Hob- 
son-Jobson, says in 1638 : " In 
our ordinary meetings (at 
Surat) which we had every day, 

we did not take anything but 
The (tea), the use of which ivas 
very common all over India" 
But this ought to be under- 
stood in connection with the 
Europeans, their descendants, 
and some indigenous Christ- 
ians ; for, even to-day, the 
strictly orthodox Hindus ab- 
stain from tea, and Mussul- 
mans prefer coffee. 1 

John Crawfurd alleges that 
the word tea in its various 
European forms came from 
the Malay Te. If it did not 
find its way into India through 
the same channel, which is 
little likely, Sinhalese must 
have received it from the 
Dutch thee, and Tamil and 
Telugu from the French the. 
And, in this case, it is very 
likely that the other Indian 
languages received their vari- 
ous forms directly or indirect- 

1 "They hold in great esteem this 
herb which is called The, which comes 
from China and Japan, and that from 
the later country is the better of the 
two..AtGoa, Batavia, and in all the 
Factories of the Indies, there is scarce- 
ly a European who does not take tea 
thrice or four times a day, and they 
are careful to save the leaf in order to 
turn it into a salad for the evening, 
with some oil, vinager and sugar" 
(1676). Tavernier, Voyages, V, p. 257. 




iy from the Portuguese chd. 
[t is noteworthy that Persian 
ind Arabic have this same 
Form, and it is not known 
when it was introduced into 
either of them. 

[The O.E.D. says that the 
Portuguese brought (into 
Europe) the form cha (which is 
Cantonese as well as Mandarin) 
from Macao. The form te (the) 
was brought into Europe by 
the Dutch, probably from the 
Malay at Bantam (if not from 
Formosa, where the Fuhkien 
or Araoy form was used). The 
original English pronuncia- 
tion (te), sometimes indicated 
by spelling tdy, is found in 
rhymes down to 1762, but the 
current (tl) is found already 
in the 17th century as can be 
seen from rhymes and the spel- 
ling tee. It also cites Meyer, 
Konvfirsation8-Lexikon 9 to show 
that the first mention of tea in 
Europe is due to the Portuguese 
in 1559 (under the name cha). 
It was first known in Europe 
about 1650-1655 and, accord- 
ing to Watt (The Commercial 
Products of India, p. 212), the 
first mention of tea-drinking 
in India is made by Mandelslo 
in the passage cited above.] 

PChalupa (a sloop). L.- 
Hindust. salup. Perhaps it is 
from the Engl. < sloop '.' > 


Ghamador (one who calls). 
Konk. chamaddr, a subordinate 
church or temple official ; it is 
used in this sense in Tamil, 
and probably also in some 
other Indian languages. 

Ghamalote (a sort of stuff 
partly made of silk and partly 
of camel's hair; a camlet). 
Mac., Bug., chamaloti. 1 

[Chamolotes is the same as 
' camlets ', so called because 
they were " supposed to have 
been made of camel's hair, 
owing to the mistaken notion 
that the Arabic khaml meant 
* camel ', but in reality were 
made of silk mixed with wool, 
and often with the hair of the 
Angora goat. The mixture of 
some other fibre, generally 
some sort of wool, with silk is 
common among Muham- 
madans, owing to their belief 
that silk is forbidden by their 
religion." Longworth Dames, 
from whose translation of 

1 "The Mandarins received him 
with presents of chamalotes and vel- 
vets." Vasco Calvo (1636), in Donald 
Ferguson, Letters from PortuguMb Gtip- 
; 101. .'"<} ,\} 




Barbosa (Hak. Soc. Vol. I, p. 
120, n.) the above is taken, 
also says (see Vol. I, n. 3, p. 
63) that cambolim is evidently 
identical with the old French 
and English cameline, a sort of 
brown cloth made of or sup- 
posed to be made of camel's 
hair, like camlet. But cambo- 
lim is only the Port, form 
of the Konkani kambletii (pi. 
kambllm), from the Sansk. 
kambala, appearing in the 
Indian vernaculars in slightly 
varying forms ; it is the name 
of a coarse woollen cloth and 
has no affiliation with came- 

Ghao (adj., planed, smooth) 
Sinh. chdn, chdnnu. 

? Ghapa (a seal, impression, 
stamp, or brand). Konk. 
chhdp or $dp (masc.), seal, 
stamp ; punch, a seal-impres- 
sion ; mould ; in the sense of 
r ~ ~ 

' type used with the verbs 
mdrunk, lavunk ('to affix'), 
basunk (' to set ') ; (fern.) a 
sod of earth, a glebe (us. 
with the verbs, kadhunk, 
mdrunk). Chhap-khdri, chhdp- 
khano (khand Hindust.), a 
printing or stamping press 
establishment. Chhap-yantr 
(yantra Sansk.), printing 

machine. Chhdpunk, to print, 
to stamp ; to edit, to pub- 
lish ; to mark, to seal ; to 
stamp with a marking-iron. 
Chhaptyi, impression, seal- 
ing ; edition. Ghhdpkdr ; 
chhdpkdri (1. us.), printer, 
one who stamps with a die ; 
one who seals ; a compositor. 
Chhdpi, printed, stamped ; 
marked, sealed. Chhapo, type ; 
a stamp ; seal ; mark. Chhapo 
(pronounced by the common 
people sopo), a lead seal affixed 
to merchandise by the custom's 
office ; seal of a tax levied 
on the sale of commodities. 
Chhdpekdr or sopekdr, one who 
affixes the seal ; also used to 
denote the individual who is 
a farmer of the tax raised on 
the sale of goods. 

Mar. chhdp type ; stamp ; 
impression. Chhdpkhdnd (m.) 
chhapqem (v.t.) chhapqi 
(f.), chhapdri (m.), chhapi 
(adj.), chhdpd or chhdppd 
(m.) : for the meanings of 
these see above. Chhapil> 
chhapimv, " stamped, print- 
ed, marked-paper, cloth, 
coins. Chhapi-sulakhi (ad j . ) , 
one who bears a chhdp, and 
a suldkh, i.e., a particular 
stamp or mark and a hole 




for assaying a rupee, etc. 
Much marked and punched 
(and thus of less weight and 
value) a rupee, etc." Moles- 
worth. 1 

Chap, trigger. Chdpi, that 
which has a trigger (a rifle). 

Guj. chhdp, type; mark, 
seal ; stamp, impression. 
Chhap-khdnum, press, typo- 
graphy, printing-machine. 
Chhapvuvh, chhapdvurh, to 
print, to publish. Chhap- 
marvi, to stamp, to mark. 
Chhdpgdr, chhdpndr, printer. 
Chhdpui, impression ; cost of 
printing. Chhapdmaq, ch- 
hapamani, chhdpdn, cost of 
printing. Chhdpvwh te, publi- 
cation, edition. Chhapvani 
avfiti, impression. ChhajA- 
luih, printed, stamped. CA- 
hapu, periodical, newspaper. 
Chhapd, a mark ; a period- 
ical ; a tax ; a sudden attack. 

Champ, trigger of a gun. 

Hind. chhapd, impression, 
edition ; the mark delineated 
by the Vaishnavas on their 
bodies. Chhapnd, to print. 
Chhapnevald, printer. Chha- 
pdgar, printing-press. Chhdp, 
seal. Chhdp dend, to seal. 

1 Moledworth derives chhdp from 


Hindust. chhdp, seal; mark, 
impression. Chhapd, edition ; 
impression, mark ; seal. Ch- 
hdpkhand, a printing-press. 
Chhdpdi, edition, cost of 
printing. Chhapnd, to stamp, 
to print. Chhdpdnd, chhapd- 
vand, to get or order to be 
printed. Chhapnd, to be 
printed. Chhapvald, chhape- 
vald, chhapnevald, chh&pavald, 
chhepi, printer. 

Champ, trigger of a gun. 

L.-Hindust. chdpas, pieces 
of wood used to strengthen 
a mast when it is racked, 
called in nautical language ' a 
fish ' ; vern. term chappaL 

Nep. chhdp, seal; stamp. 
Chhdpakhdna, a printing- 
press. Chhdpnu, to print. 

Champ, trigger of a gun. 

Or. chhdp, stamp, impres- 
sion. Chhapd, stamped, 

Beng. chap, chhdp, seal; 
printing-machine ; a ridge of 
land, a mound of earth. 
Chhapa-yantra, a printing- 
machine. Chdpd-, chhdp~, 
chhapd karan, to print. Ch- 
h&pan, printer. Chh&pakdr, 
printer ; one who stamps from 
a die. Chhapd (verb), to get 
a thing printed; (f.) impres- 




sion; (adj.) printed. Ch- 
hapdn, the act of getting a 
thing printed. Chhapakhand, 
a press. 

Ass. chap, a mark, impres- 
sion ; a press. Chapd, any 
sort of press. Chdpi, chapdi, 
to stamp, to print. Chapd, 
chapald, stamped. Chap- 
khand, a press, printing-office. 
Chapd, chap or chdb mar, to 
stamp, to print. 

Sindh. chhdpa, chhapo, 
print. Chdpa, a ridge left 
unploughed, sod. Chhapanu, 
to print. 

Champa, trigger of a gun. 
Punj. chhdp, seal; stamp; 
impression. Mohar chhdp, 
the mark on a measure or 
weight that agrees with the 
standard ; the customs-seal ; 
the distinctive mark of the 
Vaishnavas ; a judicial seal. 
Chhapai, chhapvai, impres- 
sion ; stamping ; the cost of 
printing or stamping. Ch- 
hdpnd, to print, to stamp. 
Chhapwi, to be printed. Ch- 
hapaund, chhapvaund, to get 
a thing printed or stamped. 
Chhappa, printing ; edition ; 

Malayal. chhdppa, mark ; 
trigger. Chhappiduka, to 

seal. Chhappayiduka, to cock 
the trigger. 

Tel. chhappd (for chapd}> 
seal ; stamp ; impression. 

Ghhdmp (for chdmpu), trig- 

Kan. chape, stamp, print ; 
impression : customs-mark. 
Chapisu, to print ; to stamp ; 
to mark. Chapisuvara, a 

Chhappd, tubdkiya chdpu, 
trigger of a gun. 

Tul. chappi, chappe, seal ; 
stamp ; mark. Chhdpu, chha- 
ppe, a press. In the sense of 
4 a shop ', it is derived from 
the English shop '. Chhdpi- 
suni, to seal ; to stamp ; to 

Chdpu, trigger. 

Anglo-Ind. chop. 

Gar. chapa, impression. 

Khas. shdp, seai ; impres- 
sion ; to print. 

Siam. chabap, copy, model. 

Mai. chap, seal, die ; stamp, 
impression ; licence, passport. 
Chapkan, tukang chap, to 
seal ; to stamp, to print. 
Ber-chap, ter-chap, sealed, 
printed. Ber-chap-kan, one 
who seals or stamps. Menge- 
cbap, to print. Men-chapkan, 
to get a thing printed. 




Pengechap-an 9 a press. Mem- 
buluh-chap, to affix a seal. 

Ach., Batt. chap. Sund. 
chapa, echap. Jav. echap. 
Bal. hechap, chapchap. Day. 
chap. Mac., Bug. chd. Tet., 
Gal. sapa. 

Pid.-Engl. chop, impression, 
inscription ; label, card ; a 
motto ; characteristic. First 
chop, of superior quality. 

As regards its etymology, 
chapa is one of the most in- 
tricate vocables in this book. 
Is it Portuguese or Indian in 
origin ? Or, rather, are the 
two words etymologically dis- 
tinct ? Has one of them in- 
fluenced the other in some of 
the meanings ? 

Yule and Burnell allege 
that " it has been thought 
possible (at least till the 
history should be more accu- 
rately traced) that it might 
be of Portuguese origin ". 

Gon9alves Viana in his 
Vocabuldrio Malaio remarks 
that " the Portuguese vocable 
has been explained by the 
Germanic root klap, and also 
by plak, equally Germanic . . 
It appears to me admissible 
that this word came from 
India." But in his Apostilas 

he maintains that "the most 
probable source of the word 
is the Germanic klap or plak ; 
and he adds that " in the 
special sense of order, per- 
mission, ordinance, prescript " 
it is an Asiatic word and 
must be the Hindustani c'ap, 
' stamp, seal '.* 

Castanheda (1552) also re- 
gards the term as Asiatic, 
and explains its meaning : 
" He ordered that nobody 
should be allowed to enter 
the Island nor depart from it 
unless he carried his chapa, 
as was the practice before. 
And this chapa was, as it 
were, a seal except that it 
was open from one side to 
the other, and used red ochre 
for making the official im- 
pression . " 2 And Bluteau 
traces the relationship 
between the Portuguese 
chapado and the Indian 

1 "The bonzes enter, they find 
every thing ready, they depart with a 
chapa or permit." Lucena, VII, ch. 

2 But in the following passage he 
employs it in the European accepta- 
tion : " He ordered a raft to be made 
of ships* masts chapados ('covered') 
with many iron chapas ('plates*)." 
Bk. 1, oh. 72. Of. L.-Hindust chdpas. 




chapa: " Homem chapado is 
a man who is armed in the 
chapa of his virtue or his 
honest toil, etc. The expres- 
sion is borrowed metaphoric- 
ally from the chapas or 
plates of metal on which the 
kings of India caused their 
letters patent to be engraved." 

Beames, Thomson, Fallon, 
and many other writers on 
Indian languages have no 
doubt at all that chapa is a 
pure Hindi term. 

In the Tombo do Estado da 
India there is " a draft of the 
contract which the Governor 
Nuno da Cunha entered into 
with Nizam afe Zaman with 
respect to Cambay in the 
year 1537 ". In this are met 
with not only the substantive 
form chapa, but also the 
verb chapar and its participle 
chapado, all of them em- 
ployed in their genuine Indian 
meaning : * ' Soon after in my 
presence he (Nizamafe Zaman) 
signed and swore on his 
koran (mo$afo) to keep and 
to maintain and to fulfil this 

agreement in its entirety 

and be sealed it (chapou) with 
his jsepjl (chapa)..." "And 
inasmuch as the coins were 

stamped (chapada) with the 
coining die (sicca), i.e., struck 
with their mark..." Diogo 
do Couto likewise says : " He 
[D. Manoel de Lima] granted 
to him [a servant] a firman 
inscribed in big and beautiful 
letters and chapado (sealed) 
with the chapa (seal) of his 
coat of arms. Dec. VI, vii, 
7. 1 

It is worthy of note that 
in India the term chapa is 
met with only in the modern 
languages, with the excep- 
tion, as far as I know, of 
Tamil and of Sinhalese, 
wherein it is not to be found. 
Chapa in Sanskrit is the 
name of a bow. The intro- 
duction of the press has 
given the word new meanings 
and a greater denotation. 
Yule and Burnell aie opposed 
to the view that chap, which is 
used in the Far East, is derived 
from the Chinese, and they 
maintain that it was carried 
there from India. 

* Gaspar Correia, referring to Pedro 
de Covilhft, says : " Displaying a brass 
chapa ('plate') on which were en- 
graved letters forming the name of 
His Majesty D. Jofto and of Preste, 
in Chaldaic." Bk. Ill, p. 29. 




As regards, the sematology 
of the word, the principal 
difference lies in the fact 
that in India we do not 
find chapa used in the sense 
of a * metal-plate ' (without 
inscription or engraving), for 
which there are special terms, 
like pati, tagad or lagad, 
patrtfo. Likewise it is not 
used in the sense of ' a plain 
or flat piece of land 1 . 

But there is one very not- 
able coincidence, assuming 
there has been no transmis- 
sion. Molesworth mentions 
chhdpo, " a play among 
children ", as a term used in 
the Marathi spoken in the 
Konkan; and Candido de 
Figueiredo gives, among other 
meanings of chapa, that of 
" a kind of game among chil- 
dren ". The Port, dictionary, 
Contemporaneo, explains, as 
also does Bluteau, the nature 
of the game of chapa y which 
consists in tossing up a coin 
and asking whether it is to 
be heads or tails, or cross or 
pile. 1 

1 I have not been able to discover 
what is the nature of this children's 
game, which is said to be played in 
the Konkan. 

It appears to me that 
champ or chap (with the ch 
mute), in the sense of ' a 
trigger of a gun ' which is 
met with in several Indian 
languages, is derived from a 
different primary word, 
champnd in Hindustani, 
chapneih in Marathi, ' to 
press, to compress'. In 
Konkani the word for trigger 
is kdrtiv. 

To conclude, it is almost 
certain that chapa was not 
transmitted from Portugal to 
India. The argument which 
carries most weight is that 
chhdp or chhapa is " a tech- 
nical term used by the 
Vaishnavas to denote the 
sectarial marks (lotus, trident, 
etc.) which they delineate 
on their bodies'' (Thomp- 
son, oit. in Hobson-Jobson) ; 
such a term could not be a 
foreign one, imported in 
modern times. The origin 
of the Portuguese word being 
itself enshrouded in uncertain- 
ty, it is not unlikely that it 
is Indian in origin, seeing 
that there is no evidence of 
its having been employed 
before the Portuguese 
conquests in the East. It is 




to be noted, however, that 
Duarte Barbosa (1516) em- 
ploys chapeado in the sense 
in which it was used in 
Europe. " In front rides the 
Preste Joam in another wag- 
gon chapeado (plated) with 
gold, very richly attired , . . . " 
P. 215. [Ed. Longworth 
Dames, Vol. I, 41.J 

Chap&u (a hat). Konk., 
Mar., chepdrti. Mai. chapeu 
chapiyu. Sund. chapeo. 
Mac., Bug. chapiyo. Nic. 
&apeo. 1 

Molesworth says : " Chepem 
n. R. (Rajapur) W. (Wari) 
(ckepnem). A low, flattish 
hat or cap. Used esp. of 
the military hat or cap of 
the Sepoys and their officers." 
Chepntfo, from which the 
author wrongly derives the 
word, signifies * to flatten, to 
compress '. 

In Konkani : chepekdr, one 
who uses a hat ; a hatter. 

Ghapinha (in the sense of 
' a small metal-plate ') . 
Malayal. chappiMa. | Mai. 

i "A, chapeo ('bat') with purple 
silk nap." Gasper Correia, I, p. 534. 

" On his head a black velvet 
chapeo.*' Diogo do Couto, Dec. VII, 
iv. 6. 

chaping, " a metallic plate 
(used to cover the nudity of 
a very young ifemale child)". 
Wilkinson. | ? Siam. cha 9 
ping, ta' ping. 

Charamela (a bag-pipe) . 
Konk. chermtl. Mac., Bug. 
charamele. Jap. charumera, 
charumeru ; vern. term rap- 
pa. 1 

Charuto (cheroot) Tet., 
Gal. sarutu. ' 

The primary source of this 
word, which has been adopted 
in so many Indian and 
Malayo-Polynesian languages, 
is the Tamil churuttu, ' roll, 
twist, cheroot ; to wrap or 
roll round' (Percival). "It 
is, therefore, evident," says 
Gongalves Viana with much 
reason, "that from India, 
and not from Portugal, this 
term was passed on to Malay, 
as it was to English, and 
from this latter to Portu- 
guese ". 2 

Chave (a key). Konk., 

1 " With many charamelas, trum- 
pets, etc." Diogo do Couto, Deo. VI, 
iv, 6. 

2 " The cherutos, as they constitute 
a distinct kind of merchandise, ought 
to he sent out in boxes, and pay a 
duty per thousand.*' F. N. Xavier, 

Bandos, I, p. 200. 




Mar. chavi. Guj. chhdvi. 
Hindi chabi. Hindust. chavi 9 
chabi, chdbhi. L. -Hindust. 
chavi, chabi, (naut., fid, i.e., 
a conical wooden pin used in 
splicing). Nep., Or, chabi. 
Beng. chabi, chabi, sabi. Ass. 
chdbi, sdbi. The Neo-Aryan 
terms are : kilt, tali, kunji, 
kunz. Tarn. sdvi ; vern. 
terms, tiyappu, tifavukol. Tel. 
sdvi, chevi. Kan., Tul. chavi. 
Anglo-lnd. chabee. Gar. 
chabi. Khas. shabi. Tet. 
Gal. chdvi. 

In Konkani : chavyekar, 
one in charge of the key ; 
chav&r, a bunch of keys. In 
the Portuguese spoken at Goa, 
chaveiro means ' a bunch of 

| Cheiro (scent). Mol. 
cheyro, name of a plant, 
according to Rumphius 1 . | 

Ghicara (a tea-cup). Konk. 
chikr. Tet., Gal. chikara. 

[Vieyra does not mention 
chicara in his dictionary. 
Moraes (Dice, da Lingua Portu- 
gueza) hazards the opinion 

1 | " Its name in Latin is MerUha 
oriapa ; in Portuguese and Spanish 
cheyro...., by which name it is 
known in the Moluccas.'* Herb. Ambo- 
inense, VIII, ch. 58. | 

that it is derived from the 
Hebrew shigar, a spirituous 
beverage ; but the Dice. Con- 
temporaneo, more confidently, 
affiliates it to the Mexican 
icalli. This fact is interest- 
ing, because the words for 
' tea ' and every thing asso- 
ciated with its service were 
borrowed by the Portuguese 
either from China or Malaya : 
chdvena (' tea-cup ') from Mai. 
chdvan which is itself the Chin. 
tch'a-van; pires ('saucer') from 
the Mai. pirint, pi. pirins ; 
bule ('tea-pot ') from the Mai. 
bull. The Chinese equivalent 
of a ' tea-pot ' is tch'a-kuan or 

Ghinela (a slipper). Konk. 
chinel. Chinel-kdrn, a 

woman who uses slippers. 
Sinh. chinelaya. Tarn, chine- 
lei. Mai., Sund. chinela. 
Jav. chineld, chaneld. Mad. 
chinelS. Tet., Gal. sinela. 1 

[The Portuguese dictionaries, 
Contemporaneo, and that of 
Moraes Siiva, do not give the 
derivation of chinela. Vieyra 
merely says it is an Arabic 
word. If this is so, it is per- 

i Som6 chinelas of black velvet.' 
Lucena, Bk. IX, oh. 5. 




haps made up of the Ar. ka- 
( like ') and rfala (' a shoe ').] 

? Ghiripos (in the sense of 
1 wooden shoes ') . Konk. chir- 
pdth (neut. pi.) ; vern. term 
khadhavS. -Tarn, cherippu. 
Malayal. cherippu. Muftu 
cherippu, boots. Oru vaka 
cherippu, slippers. Mai. cher- 

The Port, dictionaries, Con- 
temporaneo,a,nd that of Candido 
de Figueiredo, do not mention 
chiripoa, perhaps, because the 
word is not now in use. Blut- 
eau, Morals, Vieyra, Joao de 
Deus, and Dr. Adolfo Coelho 
say simply : "V. tamancos 
(wooden-shoes) ". It appears 
to me that the word is of 
Dravidian origin carried by 
the Portuguese to Goa and 
Malacca. It is in use in the 
Portuguese spoken in India. 
Gabriel Rebelo says: "Some 
bring (in the Moluccas) wood- 
en chiripos". 1 

[It is the Tarn. -Malayal. 

1 lnjorma$ao das Oousas de Maluco, 
ed. Ac ad. of So., Lisb., p. 158. 

C&ndido de Figueiredo said, in reply 
to my enquiry, that he had not listed 
chiripoa in his dictionary, probably 
because he had not found sufficient 
justification for doing so. 

cherippu, according to the 

Chita (an Indo-Port. word ; 
chintz, a printed cotton cloth). 
Konk. chit. Sinh. chitta. 
Indo-Fr. chite. Mai., Mad. 
chita. Sund. chita, inchit. 
Jav. chito. Day. chita^ sita. 
Mac., Bug. chi.'*tr, Gal. 

Bengali, Marathi, and Sin- 
dhi have chhit. The English 
* chintz ' is from the Hindus- 
tani chint, from which is also 
derived the Persian chit. The 
source of the primary word 
is the Sanskrit chitra, 
' speckled '. * 

1 " All the Chites which are made 
within the Empire of the Great Mogul 
are printed and are of different degrees 
of beauty, according to the printing 
and the fineness of the cotton cloth ' ' 
(1676). Tavernier, Voyages, III, p. 359 
[Ox. Univ. Press ed. (1925), Vol. II, 
p. 4.] 

" And I presented him with six stone- 
bottles of gin, six bottles of wine, a 
whole piece of chita printed with tree- 
branches, and a red coral necklace." 
A. J. de Castro (1845), in Jour. Oeo. 
Soc. Lisb., 2nd ser., p. 57. 

The old Portuguese writers speak of 
the material as pano pintado (' painted 
or spotted cloth ') and the term passed 
into Anglo-Indian speech. ["Though 
the word (pintado) was applied, we 
believe, to all printed goods, some of 




Chocolate , (chocolate) . 
Konk. chokoldt. ?Sinh. solca- 
lat. Tet., Gal. chokoldti. 
*Tonk. cu-lac. | Chin, chi- 
ku-ldh. | 

Chouri<;o (sausage) . f) 

Konk. chauris (more used is 
lingis from Port, linguiqa. ) 
Tet. surisa. 

Chumbo (lead). Nic. 

The Nicobarese must have 
received the word directly 
from the Portuguese, like 
the names cobra ('goat') and 
sal ('salt'), because they are 
not employed in any other 
Asiatic language. 

Chuname (Indo-Port. form 
adopted from the Gaurian 
languages ; chunambo is the 
Indo-Port. form of the 
Dravidian word for 'lime'). 
" Chuna which is lime." 
Garcia da Orta, ed. Markham, 
p. 477. Anglo-Ind. chunam, 

The primary word is the 
Malayal. chuqndmbu, related 
to the Neo-Aryan chund, 
Sansk. cAftrga, ' powder '.* 

the finer Indian chintzes were, at least 
in part, finished by hand-painting/' 
1 With a number of pages, of 

Cidade (a city). Konk. 
siddd ; vern. terms 6ahdr t 
nagar, pur. Tarn, slddri. 
Batav., Tet. sidddi. 

Cidrao (citron) . Sinh. 
sideran, sidaran ; vern. term 

Gifra (a cipher). Konk. 
siphr (us. among the Christ- 
ians) ; vern. terms puz, 
Sunaya, bindu. Tet., Gal. 

Of Arab origin, it passed on 
from Arabic to Persian, Hindi, 
and Hindustani. 

^Cigarro (cigarette) . 

Konk. sigar\ vern. term vidi. 
Tet. sigdru (more in use 
canudo, as in Indo-Port.). 

Cinta (naut., outward 
pieces of timber on a ship's 
sides on which men set their 
feet when they clamber up, 
wales). Hindust. sinta, sit. 

Cinto (girdle, belt). Mai. 
cinto (Haex). 

whom one carries his (the ambassador 
of the King of Dealoan's) fan, another 
his silver casket full of betel, another 
a little box containing chuname, 
which is prepared lime." Pyrard, 
Viagem, II, p. 117 [Hak. 800. Vol. II, 
p. 136]. 

"We asked your Lordship to pass 
orders that wood, tiles, and chunambo 
be given to us for the repairs.' 1 A. 
Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 736. 




| Gintra larangas de (Cintra 
oranges) . Hindust. , Pers. 
sangtara. See Hobson-Jobson, 
s.v. orange and sungtara | . 

[Dalgado herein follows 
Yule who, as well as Dr. 
Hunter, favour the derivation 
of Sangtarah (of Babar) or 
Santara, as it is nowadays 
called, from Cintra, the city 
in Portugal famous for its 
oranges, from as early at 
least as the beginning of the 
fourteenth century. But 
Crooke points out that Col. 
Jarrett in his translation of 
the Aln-l-Alcbarl disputes the 
derivation of Sangtarah from 
Cintra, and is followed by 
Beveridge who is inclined to 
think that Santra is the 
Indian hill name of the fruit, 
of which Sangtarah is a 
corruption, and refers to a 
village at the foot of the 
Bhutan Hills called Santrabarl, 
because it had orange groves. 
Again, Watt (The Comm. 
Products of India, s.v. C. 
Aurantium) speaks of Bona- 
via who refers to four races 
of this fruit, the first of which 
is the Siintara, which word he 
regards as of Sanskrit origin 
and not a corruption of 

Gintra. He does not, how- 
ever, mention the Sanskrit 
word from which it is evolved. 
The ' santara oranges ' are the 
best in quality of those grown 
in India and may be distin- 
guished by their yellow colour 
and loose skin or jacket.] 

Ginturao (waist-band) . 

Konk. sinturdmv; vern. term. 
kamarband. Tet. sintura. 

Ginzel (a stone cutter's 
chisel). Malayal. chinner 

Gipai (indigenous soldier 
disciplined and dressed in the 
European style). Anglo-Ind. 
sepoy, seapoy. Indo-Fr. cipaye. 1 
From the Persian sipahi, 
[from aspa (Sansk. a$va), ' a 
horse ']. 

[The Pers. sipahi bears 
generally the sense of a 
horse-soldier', for in early 
times horsemen formed the 
principal part of the army. 
The earliest Portuguese writ- 
ers do not speak of cipai 
but of lascarim and pido in 
the same sense. The earliest 

1 "Orders were passed that other 
companies were to be formed, but 
these were to be of sipaes." Cunha 
Rivara, Ohronica de Tisauary, 1, 
p. 30. 



use of the word, and that in 
the form hispains, is to be 
found in the Itinerario of Fr. 
Gaspar de S. Bernardino 
(1609), and is mentioned in 
the Olossario.] 

Cita^ao (citation, court 
summons). Konk. sitsdriiv. 
Sinh. sitdsiya, sitasikerima. 
fletdsiya karanava, to sum- 
mon. Mai. sita. Surat sita, 
the order of the summons. 

Citar (to summon). Konk. 
sitdr~karunk. Mai . , Ach . ; 

Sund., Bug. sita. Mad. nyita. 

?Coa (liquid that is strains 
ed), Mai. coa (Haex), kua, 
sort of pea-soup. Coa-anghar 
(lit. * juice of the grape'), 
wine. 4 , 

Cobra, cobra de capelo 
(the venomous snake Naja 
tripudians) . Anglo-In d . 

cobra, cobra de capello, cobra 
capella. Indo-Fr. cobra-de 
capello, cobra-capello. Mai. 
kobra. 1 

[The following citation from 

1 " There are some snakes which the 
Indians call Nurcas, and which we call 
cobras de capelo, because they erect 
a sort of hood over their heads." 
Duarte Barbosa, p. 344. [Hak. Soc., 
ed. Dames, Vol. II, p. 83. " Murcas is 
an emendation from Nurcas of the 
Portuguese text, in accordance with 

P. Francisco de Sousa, Orien- 
te Conquistado (1697), I, ii, 1, 
will help to explain why the 
Portuguese gave the venom- 
ous reptile this name: "This 
is called cobra de capello, 
because it has on its head a 
cartilaginous skin, which it 
unfolds and closes, and which 
when it spreads out looks 
like the hood of a friar, or 
more properly resembles a 
woman with false hair on her 
head sticking out on both 
sides of the face and wear- 
ing a wimple. It is a most 
ferocious creature, and when 
provoked to anger spreads its 
hood, rears itself up.... and 
emits such poisonous puffs 
of breath that it kills chick- 
ens, fowls, and small four- 

the forms in the Spanish version and 
in Ramusio." " It is the Malayal. 
Murkhan, ' a cobra', used in the term 
E\tadi murkham 'eight paces cobra', 
because a man dies within eight paces 
of the spot where he is bitten " (T.) ] 

" We saw here also a great number 
of cobras de capello, of the thick- 
ness of a man's thigh." FernSo Pinto, 
PeregrinctQdes, ch. 14. 

"There are many of these snakes 
which the common people call cobras 
de capelo, but called by us in Latin 
regulua serpens." Qaroia da Orta, Col. 
xlii [ed. Markham, p. 336]. 




footed animals . . . The Hindus 
regard the cobra as sacred, 
and keep some in their tem- 
ples An author in Rome, 

once happening to refer to 
the cobra de capello, heard 
a Portuguese who had re- 
turned from India describe it, 
and the Portuguese not being 
able to give another word for 
capello, the author was much 
puzzled as to whether it stood 
for ' hair ' or ' hat', because 
the Italian capello denotes 
both these. As a result of 
this he had a cobra repre- 
sented in one of his Latin 
books with more hair on its 
body than a bear, though 
there is not a trace of a 
hair on it, and with a hat on 
its head, with its tassels 
spread out. We laughed a 
great deal at the sight of 
this picture." Not less pro- 
vocative of good humour is 
the derivation or mistransla- 
tion of the name of this 
snake cited by Crooke from 
Christopher Pryke (1700): 
11 Another sort, which is called 
Chapel snakes, because they 
keep in Chapels or Churches, 
and sometimes in Houses." 
This description is obviously 

influenced by stories of the 
cobra being kept in temples, 
and also in private houses in 

Cobra manilla (the venom- 
ous snake Bungarus caeru* 
leus or Daboia Russellii) . Tel t . 
marlila-pdyu (pdyu is 'snake'). 
Anglo-Ind. coSra manilla or 
minelle (us. in South India). 
[In Ceylon called polonga.] 

The source-word is the 
Marathi-Konkani warier, from 
the Sansk. marif, 'a jewel'. 
The Telugu term appears to 
be an importation. 1 

[Molesworth in addition to 
maner also mentions the form 
maqyar. The snake perhaps 
takes this name from the com- 
mon belief of the people that 
it ' wears a precious jewel in 
its head 9 . A citation from 

l "There is yet another kind of 
snake even more venomous, which the 
Indians call Mad alls. Such is their 
renown that they kill in the very act 
of biting, so that the person bitten 
oannot utter a single word, nor turn 
him round to die." Duarte Barbosa, 
p. 344 [Hak. Soo, , Vol. II, p. 83. " No 
doubt in the MS. this word was written 
Mftdali, i.e., Mandali, which is evi- 
dently the correct form ". It is clearly 
the ManQali, varieties of which are re- 
garded as very venomous in Southern 




Lockyer (An Account of the 
Trade in India, etc., London, 
1711, p. 276) in Hobson-Job- 
son provides one more popu- 
lar explanation of the name : 
4 'The Cobra Manilla has its 
name from a way of Expres- 
sion common among the Nears 
on the Malabar Coast, who 
speaking of a quick motion . . 
say, in a Phrase peculiar 
to themselves, Before they can 
pull a Manilla from their 
Hands. A Person bit with 
this Snake, dies immediately ; 
or before one can take a 
Manilla off. A Manilla is a 
solid piece of Gold, of two or 
throe ounces Weight, worn in 
a Ring round the Wrist." 
See manilla.] 

Coche (a coach). Konk. 
kdch, palanquin. ? Guj., 

Hindi., Beng. k6ch, sofa 
? Sindh. kdchu, sofa ? Sinh. 

Probably, like the Hindust. 
kauch, the above are derived 
from the English ' couch '. 
This appears plausible in view 
of the difference in meaning 
between the Portuguese word 
and those in the other lan- 
guages mentioned above. 

Gocheiro (coachman) . 

Konk. koch&r\ vern. term 
gadlvalo. ? Hindust. koch- 
bdn (perhaps from the English 
* coachman '). Tet. kocheiru-, 
vern. term kuchata. 

? Gochonilha (cochineal) . 
Mai. kosnil (Heyligers). 1 

C6co (the tree and nut 
Gocos nucifera ; coco-nut). 
Anglo-Ind. cocoa, cocoa-nut, 
[coker-nut]. Indo-Fr. coco, 
cocotier. 2 

["The old Portuguese writ- 
ers speak of the coco-nut 
palm by the generic name of 
palmeira and not as coqueiro 
(* coco-nut tree 5 ), which is a 
modern term, even now not 
much used in Port. India. 
Foreign writers, who preceded 
the Portuguese, called the 
fruit nux indica or noce d' 

1 " A cochonylha ('scarlet dyed') 
cloak valued at three thousand reis." 
A Tomas Pires, Materiaes, etc., in 
Jour. Oeo. Soc. Lisb., 16 ser., p. 715. 

2 "The provision consisted of 
coquos." Roteiro de Vasco da Qama 
(H98-99), p 95. 

"Nothing was found except cocos 
and jaggery." Castanheda, I, ch. 25. 

With regard to the origin of the 
word coco, see Conde de Ficalho's ed. 
of Garcia da Orta, Col. xvi ; Candido 
Figueiredo, in the Institute* of Coimbra, 
Vol. XLVIH, p. 655, and Goncalves 
Viana, Apontila* 




India, in imitation of the 
Arabs who called it jauz-al- 
Hindi. At the present time, 
the word coco is employed by 
all European languages. 

With regard to the etymol- 
ogy of the word, a number 
of hypotheses have been sug- 
gested, not excepting that 
which assigns to it an Egyp- 
tian origin, kuku \ But if we 
note what the old Portuguese 
writers, who are the most 
competent to speak on this 
matter, say, there can be no 
doubt about the origin of the 

The author of the Hoteiro 
(1498), referring to Mombasa, 
says: " The palms of this 
country bear a fruit as large 
as melons of which the ker- 
nel within is eaten and bastes 
like nutty galingale " (p. 28). 
And the same writer, when 
in India, says: "And the 
provisions consisted of coquos 
and four jars containing 
cakes of palm-sugar" (p. 94). 
It is, therefore, in Malabar that 
the companions of Vasco da 
Gama gave the name to the 
fruit, and certainly did not 
borrow it from the vernacular 
of the country which calls it 

tehgu, nor from the modern 
Aryan languages which call it 
ndrel or naral, Sansk. narikela, 
Pers. nargll. That they did 
not learn this name in the local- 
ity, but transferred it by way 
of analogy from one object to 
another, as they did in the 
case of figo and pera (q.v.) t we 
know from Barros, da Orta, 

I and others. 

The source- word is, there- 
fore, the Portuguese coco, 

, which was formerly used, as 
it is even to-day in Castilian, 
in the sense of ' a bugbear, a 
grotesque face to frighten chil- 
dren with '. Bluteau gives a 
derivation which is the very 
reverse of this, but it indi- 
cates the meaning which coco 
had in Portugal : " Coco or 
Coca. We make use of these 
words to frighten children, 
because the inner shell of the 
Goco has on its outside surface 
three holes giving it the ap- 
pearance of a skull." Dal- 
gado, Qlossario. 

The passages from Barros 
and da Orta referred to in 
the above quotation are as 
follows , " Our people have 
given it the name of coco, 
a word applied by women to 




anything with which they try 
to frighten children ; and this 
name has stuck, because no- 
body knew any other, though 
the proper name was, as the 
Malabars call it, tenga, or, as 
the Canarins call it, narle." 
Barros (1553), Dec. Ill, iii, 7. 
" And we, the Portuguese, 
with reference to those three 
holes, gave it the name of 
coquo, for it has the appear- 
ance of the face of an ape 
or some other animal." 
Garcia da Orta, Col. LIIT ; ed. 
Markham, p. 139. But earlier 
Barbosa (1516), describing the 
coco-nut palm of Caleout, or 
rather of Malabar, says : " We 
call these fruits quoquos " 
(Lisb. Acad. ed.). 

Linschoten (1596) says: 
"The Portingalls call this 
fruit (of the * palme tree') 
Coquo, by reason of the 
three holes that are therein, 
like to a Munkie's head" 
(Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 43.). 
There is no doubt that here- 
in the Dutchman is merely 
reproducing either da Orta 
(1563), or Acosta (Tractado de 
las Drogaa y Medecinas de las 
Indias Orientales, 1578) who 
had borrowed largely from da 

Orta. But P. A. Tiele who 
edited the second volume of 
Linschoten for the Hak. Soc. 
in a note to coquo says that 
" the name 'coco' was first 
used by the Spaniards who 
found the tree in America". 
He gives no evidence for this 
statement which, after the 
thorough and convincing ex- 
position of Dalgado, needs 
| merely to be mentioned as 
one of the various sugges- 
tions that have been put for- 
ward to explain the name. 

There is no unanimity of 
; opinion with regard to the 
| question as to what is the 
original home of the coco-nut 
palm. De Candolle ultimately 
inclined to the idea of an 
origin in the Indian Archi- 
pelago. Cook stoutly upholds 
an American origin. Wiesner 
(Die Rohst. des Pftanzenr., 
1903, II, 419) quotes author- 
ity for a dual nationality 
(American and Asiatic). But 
the general trend seems to be 
in favour of an Asiatic origin. 
See Watt, The Commercial 
Products of India, s.v. Gocos 

Godilho (codille ; a term at 
ombre when the game is won 



against the player). Mao., 
Bug. dilu. 

Coco do mar (the twin 
fruit of the Lodoicea Seychel- 
larum ; 1 ' the coco-nut of the 
Maldives,' according to Gar- 
cia da Orta). Anglo-Ind. co- 
co-de-mer. Indo-Fr. coco de 
mer. 2 

Goelho (rabbit). Mai. ko. 
vein, tarv&lu. Jav. tarvela. 
Tet., Gal. koelhu. See cavalo* 

Gofre (coffer ; safe). 
Konk. kophr. Tet., Gal. 

Goifa (head-dress of women, 
skull-cap). Mai. kofiah, \ ko- 

1 "Wide forests there beneath 

Maldivia's tide 
From with'ring air their wondrous 

fruitage hide. 
The green hair'd Nereids tend the 

bow'ry dells, 
Whose wondrous fruitage poison's 

rage expels." 
Miekle's Tr. of the Lusiad, Bk. X, 

p. 348 (Bohn Lib). 

2 "It is probable that G. da Orta 
was the first European who described 
this shape of the coco -nut, and that 
the Portuguese were the first to in- 
troduce it into Europe." Dr. D. G. 
Dalgado, OlassiflcaQ&o Botanic a das 
Plantas e Drogcta, etc., p. 9. 

" And two dozen of coelhos male 
and female for the King, to be kept 
in enclosures, because they are not to 
be had in Cambay." Diogo do Oouto 
Dec,, VII, ui, 1. 

piah | , kupia, a birreta, the 
square cap worn by Roman 
Catholic priests. 1 

Goitado (miserable, to be 
pitied). Konk. kuitdd ; vern. 
term babdo. Mai. coitado 

Colafa (the name of one 
variety of the mango). 
Konk., Mar. kulds. Of. Afon- 
sa, Carreira. 

Colchao (mattress). Konk. 
kulchdrtiv. L.-Hindust. kuni- 
ydn. Sinh. kulach-chama. 
Tet., Gal. kulcha. 

Golchete (hook, ; clasp). 
Konk. kulchet ; vern. terras 
kadi, ahkdi. Tet., Gal. kul- 

Col6gio (college). Konk. 
kolej: vern. terms pathsdl, 
math. Tet. koleja. Jap. ko- 

Golera (Cholera Morbus) . 
Guj. kolerd. *Jap. korera 
(introd. in modern times). 
See mordexim. 

[It is said that references 
to the disease, known to-day 
as 'cholera', are to be met 
with in the writings of the 

1 "And on the head over a coifa 
of gold, a velvet cap." JoAo de Bar- 
ros, Deo. II, x, 8. 




Hindu physician Susruta. 
Whitelaw Ainslie (Mat. Med., 
Vol. II, p. 53]) gives 
various names by which the 
disease was known in the 
different parts of India : 
EnnSrum vandie in Tarn., 
Dank-lugna in Deccani, 
Chirdie rogum in Sansk., 
Vantie^in Tel., Nirtiripa 
in Malayalam. This would 
indicate that the disease was 
widespread in India and cer- 
tainly known in the zone in 
which the Portuguese influ- 
ence was most felt. Garcia 
da Orta speaks of it as 
collerica passio, and Couto 
as colera (see Hobson-Jobsori); 
one might, therefore, have ex- 
pected that the foreign name 
for this disease would have 
found an entry into more of 
the Indian languages, es- 
pecially in view of the ex- 
tensive practice then enjoyed 
by Portuguese physicians. 
But the curious fact is that, 
far from this being the case, 
the Portuguese them- 
selves borrowed the Konk. 
Marathi modSi, the name for 
cholera, corrupted it into 
mordexim (q.v.) and passed it 
on to the English and the 

French in the form mort-de- 
chien, which was the name 
by which cholera was known 
to Europeans up to the end of 
the eighteenth century. Da 
Orta says that mor&i was called 
hachaiza in Arabic. This Ar. 
name in the form haizah is 
still used in Hindustani to 
denote ' cholera '. Burnell (n. 
Linschoten, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 235) says that the first 
European to mention this 
frightful disease was Garcia 
da Orta in 1563, but it was 
known long before in India 
under the Sanskrit name vlsu- 
cika, which does not however 
agree with the name given 
by Ainslie. J 

Colete (a waistcoat) . 
Konk. kulet. Tet. Icoleti. 

Colher (a spoon). Konk., 
Malayal., Tulu. kuler. 

Coluna (a column)/ Konk. 
kolun. (1. us.) ; vern. term 
khambo. Sinh. kuluna, kulun- 
na (pi. kulunu) ; vern. terms 
stambhaya (Sansk.), temba. 

Comadre (the godmother 
in Tier relationship to the 
father and mother of a child 
who is christened). Konk. 
kumdr ; the term also signi- 



fies * mistress, concubine' 1 . 
Kumarki, the relationship of 
a ' comadre '. Beng. komadri. 
Tarn, kumddri. 

Comandante (a com- 
mander). Konk. komanddnt. 
Punj. kumedan. Tel. kumum- 
ddn. ? Day. kamandan. Tet. 
komanddnti. Ar. qumanddn. 2 

Gomando (command) . 

Tel. komdnu. > 

Comedoria (ration ; meat 
and drink allowed to one of 
the king's officers). Konk. 
komedori (]. us.); vern. term 
bhatem. Beng. komedori (us. 
among the Christians). 

Comenda (commendam ; 
also a decoration). Konk. 
komend, decoration, medal. 
Mai. komenda* 

Commendador (com- 

mander of orders of knight- 
hood). Konk. komendador. 

1 It appears that this word, in 
this acceptation, is related to the 
Sanskrit kumari, ' young lady, 
maiden '. 

2 In Kambojan, comandang, general, 
amiral, compagni ('association'), are 
of French origin. 

3 "Specially in the Moluccas the 
word kommenda implies a contract 
of civil law which is absolutely the 
same as the commodatum of Roman 
law." Heyligers. 

Mai., Jav. komendador, 
komendur, a title of certain 
civil officials. Cf. mandador. 
Bug. kamdnderl (from the 
Dutch kommandeeren, accord- 
ing to Matthes). 

Compadre (the godfather- 
in his relationship to the 
parents of a child who is 
christened). Konk. kumpdr ; 
also used in the sense of a 
* clandestine lover 1 . Cf. 
comadre. Kumparki, the 

relationship of a ' com pad re.' 
Beng. kompadri, godfather. 
Tarn, kompadri, godfather. 
Tel. kumbddri. Tul. kum- 
pddri, kumpari, godfather. 
Tet. kompdri, kombdri. 

Compasso (a compass ; 
also measure, time). Konk. 
kumpds. ? Guj., Hindust., 
Beng,, Ass. kampds. Tet. 
kompdsu. ?Jap. kompasa. 

Yule and Burnell are of 
the opinion that the Hindust. 
kampas is a corruption of 
the English ' compass ' ; the 
same may be said of the 
forms in the other languages, 
excepting Konkani and Teto. 
Kumpas in L. -Hindust. has 
certainly its origin in English, 
and the Malay kampas, in 



Compra (a purchase) 
Jap. kompra. 

Dr. Murakami associates 
compra with compradoru, and 
gives them the same meaning. 

Comprador (in the sense 
of ' a purchaser ; a house- 
steward'). Anglo-Ind. compra- 
dore, compadore. Pid.- Rngl. 
comprador e, compladore, kam- 
pat-to. Jap. kompradoru. 

In India, the term is fall- 
ing out of use; in China, it 
was used at one time, and 
is still used at times, to de- 
signate a commercial agent, 
the intermediary in business 
transactions between Euro- 
pean and indigenous 
merchants. In this sense, 
comprador is also used in the 
French of Tonquin. 1 

["This word was formerly 

i "Alter the war between China, 
England, and France, tho institution 
of the " Hongs " or official agents, 
tradesmen intermediaries between 
the European and Chinese merchants, 
was abolished, They, therefore, got 
hold of some special indigenous 
agents to whom the Portuguese had 
given the name compradores, a 
designation which the other European 
nations adopted ; they are the agents 
whom the business houses even to 
this day employ." Calado Crespo, 
Cousas da China, pp. 15-16. 

in use in Bengal, where it is 
now quite obsolete ; but it is 
perhaps still remembered in 
Madras. In Madras the 
compradore is (or was, a kind 
of house-steward who keeps 
the household accounts, and 
purchases necessaries/' Hob- 
son-Jobson. The duties of the 
compradore were subsequently 
performed in Bengal by the 
* banyan ', now usually called 
4 sircar.'] 

Comungar (to receive 
communion). Konk. kumgdr 
(also us. as a subst.). Tet. 

Comunhao (Holy Com- 

" And .so Martim Afonso wrote to 
Antonio da Silva, who kept his own 
counsel about the (threat of) war, 
because), during the delay caused by 
the exchange of messages, he was all 
the time buying and selling through 
his compradores." Gaspar Correia, 
III, p. 662. 

* 4 The comprador ought to be a 
conscientious man, diligent, and intel- 
ligent in the matter of his duties." 
Archivo-Portuguez Oriental, Fasc. V, 
p. 1040. 

| "This inconvenience did not 
frighten thorn into settling the 
bargain; but it did frighten the 
sellers, and then all the Provinces, 
who could not understand the self- 
assurance of the Compradores." 
Faria y Sousa, Asia Portugueza, III, 
p. 96. | 




munion). Konk. komunhdrtiv. 
Beng., Tarn., Kan. komu- 

^Concferto (agreement ; con- 
cert). Konk. konstrt (1. us.). 
Mai. concierto, agreement, har- 
mony (Haex). 

Gonde (knave in cards). 
Konk. kond. Mac., Bug. 

Gondenado (damned). 

Konk. kondendd (in use 
among the Christians). Tet. 

Confeito (comfit, sugar- 
plum). Konk. komphel (1. 
us.). Tet. konfeitu. Jap. 
confeto (Wenceslau de Morais), 
kompeito, komp&o. 

Gonfessar (to confess) . 
Konk. kumsdr, confession. 
Kumsdr-karunk, to hear con- 
fession ; (fig.) to advise pri- 
vately and insistently. Kum- 
sdr-zavuhk, to make one's 
confession. Malay al. kom- 
pasd-rikka, to confess. Tul. 
kumusdku, consultation. 
Tet., Gal. konfesa, to confess, 

The Tulu term is, both in 
respect of its form and mean- 
ing, an immediate adoption 
of the Konkani kumsdr. 
Confian^a (confidence, 

trust). Konk. kofophydihs ; 
vern. terms visvds, lagtl. 
Tet. konfiansa ; vern. term 

Confissao (confession). 
Beng., Tarn., Kan. komphi- 
sdn. Jap. kohisan. 

Confraria (brotherhood ; a 
sodality). Konk. komphrari, 
komphr. Tet. konjraria. 

Gonselho (advice). Konk. 
konselh (1. us.) ; the vern. 
term is budh. Mai. conseillo 
(Haex). Tet., Gal. conselu. 

Gonsentir (to consent). 
Mai. consentir (Haex), Tet. 
konsenti ; vern. term terus. 

Gonsoada (a light supper 
as upon a fast day). Konk. 
kunsvdr. Beng. konsuvadd. 

Consul (a consul). Konk., 
Tet., Gal. konwL *Kamb., 
*Siam. ctingsul (from French). 
* Pid-Engl. consu (probably 
from English). 1 

1 '* One who was in service among 
them as Xabandar, an office which 
among us corresponds to the con* 
sules of nations." Barros, Dec. II, 
vi, 3. 

[Xabandar, from Pers. Shah bandar, 
lit. 'King of the Haven', Harbour- 
Master. This was the title of an 
officer at the ports all over the Indian 
seas, who was the chief authority 
with whom foreign traders and ship- 
masters had to transact. In the big 




Conta (an account). Konk. 
kont\ vern. terms hiiob, lekh, 
lekho, gan(i, bdbat, sankhyd. 
Ma), kunta; vern. term Hra- 
kira. Tet., Gal. konta: vern. 
term rotus. 

Contas (beads of a rosary). 
Konk. kont\ vern. terms maid, 
zapmald, samarni. Sinh. kon- 
ta i/a, konteya ; vern. terms 
ak$a, maldva, japa-maldva. 
Malayal. konta. Tet. kontas. 
Jap. kontasu. 1 

Contente (contented). Mai. 
contento (Haex). Tet. kon- 
tenti ; vern. terms solok, mok. 

Contra (against). Konk. 

commercial emporiums of the East, 
separate quarters of the city used 
to be occupied by merchants of 
distinct nationalities, each of which 
was under the control of an officer 
appointed by the King who was 
called shabunder, and who was, as a 
rule, of the same nationality as the 
merchants. In some ports, as in 
Malacca, there were in the early 
Portuguese days as many as five 
shabunders. The Persians still call 
their consuls Shah-bandar. See Hob 
son Job 8 on, and Glossario.] 

1 " Afonso d* Albuquerque with 
some contas in his hand, and behind 
him a page carrying a prayer-book, 
went to Church." Gaspar Correia 
I, p. 982. 

"I distributed many contas, gilt 
crosses, medals, and other tokens." 
A. F.Cardim, p. 162. 

kontr (also in the sense of 
' contrary, opposite ') ; vern. 
term dd. Tet. kontra ; vern. 
term sdkar. 

Contrato (a contract). 
Konk., Mar., Sinh. kontrdt 
(also used in the sense of * a 
business, a monopoly ') ; the 
Neo-Aryan terms are kabldt, 
kardr, khand, khoti, gutto. 
? Bug. kontara (from the 
Dutch contract, according to 
Matthes). Tet., Gal. kontrdtu. 

In Konkani, kontrat karunk 

is * to contract ; to enjoy a 
monopoly ; to do business, 

to traffic ' ; kontrdt ghevunk is 
' to secure a monopoly '. 

Contra vontade (against 
one's wish, unwillingly). 
Konk. kontra vontdd (1. us.) ; 
vern. term khue bhdyr. 
Tet. kontrdvontddi ; vern. term 

Convite (invitation) . 

Konk. komvit ; vern. term 
apaunem. Tet. konviti ; vern. 
term tene. 

? Copaiba (copaiba). Jap. 

It perhaps made its entry 
through English. 

C6pia (copy, transcript). 
Konk. kop ; vern terms nakal, 
prat. Kop kadhuhk, kopydr- 




karuhk, to copy; vern. term 
utrunk. Tul. koppi. Tet., 
Gal. kopi (also ' to copy ') ; 
vern. term bondti. 

Copo (a drinking cup). 
Konk. kop. Sinh. koppaya, 
koppe. Loku koppaya (lit. ' a 
big cup'), a basin. Malay al. 
koppa. Tel. kopd. Tul. kopit. 
Ann. coc. Tonk. coc. 
Tet., Gal. kopu, kobu. Jap. 
koppu ; it also signifies * a tea- 
cup ', perhaps under the in- 
fluence of the Dutch kop or 
of the English ' cup ' ; vern. 
term ippai. Ar. koba. 

En Konkani, kop is used 
solely of ' a wine glass ' and, 
figuratively, of * wine '. The 
drinking glass is called vidr 
from Port, vidro, ' glass '. 
Kop ghevuhk, to drink a cup. 
Kopist, a drunkard. 

Copas (hearts in cards). 
Konk. kopdm. Bug. kopasa. 

Copra (the dried kernel of 
the coco-nut). Anglo-Ind. 
coprah. Tndo-Fr. copre. 

The immediate source-word 
of the Indo-Portuguese word 
is the Malay al. koppara, from 
the Hindust. khopfa, Sansk. 
kharpara. 1 

1 " They also dry the cocoa after 
removing the rind and make them 

C6r (colour). Konk. kor; 
vern. term rang. Tet. kor. 1 

Coragao (heart). Konk. 
kurasdmv, a heart-shaped 
ornament. Mai. korsang, kru- 
sang, knmgsang, " a sort of 
gold brooch which serves to 
fasten in front the dress of 
women". Favre. Jav. kor- 

Corda (cord). Konk. kord 
(of musical instruments). 
Malayal. karada. 

Cordame (cordage). L.- 
Hindust. kurdami. 

Cordao (silk rope, twist, or 
braid). Konk. korddmv. 
Hindust. kardhani. L. -Hin- 
dust. kurdam. Tarn, kor dan. 
Malayal. A;o^^a/77. | Turk. 
qordela. \ 

into dried pieces which they call 
copra." Garcia da Orta Col. xvi 
[ed. Markham, p. 142.]. 

*'The kernel of the coco after it 
ia dried and shrunken is called 
copra.'* Fr. Jo&o dos Santos, 
Ethiopa Oriental, I, p. 294. 

"Their food is coco-nuts dried in 
the sun, which in India they com- 
monly call copra. " Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. IV, iv, 8. 

1 "They do not use the word cdr 
('colour'), but only the quality of 
the colour, as : white colour they call 
mutin, nnd not cor mutin, etc." 
P. Aparicio da Silva. 




Corja (a mercantile term 
for 'a score'). Konk. korj. 
Malay al. korja, korchchu. 
Tul. korji. Anglo-Ind. corge, 
coorge. Tndo-Fr. corge, courge. 1 

It appears that the source- 
word is the Neo- Aryan kodi. 
Wilson (A Glossary of Judicial 
and Revenue Terms) mentions 
the Telugu khorjam as the 
original, which Yule and Bur- 
nell presume to be a corrup- 
tion of the trade word. 

[Corja in Port, or corje in 
Anglo-Ind. is a very interest- 
ing word and its derivation is 
a source of considerable diverg- 
ence of opinion. Dalgado, in 
his Glossario, modifies his 
views expressed herein and 

1 " These kinds of cloths are 
reckoned in corjas, for among them 
they count by scores, just as wo do 
by dozens." Duarte Barbosa, p. 283 
[Hak. Soc., od. Dames, Vol. I, p. 161]. 

A corja of cotonia (q.v. ) costs one 
hundred and forty ' tangasS Lem- 
bran$as das Gousas da India, p. 49. 

41 We speak of corja rubies, which 
is as much as to say they are sold 
in lots of twenty. Garcia da Orta, 
Col. xliv. [Markham renders this : 
" Such as we call score rubies because 
they are sold at twenty the vintem". 
There is an evident confusion 
between vinte (' twenty ') and vintem 
(' a Portuguese coin worth about 
twenty rei3. J )} 

suggests that the Malayalam 
korchchu, which means c a 
threaded string ' (like a string 
of pearls) or * a bundle of 
thread ', derived from the verb 
korkk, ' to thread ', is the orig- 
inal of the Port, word corja ; 
for the ch of Malay al. is re- 
presented by j in Port, and 
vice versa. The Port, jagara is 
from chdkkara, and jaca from 
the Malay al. chakka ; con- 
versely the Malayal. chenel is 
the Port, janela, and chudu 
the Port. jogo. He is of the 
opinion that the term acquired 
great vogue in India, owing 
to its being synonymous with 
the Aryan kodi, in the sense of 
6 a score ', because it was usual 
for a great number of com- 
mercial articles to be sold ' by 
the score '. H. H. Wilson 
gives the Telugu khorjam as 
the source-word, but Yule and 
Burnel) presume this to be a 
corruption of the trade word. 
And in fact, Brown in his 
Telugu dictionary observes 
that korja or khorja is a com- 
mercial term. Konkani has 
korj (side by side with kod), 
Tulu korji, and Malayal. 
korja, which is evidence that 
they owe their origin to the 




Port. form. The Neo-Aryan 
languages have kodi, admitted 
also in Tamil, to designate 
the number twenty ; it is very 
much in vogue among the 
people who reckon in kodis 
or scores '. But the difficulty 
is to show the process of 
phonetic evolution which 
could give corga from kodl or 
kori, in view of the fact that 
the normal representation of 
this word, in Portuguese, 
would be cori or core as areca 
is from adeka. Longworth 
Dames who has taken special 
pains to collect expert opin- 
ions on the origin of this 
word comes to the conclusion 
that, if the Dravidian origin 
is admitted as possible, the 
Malay al. form suggested by 
Dalgado seems more probable 
than the Kanarese korji put 
forward by Crooke in Hobson- 
Jobson, especially, as trade 
words are most likely to have 
come into use on the Malabar 
coast. He notes that Dr. G. P. 
Badger (The Travels of Ludovi- 
co di Varthema, Hak. Soc.) 
says that koraja is in use in 
the same sense among the 
Arabs of the Red Sea .and 
Persian Gulf, but he did not 

consider it of Arabic origin. 
It is no doubt purely Indian, 
and must have been intro- 
duced into the Red Sea and 
Persian Gulf by the Portu- 
guese and by Indian traders. 
See Longworth Dames, The 
Book of Duarte Barbosa, Vols. 
I and II, pp. 162 and 234 
respectively; Dalgado's Glos- 
sario, and Hobson-Jobson, 


Gornaca (an elephant-driv- 
er). Anglo-Ind. cornac. 

Probably from the Sinh. Tcur- 
ava-ndyzka t ' chief of the ele- 
phant-stud.' 1 

[The author, in his Glos- 
sario, says that the im- 
mediate source-word of the 
Portuguese cornaca is not 
the Sanskrit karriakin, but 
the Sinhalese Icuruneka, from 
which were also evolved the 

i "The wife of a Cornaca (Cor- 
nacas are those who look after ele- 
phants)." Diogo do Couto, Dec. V, 
vii, 11. 

" The cornacas are those who 
tame elephants and ride on them." 
JoSo Ribeiro, Fatalidade Historica 
da Ilha de Ceil&o, Bk. 1, ch. 10. 
"These animals go about in the 
forests in bands, and there is always 
among them one who is bigger and 
more feared than the others, who is 
called the guarda-bando (' the leader 
of the band'). Id., I, ch. 17. 




forms kftrunayak and kuruva- 
nayaka. Kuruva-nayaka is 
' the chief of the kftruva or 
herd of elephants ; tamer of 
elephants '. Among other 
citations, he gives one from 
P. E. Pieris, Ceylon (II, p. 
37), which brings out the 
Sinhalese meaning very 
olearly : " They (the elephants) 
were then led away by the 
Kurunayakas whose duty it 
was to tame them, each 
animal being secured to four 
tame ones."] 

? Corno (horn) . Mai . 
kurn, | kernu y ' a powder- 
horn ' ; | vern. term tandoq. 
| In Ar. also kam signifies 
<horn'. | 

Gorneta (a cornet, trum- 
pet). Konk. kornet\ vern. 
term kar$6 t kdl. Tet., Gal. 

C6ro (choir). Konk. kor. 
Tet. k6ru. 

Coroa (crown). Konk. 
kurov ; vern. term mukut, tdz. 
Tet., Gal. korda. 

In Konkani, the term is also 
used to signify ' the clerical 
tonsure', which the common 
people also speak of as phardd 
(fern.), from the Port, frade, 
* a friar '. 

Coronel (colonel). Konk. 
kornel. Mar. karnel. Guj., 
Hindi, karnel. Hindust. 

karnail. Beng. karnel. Sinb. 
kornel. Tul. karnelu. Mai. 
karnel. Bug. koroneli. Tet., 
Gal. koronel. 

It may be that in some of 
the Indian languages the term 
found its way from English, 
and in Malay, from Dutch. 

Corpinho (' a little doublet 
or bodice'). Mai. kurpinyu. 
Corredor (a corridor). 
Konk. kurredor. ? Mai. kori- 
dor, a balcony, a verandah. 

It is probable that the 
Malay term is of Dutch or 
English origin. 

Corrente (subst., a stream, 
current ; also a chain). Konk. 
kurrent, a chain ; vern. term 
sarpali. Tet. korrenti, fetters 
for convicts ; vern. term bteL 
Cortesia (courtesy) . 

Konk. kortesi, bow. Tet. 
kortezia ; vern. terms ukur, 

Cortina (a curtain). Konk. 
kurtin\ vern. term paddo. 
Guj. kurtani. Tet., Gal. 

Corveta (naut., a corvette, 
a war- vessel with one tier of 
guns). Konk. kurvet. Tet. 




Costa (coast). Mai. kosta, 
* the Coromandel Coast'. 
Sagu sa- Costa, the sagu of 
the Coast (Haex). Saputan- 
gang kosta, or supo etangang 
kosta, a kerchief from the 
Coast (lensu di costa, in the 
Portuguese dialect). Sund. 
kosta. Kain kosta or simply 
kosta, a variety of printed 
fabric. Ghav kosta (lit. * ban- 
ana of the Coast'), a species 
of banana. 1 

In Anglo-Indian speech ' The 
Coast ' had likewise the same 
restricted meaning. 2 

["This term in books of 
the 18th century means the 
Madras or Coromandel Coast 
and often the Madras Presi 
dency." Hobson-Jobson, s.v. 
The Coast."] 

1 "Hero (in Malacca), live all sorts 
of rich (grosos] merchantR, both 
Mohammedans and Hindus, many of 
them from Choromandel." Duarte 
Barbosa, p. 371. [Longworth Dames 
(Vol. II, p. 172) mistranslates grosos 
mercadores by " wholesale mer- 
chants " ; the confusion is between 
grosso, adj., 'rich', and per grosso, 
' wholesale ']. 

2 " Great was the joy and gladness 
on all the Costa at the arrival of 
the great, and holy Father Fran- 
cisco." Lucena, Bk. V, ch. 23. Of 
the instructions and directions he 
gave on the Costa to the priests." 
Id., ch. 25. 

Gostado (naut., the side of 
a ship). L.-Hindust. kustdd. 

Costume (a custom). 
Konk. kustum (1. us.) ; vern. 
terms samvay, vaz, chdl. Mai. 
costume (Haex) ; vern. terms 
ddat, resam. Tet. kostumi. 

Costura (naut., the seams of 
a ship). L.-Hindust. kasturd. 

Cotao (a sort of vest hang- 
ing to the knees). Konk. 
kutdmv, tunic, dressing gown ; 
a bodice. Sinh. kottama, 
jacket. Tarn, kuttdn, chemise. 
? Mai., Mac., Bug. kutang, 
bodice, chemise. ? Sund. 
kutang, kutung. ? Jav. ko- 
tang. x 

The question of the origin 
of this word, in the Asiatic 
languages, is not very clear. 
It may be the Port, cotao in 
the sense of ' garment for 

1 *'A species of under-shirt or 
close-fitting cutao " O Oabinete Lit- 
teraric das Fontainhas. 

" Francisco Barreto used to ride 
on a horse, one of those which had 
an escape from poison at Sena, al- 
ways arrayed in a thick knitted 
cottao." P. Monclaio (1569), in Jour. 
Qeo. Sec. Lisb., 2nd ser., p. 550. 

"Cutao or jacket of deep blue 
colour with scarlet cuffs." (part of 
the military uniform in Goa, 1828.} 
Bosquejo das Possessdes Portuguezas* 
I, p. 81. 




every day wear' (Morais), or 
an augmentative of cota, ' a 
vest of thick texture ' (Segun- 
do Cerco de Diu, from which 
Morais quotes). But it is 
also possible, if not probable, 
that the original word may 
be the Mahy kutong, which 
is also used in the corrupt 
Portuguese dialect of Mal- 
acca, carried to India by the 
Portuguese together with the 
baju, another article of Malay 
dress, which is worn on the 
top of the kutong. This expla- 
nation would fit in better 
with the meanings of the 
Indian words, excepting that of 
' dressing gown ' in Konkani, 
which appears to agree with 
that of the augmentative cotao. 
It is to be noted that 
kutong, in its turn, may be 
traced to the Persian khaftdn 9 
'gown', since Fabre is of the 
opinion that bdju has also its 
origin in the same language, 
although there is a difference 
in the meanings of the 
words : " bazu, the name of 
a garment used in bathing 
which is tied at the waist ". 
There is another word in 
Persian, kattdn or kuttdn, which 
signifies ' a fabric made of 

linen '. According to Shake- 
spear, qaftdn, in Turkish, is 
" a robe of honour ". 

With regard to baju, the 
word belongs to the Portu- 
guese vocabulary. Candido 
de Figueiredo mentions it as 
a term current in Miranda, 
and the Portuguese dictionary, 
Contemporaneo, says that ''the 
women's jackets, used in the 
province of Minho, are called 
by that name ". 

Joao de Sousa derives baju 
from the Arabic badju and 
defines it as " a certain species 
of gown which was largely 
used by women, and which 
some women, even now, use in 
our provinces where they give 
it this name " ; he quotes in 
support Damiao de Gois : 
" The King of Calicut was 
dressed in a white baju of 
silk and gold, and was seated 
on a catel 1 [a sort of bed in 

1 "The king was dressed in a Baju 
(which is like a short gown) of very 
fine cotton cloth, with many gold 
and pearl buttons; on his head he 
wore a velvet-cap adorned with 
precious stones and gold plates. 
This is the usual apparel of all the 
kings of Malabar, because no other 
person except they wear the baju 
and the cap." I, ch. 41. 




Malabar]." Morais, who at- 
tributes to the word the same 
origin, says that it is " a 
garment which covers the 
body ; it has short sleeves and 
a skirt up to the knees : in 
Asia, both men and women 
wear it; in Brazil, only the 
women, and some of them 
there call it bajo". Vieira 
mentions both forms bajo and 
baju, and defines either as "an 
Asiatic garment in the form 
of a jacket"; in support he 
quotes Castanheda, 1 and ob- 
serves that the term is " used 
in the popular songs of the 
Azores Islands ". Bluteau has 
baju as a " word from India ", 
and gives it the meaning of 
"a shirt covering half the 

The author of Chronica dos 
Reis de Bisnaga gives the form 
bajuris and says that " they 
are like shirts with a skirt ". 
The term is met with in the 
Port, dialect of Goa specially 
in connection with the phrase 

i "The king of Ceylon was wear- 
ing a silk bajo, which is a garment 
like a jacket made of cotton cloth. 1 ' 
" The kings of the Moluccas dress 
in the Malay manner and the baju s 
are of rich silk with gold buttons." 

pano-baju, which is used of 
a certain style of female dress, 
to distinguish it from the pano 
paid, a style which is purely 
indigenous. 1 

Among the Indian lang- 
uages Konkani alone recognises 
the word (bazu), and employs 
it in the Malay acceptation. 
The Sinhalese women use the 
baju, but they call it bach- 
chiya. 2 

The Arabic and Persian dic- 
tionaries which I have con- 
sulted do not mention badju 
or bazu in the sense of ' a 
gown ' or anything like it, nor 
could the Arabic scholars whose 
assistance I sought help me 
to clear the poiht. But H. 
N. Van der Tuuk is of the 
opinion that the Persian b&ju, 
'arm' (Sansk. bahu), is the 
source of the worn ; that orig- 

1 " The word is met with in con- 
nection with the dress of the 
Christian women of Damaun and 
Diu, and even in Goa, under the 
form ear das, signifying, unless I am 
mistaken, the pano-baju of the Brah- 
min Christian women of Salsete (in 
Goa)." Alberto de Castro, p. 172. 

2 " They wear the baju and a 
cloth which reaches right down to 
the soles of the feet, a style very staid 
and decorous." Jofto Ribeiro, Bk. I, 
ch. xvi. 




inally baju was no other than 
" een kleeding-etuk met ar- 
men, a gown with arms", i.e., 
sleeves ! Yule and Burnell 
hold it for certain that the 
source of the Anglo-Ind. bad- 
joe or bajoo, ' the Malay jac- 
ket ', is the Mai. "baju ; and 
the authors whom they cite 
appear to confirm their op_ 
inion. 1 The term is met with 
in the principal languages of 
the Indian Archipelago, as for 
instance, Javanese, Batak, 
Dayak, Macassar, Bugui. 
[Linschoten (Hak. Soc. Vol. I, 
p. 206), speaking of k< the man- 
er and customes of Portin- 
gale and Mesticos women in 
India", says, "within the 
house they goe bare headed 
with a wastcoate called Baju, 
that from their shoulders 
covereth their navels, and is 
so fine that you may see, al 
their body through it .,..'* 
Burnell who edited this volume 

1 " Over this they wear the bad- 
joo, which resembles a morning 
gown, open at the neck, but fastened 
close at the wrist, and half-way up 
the arm.*' Marsden. 

" They wear above it a short-sleeved 
jacket, the baju, beautifully made, 
and often very tastefully decorated 
in fine needle-work.*' Bird. 

explains the word thus : Baju, 
i.e., Hind. bdzu t is "a kind of 
short shirt, reaching down to 
the hips, with very short (if 
any) sleeves ; sometimes open 
at the upper part of the 
chest in front " (Qanoon-e- 
Islam, ed. 1863, p. xv.] 

Gotonia (a kind of piece- 
goods either of silk or mixed 
silk and cotton). Konk., Mar. 
kutni, striped cloth either of 
silk or cotton. Anglo-Ind. 
cuttanee. 1 

The original word is the 
Arabic qutnia ; but Yule and 
Burnell suggest doubtfully the 
Persian kuttdn, ' linen or cot- 
ton cloth '. 

1 "With the awnings of thejustas, 
and some sails and cotonias which 
they had bought they prepared 
tents and shelters." Caspar Correia, 
III, p. 617 See corja. 

"Cotonias of cotton, teadas, and 
inferior cloth of other kinds." A. 
do Albuquerque, Cartas, Vol. I, p. 
224. [Teada is used by the Portu- 
guese chroniclers of India exclusively 
in the sense of ' whole piece of white 
cotton cloth \ See Qlossario, p. 364.] 

" With breeches of cotonia reach- 
ing half-way down the legs, a coat of 
mail, and a two-handed sword in 
hand." Diogo do Couto, Dec. VII, 
ii. 11. 

"Gotoni of silk...Cotonl of silk 
and gold, and of silk and silver." 
Tavernier, Voyages, V, p, 202. 




Couve (cabbage). Konk. 
kob. Mar. k6b, kobi, koi ; 
vern. term karam. Guj. kobi ; 
kobij ( couves, the pi. form). 
Hindi kobi, gobi, gobhi ; 
vern. term karamu-kalld. 
Hindust. kobi. Or. kobi. 
Beng. kobi, kobi6dk, kopi6ak 
(&ak~ vegetable). Sinh. Jcovi; 
vern. terms sudumul, gova, 
gova-gediya (lit. * fruit from 
Goa'). Tam. kovi. Malayal. 
govi, govinnu. Kan. kobisu. 
Tul. gobi. Gar. kobi ; vern. 
term mesumasa. Tib. ko-pi ; 
vern. term pe-chhe. Ko-pi 
melok. cauliflower. Khas. 
kubi. Mai. kobis, kubis. Jav. 
koubis, kubis. Mad. kobis. 
Tet., Gal. kobi. 

The compound hybrid phul- 
kobi or phul-gobi is the name 
of the cauliflower in almost 
all the Indian languages. In 
Malasia kol is more in use ; 
it is derived from the Dutch 

Cova (pit, hole, grave). 
Mai. koba (a term used in 
some game). Mao. kova. 

C6vado (a cubit or ellp 
Konk. k6bd. Anglo-Ind. covia 
(obs). Tet., Gal., kdvadu. 

This term was at one time 
very muoh in use in trade 

circles in India. Tavernier 
(1676) refers to it frequently 
and regards it as a vernacu- 
lar term, " Bo f etas measure 
21 cobits when they are un- 
bleached, but when bleached 
they are only 20 cobits." (V. 
p. 200). [Ox. Univ. Press, ed. 
(1927), Vol. II, p. 6.] 

[Tavernier gives further 
information of the 'cubit' in 
Bk. II, ch. xii : " The cobit is a 
measure for all goods which 
can be measured by the oil, 
of which there are different 
kinds, as we have different 
kinds of ells in Europe. It 
is divided into 24 tassots." 
Tassot ought to be tasu, 
which is properly the breadth 
of the second and third 
fingers. Bofeta, in the former 
quotation, is the Pers. bafta 
(past part.), 'woven', and is 
the name of a very fine calico, 
made specially at Broach.] 

Cozido (subst. t boiled 
meat). Konk. kuzid. Tam. 

Cozinha (kitchen). ) Konk. 

*v / r v ' 
kuzin. Sinh, kussiya. Tam . 

kusini. Kusinik-kdran, a 
cook. Tel. kusini-kdra, kusi- 
ni-vddu, a cook^Kan. ku6i- 
ni. Tul. kusinu, kusini. 




kusni. Kusnida, culinary. 
Malag. kozina. 

*Crasso (thick, gross). 
Mai., Sund., Jav. kras, keras 
(adj. and adv.), strong, vigor- 
ous ; strongly, energetically. 
Haex and Swettenham also 
mention the form dras. 

Dr. Heyligers admits the 
Portuguese origin ; but it 
appears to me that his op- 
inion is not well-founded. 
Crasso is a term used gener- 
ally by the learned. See 

PCravado (stuck into, 
thrust into). Tarn , Malayal. 
karumdu, salted fish. 

The derivation, suggested 
by Gundert, is improbable 
because of the meaning of 
the word. Karavala is * dried 
fish ' in Sinhalese, and Per- 
cival says that the Tamil 
" karuvdttuvdli is the name 
of a bird whose tail is like 
that of a fish, Corvus Bali- 
cassius ". 

/ i } - l Grave (Caryophyllus are- 
maticus y clove). Beng. kard- 
bu. Sinh. krdbu, kardbu; 
vern. terms lamange (Sansk^ 
lavanga), devakusuma (Sansk., 
lltT^the flower of God'). 
krdbu-gaha, the clove tree. 

Tarn. kardmbu, kirdmbu ; 
vern. terms lavangam, ila- 
vangam. Malayal. kardmbu, 
karaydbu, karappa. Siam. 
kravhn, cardamom. 

Gundert says that karappa 
conies from the Ar. qarfah. 
But qarfah signifies * bark, 
cinnamon ', and qaranful, 
mentioned by Belot as verna- 
cular, is the name of the clove, 
which it is also in Persian, in 
addition to mekheh or mekheh, 
' a small nail '. Shakespear, 
in his Hindustani dictionary, 
derives qaranful or qaranphul 
from the Greek karyophyllon, 
which is literally equivalent 
to ' the leaf of the walnut- 
tree '. Garcia da Orta, in 
Colloquy xxv, says: "Your 
Greeks did not speak of this 
gariofilo " [ed. Markham, p. 

[The primary meaning of 
the Port, cravo, from Lat. 
clavus, is ' a nail ' ; this name 
was, evidently, given to this 
spice because of the clove's 
resemblance to a small nail. 
Cloves in the early days of 
the Portuguese connection 
with the East were more in 
demand than other spices, 
and, to use the phrase of 




Oamoens, " clove- trees were 
bought with Portuguese 
blood ". This is a way of 
saying that many Portuguese 
lost their lives in attempting 
to discover the islands in the 
Moluccas which grew clove- 
trees. Conde de Ficalho 
(Colloquies de Garcia da Orta, 
Vol. I, p. 368) thinks that 
the Gk. garyophyllon or, as 
da Orta writes it, gariofilo 
does not represent an origin- 
al Greek word but the Hel- 
lenisation of some oriental 
name ; he also believes that 
the Ar. qaranfal or karump- 
fel are likewise derived from 
the same oriental name. In 
the opinion of Dymock (Mat. 
Med.) all these names are 
derived from the Tarn, kirdm- 
bu 9 and the Malay kardmpu ; 
because it was through the 
medium of these people that 
this spice penetrated into 
India, and afterwards came 
to be known to the Arabs 
and the Greeks.] 

2 Cravo (Dianthus caryo- 
phyttatus, a pink ; from which 
it to mean * a flower- 
shaped ear-ornament ' ; in this 
latter meaning it has been 
adopted by the languages men- 

tioned below). Konk. kardb. 
Sinh. krdbuva, kardbuva. 
Malayal. krdbuva. Mai. krdbu, 
kerdbu. Ach. kerdbu. Sund. 
karabuy kurabu. Kardbu-ros 
(lit. * the ear-ornament-rose ') , 
" very ornate ear-rings " 
(Bigg). Mac., Bug., Tet., 
karabu. 1 

Crescer (to grow). Mai. 
crescer (Haex). 

Criado (servant). Konk. 

krydd (us. both of a male and 

a female servant) : vern. terms 

chakar, ravaylalo (mas.) ; 

ravaylalewi, woman servant. 

Tet., Gal. kriddu\ vern. terms 

dta mane, klosan. 

Griar (to bring up). MaL 

crear (Haex). Gal. kriar. 
Crisma (chrism ; the 

sacrament of confirmation) . 

Konk. krizm. Beng. krisma. 

Tarn, krismei. TeJ. krismu. 

Tet., Gal. krisma. Jap. 


Cristao (a Christian) , 

Konk. kristdriiv. Beng. 

kristdft. Tarn, kiristavan. 

Malayal, kiristanmdr. Tel. 

kristannu, kirastuvdnu. 

Kan. kiristdnu. Kamb. 

1 "The ears are adorned with 
three pairs of craves.*' O Gabinet* 
Litterario das Fontainhas. 




kristcing. Siam. khristang* 
lap. kirishtan, kirishitan. 

The other Indian languages 
have kristi, derived from 
r Christ,' or kristiyan, from 
the English * Christian.' 

The Malayo-Polynesian 
languages have Nasardni or 
Sardni from the Portuguese 
Nazareno, 'Nazarene.' It 
is worthy of note that 
Kambojan keeps the Portu- 
guese form. Sinhalese, not- 
withstanding that Ceylon was 
twice christianised by the 
Portuguese, has adopted the 
English form kristiydni. 

Critica (criticism ; cen- ! 
sure). Konk. kirit, defama- 
tion. Kirit marunk, to 
defame. Malayal. krittikka, 
to criticise. 

>Cruz (a cross). Konk. 
khuris. Khuris kddhunk (lit. 
' to take the cross'), to make 
the sign of the cross. Khur- 
sdr kddhunk (lit. * to take 
upon the cross ') , to torment, 
to cause great distress. 
Khuradr zadunk, to nail to 
the cross. Khursdr mdrunk 
(lit. ' to kill upon the cross '), 
to crucify. Khuris karunk 
(lit. * to make the cross'), to 
make a mark, usually a cross, 

in lieu of signature. There 
is no vernacular term for a 
cross. Chavo signifies * the 
cross of St. Andrew.' 

Mar. krus. Krusdchi ni&dni 
(lit. 'the sign of the cross'), 
cross-mark used for signature. 
Krusdr chadhavnem, -denem 
(lit. ' to raise, to give upon the 
cross'), to crucify. Krusd- 
verel Khrisldchi murtti (lit. 
' an image of Christ upon the 
cross'), a crucifix. 

Guj. krus, krus. Kruspar 
jadhavavum, to crucify. 

Hindi : krus. Krus-, 
krussa-, krusiya pratimd, a 

Hindust. krus ; vern. term 
salib (from Ar.). 

Beng. krui. Krudkriti, 
kru6dkdr, cruciform. Krue 
hata-kri (lit. ' to make dead 
upon the cross'), to crucify. 
Sinh. kurusiya, kuresiya. 
Kuresi surevama, a crucifix. 
Kuresi dkdra, cross-shaped. 
Kuresiye engasa-navd, to 

Tarn, kurus-, vern. term 
siluvei. Kurusadi, the big 
cross in the middle or the 
end of the church-yard, tran- 

Malayal. kru6u y kuriia. 




Kruhil tarekka, kru&ikka, to 
crucify. KruSarohanani, cru- 

Kan. kruji. Tul. kmssu, 
kursu, kruji. Kamb. crus, 
chhucrus. Clihu is 'wood.' 
Tet., Gal. kruz. Jap. kurusu, 

Guidado (care). Konk. 
kuiddd (us. in Goa among the 
Christians). Mai. cuidado, cu- 
dado (Haex). Tet. kitidddu; 
vern. term alddi-diak. 

Guidar (to take care). Mai. 
cudir (' to take to heart, to 
have a care for. 5 Haex) ; per- 
haps from the Port, acudir 
('to help, to succour'). Tet. 
kuida ; vern. term hanoin. 

Gunha (wedge). Konk. 
kurih, kunj ; vern. terms 
pacharem, koyadum. Hindust. 
kunya, kuniydn, koniyd. See 
bolina. Sinh. kunnaya, kun~ 
neya< kunn&. Gal. kunha. 
Pers. kiihnah, cork. 

Gunhada (sister-in-law) . 
Beng. koindo. Mai. cuniada 
(Haex) ; vern. term ipar pa- 

Gunhado (brother-in-law). 
Konk. Jcunhdd (' sister's hus- 
band'). Beng. koindu. Mai. 
cuniado (Haex) ; vern. term 
ipar laki. 

Curar (to cure). Konk- 
kurdr-karuhk. Malayal. kura, 
to cure leather. Mai. curar 

Curral (a cattle pen, a 
paddock). Anglo-Ind. corral 
(us. in Ceylon), 'an enclosure 
for the capture of wild ele- 
phants.' ? Kamb. crol ; this 
may be a vern. tern). 

The word curral does not 
appear in the dictionaries of 
the Sinhalese or Tamil lan- 
guages, nor is it in use at 
present, according to my in- 
formation ; nor do I know 
whether it is current in the 
Indo- Portuguese dialects in 
this sense. It must have be- 
come current in Ceylon dur- 
ing the sway of that island by 
the Dutch, who carried the 
word to Africa, in the form 
kral, ( a native v'llage or 
settlement.' See Webster, 
s.v. kraal. 

Conde de Ficalho (Colloquy 
xxi) says: "It appears that 
this method of hunting ele- 
phants was introduced or 
brought into general use in 
Ceylon by the Portuguese ; 
the enclosure, which in India 
is called keddah, receives there 
the name of korahl or corral> 




which is evidently the Portu- 
guese word curral" But the 
method was known and prac- 
tised before the sixteenth 
century, according to the testi- 
mony of Tome Lopes, who 
sailed for India in 150.2: 
" Ceylon has a large number 
of wild elephants, very big 
ones, whom they domesticate 
by building a big enclosure 
with a strong palisade, and a 
drawbridge between two trees, 
inside which they place a 
female elephant already domes- 
ticated." NavegaQao dslndias 
Orientals, in the Coll. of Ram- 
usio, trans. Acad. of Sciences, 
Lisb., ch. xix. 

Curva (naut., the knees of 
a ship). L.-Hindust. karvd. 

Cuspidor (arch, for cas- 
pideira, a spittoon). Konk. 
kuspidor ; vern. terms tkukpdt, 
pikdani. Anglo-Ind. caspa- 
dore (obs.). 1 

Used in the same sense by 
Portuguese Indian dialects. 

Custar (to cost). Konk. 
kustdr-zavunk, to be worth ; 
to become difficult; vern. 
terms Idgunk, padunk ; puro 

? 'There was there a cospidor 
of gold." Castanheda, I, ch. 17. 

zavuhk. Mar. kust honerti, to 
become aggrieved. Tet. kusta, 
(also used in the sense of 
costly'); vern. term tos. 

Molesworth does not give 
the etymology of the Marathi 
expression. In Konkani kus- 
tar, by itself, means ' at the 
cost of. 5 > 


Dado (in the sense of * a 
die used in games of chance '). 
Konk. dad ; vern. term phaso. 
Sinh. ddduva. Dddu hinkara- 
dima, a raffle. ? Siam. tau ; 
vern. terms pr>, sirkd. Mai. 
dddu, dad it. Dadu-dddu, can- 
non shot. Ach., Batt. dddu. 
Sund. dddu. Mata dddu, a 
chess-board pattern. Jav. 
dadu, dadu. Adadu, to play 
with dice. Andadu, similar 
to dice. Mac., Bug. dddu. See 

Phonetically, dado can give 
tan in Siamese. D initial is 
changed into t. Cf. tipya from 
Sansk. divya ; tavipa from 
Sansk. dvipa ; tasa from Pali 
dasa. The d could easily be 
dropped in the process of 
monosyllabification. Gf. mil 
from English 'mister'; Rut horn 
'Russia 5 ; Phrik from 'Africa' : 




khrut from Sansk. garuda. 
I But Chinese has also tcm-ttz.'i 

Dama (in the sense of 'game 
of draughts'). Konk. dam. 
Mai. dam. 

Damasco (damask). Konk. 
damask. Mar. dhumds. Guj. 
dhumds, dumds. Beng. da- 
mds. Tarn., Kan. damdsu. 
Tul. damdsa. 1 

Dan^a (dance). Konk. 
dams (more in use ndch). Mai. 
ddnsa, ddnsu. DdnsaJi, to 

Decreto (decree). Konk. 
delcret\ vern. term Sdsan, 
Jiukum, pharmaq. Tet, dekre- 

Dedal (thimble). Konk. 
diddl. Sinh. diddlaya, diddle. 
Malayal. tital. Also thim- 
bala, tumbala, from the Eng- 
lish, ' thimble.' Mai. didal, 
lidal, bidal, deiddl. Sund. 
bidal. Tet., Gal. dedal. 

Degrau (a step). Konk. 
degrdv (1. us.); vern. term 

i "Very good silk is produced 
here (in China) from which they make 
great store of damasquo cloths in 
colours." Duarte Barbosa, p. 382 
IHak. Soc., ed. Dames, Vol. II, p. 214]. 

"With six saddle-clothes of colour- 
ed Damascos." Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. VII, iii, 1. 

pauhdo, sopan. Tet. degrau ; 
vern. term hein. 

Desconfiar (to distrust). 
Konk. diskomphydr-zdvuhk 
(1. us.); vern. termdubhavonk. 
Tet. deskonfia; vern. term 

Descontar (to discount). 
Konk. diskontdr-karunk ; vern. 
term bad divunk. Tet, deskon- 
ta ; vern. term ha sdi. 

Desgra^a (disgrace, mis 
fortune). Konk. dizgrds ; vern. 
terms nirbhdg, hdl. Tet. 
desgrasa ; vern. term oti. 

Desmorecer (us. for esmore- 
cer, in the sense of * to be dis- 
couraged'). Mai. desmorecer, 
" to be down hearted " (Haex). 

[Despachador (in the sense 
of ' some sort of official, 
probably a customs-official.' 
The ordinary meaning of the 
word is ' one who is quick in 
the execution of any work ; 
also a judge or an official of 
the Court'). Anglo-Ind. dis- 
patchadore. 1 "This curious 

i ["The 23 I was sent to the 
Under-Dispatchadore, who I found 
with my Scrutore before him. I having 
the key, he desired me to open it." 
Bowyear'8 Journal at Cochin China, in 
Dairy mple, Oriental Repertory (1791- 
97), I, 77, cit. in Hobson-Jobson. 

Scrutore is, no doubt, the same as 




word was apparently a name 
given by the Portuguese to 
certain officials in Cochin- 
China " (Hobson-Jobson).] 

Despacho (official commu- 
nication in answer to a peti- 
tion). Konk. despdch. Tet., 
Gal. despdchu. 

Despensa (a pantry). Konk. 
ditpems. Mai. dispen, spens, 
spen , sepen. Tukan-sepen , 
a steward. Tet., Gal. des- 

Despesa (expense). Konk. 
despez ; vern. term kharch. 
Tet. despeza. 

Desprezar (to despise). 
Konk. desprezdr-karunk ; vern. 
terms beparvd karuhk, haluva- 
tunk. Tet. despreza', vern. 
term heunai. 

Desterrar (to banish). Mai., 
Tet., Gal. disterra. 

Deus (God). Beng. Devus; 
us. in such expressions as 
Devus bons diyd (lit, * God good 
day') , Devus bons noiti (lit. 'God 
good night'). Mai. Deos. Deos 
tuong is used in the sense of 
' God willing,' according to 
Haex. Gal. dmu Deus. Amu, 

escritoire or a writing desk with 
drawers. Yule says that ' dispatcha- 
dore ' is met with only in the document 
quoted above.] 

from Port, amo, ' master,' 
stands for 'Lord.' Nic. Dense. 
Menluana Dense, a priest. 
Pid-Engl. Joss, Josh, God, 
an idol. Joss-house (lit. 
'house of God'), a church. 
Joss-house-man, a priest. 
Joss-pidgin (lit. ' business of 
God '), the bonze ; the minister 
of God. Joss-stick (lit. 'stick 
of God'), an odiferous stick 
lighted and allowed to burn 
before idols in temples. 

" Before the Mohammedans 
there was no reckoning (in the 
Moluccas) of time, or of weights, 
or measures, and they lived 
without a belief in one God, or 
knowledge of any definite 
religion." Joao de Barros, 
Dec. Ill, v, 5. 

"Formerly the Malays, 
having had no knowledge of 
God, did not use any term 
in speaking of Him. But 
with the lapse of years, having 
received Mohammedanism 
from the Arabs, they adopted, 
at the same time as their 
religion, the expression Alia 
arid Alia te Alia, and this was 
done in the islands of Amboyna, 
Moluccas, etc. When the 
inhabitants were instructed by 
the Portuguese in the Catholio 




faith, they, in their turn, adop- 
ted the name 'Deus.'" 
(Haex). 1 

Devo^ao (devotion). Konk. 
devosdvhv, devaspan ; vern. 
terms bhakti, bhakti-bhdv. 
Tet., Gal. dwo*a. 

In Konkani devot (adj.) 
means ' a devout man ; ' devot 
(subst. neut.), 'a religious sere- 
nade during Lent ; ' this is 
spoken of as devota in the 
Portuguese dialect of Goa 

Diabo (devil). Konk. dydb 
(1. us. and only among the 
Christians). Malayal. diydl. 
? Gar. diabol ; perhaps from 
the Italian diavolo, introduced 
by the missionaries. Tet. 
didbu. >\ 

Diamante (diamond). 

Konk. dyamdnt ; vern. term 
vajr (Sansk.). Sinh, diya- 
mdntiya ; vern. terms vajraya, 
vadura (the Elu form). Tet., 
Gal. diamdnti ; vern. terms 
phdtuk laka. 

Dicionario (a dictionary). 
Konk. disyondr ; vern. terms 
ko& &abdako&. Tet. disiondri. 

* The word dev or deva, used in 
Konknni and other Indian languages, 
is derived directly from the Sanskrit 

Dinheiro (money). Mai., 

Tet., Gal., dine. 1 ' ," * 

"Afonso de Albuquerque 
coined two kinds : one he 
called dinheiro, and the other, 
which was equivalent to ten 
dinheiros, he called soldo, and 

1 Dinar (Achinese), dinara or jingara 
(Macassar), dinara, jinara, j in gar a 
(Bugi), 'gold coin', are from the Arabic 
-Pers. dinar, which is affiliated to the 
Lat. denariu*. Amarakoda, a Sanskrit 
(Hctionnry of the fifth century, 
mentions dinara as a synonym of 
ni#ka, ' a gold coin.' But there are 
dinares of smaller value. "Two fides 
are worth one dynare, and twelve 
dynares one tftnga." (Tango, is ho re 
used for the larim, a coin in use in tho 
Persian Gulf). Lembranra* das Cousas 
da India. " The dinar in modern 
Persia is a very small imaginary coin, 
of which 10,000 make a tomawn" 

[Fule is evidently the same as the 
Ar. falas, the name of a copper coin of 
very email value. "The names of the 
Arabic pieces of money, .are all taken 
from the coins of tho Lower Roman 
Empire. Thus, the copper piece was 
called fals from follis ; the silver 
dirham from drachma, and the gold 
dinar from denarius, which, though 
properly a silver coin, was used 
generally to denote coins of other 
metals, as the denarius aeris (* copper 
or bronze denarius'), and the denaritta 
auri, or aureus ('gold denarius')" 
James Prinsep, in Essays, etc., cit. in 
Hobson-Jobson, s.v. dlnftr. See also 
Dalgado, Gloasario, s.v. faluz.] 




a third worth ten soldos, bas* 
tardos" Joao de Barros, Dec. 
II, vi, 6. 

["Lastly were struck (by 
Albuquerque, in Goa) copper 
coins called dinheiros and 
leaes. Now the word dinheiros 
(Lat. denarii, Fr. deniers) 
when used in the singular is a 
generic name for all kinds of 
money, and, although in this 
case it was used to designate 
a very small coin, it caused 
no little confusion, and conse- 
quently they agreed to call the 
dinheiros cepayquas, a word 
still in vogue in the Portu- 
guese settlement of Macao 
in the form of sapeca, and the 
origin of which I have not yet 
been able to determine." J. G. 
da Cunha, Indo-Portuguese 
Numismatics, in J .B.B.R.A.S., 
Vol. XTV, p. 271. Cepayqua, 
the origin of which presented 
difficulties to da Cunha, is, as 
he says, the same as the 
Macao sapeca, which is a 
Malay word composed of sa, 
'one/ and p</ku, 'hundred coins 
called pichis strung together." 
< The word is used by Albu- 
querque in his Letters before 
his conquest of Malacca, from 
which it is to be inferred that, 

as the result of commercial 
intercourse, the Malay term 
was known in India as a 
synonym for cash in the early 
sixteenth century. See Gloss- 
ario, s.v. sapeca.] 

Dispensa (dispensation) . 
Konk. dispems ; vern. term 
maphi. Tet. dispensa. 

Dobrado (adj. , double) . 
Konk. dobrdd ; vern. term 
dupet. L.-Hindust. dubrdl, a 
double knot. Tul. dubrdl u, 
dibrdln (subst.), twice-distilled 

In Konkani also librdd saro y 
that is, k thrice-distilled spirit/ 
is used. See tresdobrado. 

Dobro (subst., double). 
Konk. dobr (1. us.). Mac., Bug. 
dobalo, used in game of cards. 

Doce (subst., a sweet). Konk. 
(Jos. Sinh. dosi (also us. in the 
sense of 'jelly or a preserve'). 
Tarn, dosei, cake made of 
rice flour. Doseikkal, a fry- 
ing-pan. Malayal. dos. Kan. 
dose, cake, fritter. Tul. ddse, 
cake made of rice flour. Tet. 
dosi ; vern. term mid el. 

Doxn (a title given to gentle- 
men and persons of position in 
Portugal and Spain). Konk. 




Dofa. Sinh. Don. Tet., Gal. 
Dom. 1 

Domingo (Sunday ; liter- 
ally 'the Lord's day'). Mai. 
domingo, dumingo (Haex), 
domingo (Castro), mingo, min- 
gn. Hdri mingo (lit. ' the day 
Sunday ') is * Sunday ; ' vern. 
terms ahad (Ar.), hdri-ahad. 
Sdtu mingo (lit. ' one Sunday ') 
is * a week ; J vern. terms sdtu 
jema'at (Ar.), tujoh hdri (lit. 
'seven days 1 ). Sund., Mad. 
mingo, a week. Jav. mingu 
(more us. ahad). Mingon 
(adj.), relating to Sunday. 
Day. mingo, mengo. 2 Jap. 
domingo, domiigo. 

Dona (a title given to ladies 
of quality ; lady, mistress of 

1 M The chiefs of the south and west 
perpetuate with pride the honorific 
title of Don, accorded to them by their 
first European conquerors." Tennent, 
Ceylon [ed. 1859, Vol. II, p. 70]. 

" At the present time many of the in- 
digenous people have the title of Dom, 
though it is certain that in the begin- 
ning when government was first es- 
tablished this title was given only to 
the Chiefs for services rendered and as 
an honorific title, for which they even 
used to pay a tax." Jose* dos Santos 
Vaquinhas, Timor, in Jour. Qeo. Soc. 
Lisb., 5th ser., p. 63. 

2 The' first syllable is dropped, in 
order that it may become a dissyllabic 
word ; this is in keeping with the 
genius of the Malayan language family. 

the house). Sinh. nona, a 
lady, a European woman. 
Mai. donia, nona, nonya, nyo- 
nya, nona ( = nonha), ftona 
(=nhonha), a woman of Euro- 
pean or Chinese descent, or a 
woman married to a European 
or Chinaman. Ach. nona, the 
daughter of a European by a 
Chinese woman : a young lady. 
Nona, the wife of a European 
or a Chinaman ; a married 
woman. Sund. nona, a young 
lady ; nunya, a European or 
Chinese married woman. 
Jav. nona. Day. nona, a 
married woman, specially a 
European. Mac., Bug. nona, 
a young lady ; nhonha, a 
married woman. Batav. nona 
or nyonya. Tet., Gal. dona. 

Favre distinguishes between 
nona and nona, in respect of 
orthography and etymology, 
and gives as the meaning of 
nona, without making mention 
of its derivation, " an un- 
married woman, a damsel, 
daughter of a person of qua- 
lity," and indicates the Portu- 
guese dona or the Spanish 
duena as the probable original 
of nona. 

Dr. Heiligers likewise sug- 
gests duena. 




Dr. Fokker says : " With 
regard to the origin of the 
word nona, which some 
pronounce nona (a woman 
married to a European or a 
Chinaman), etymologists are 
not in agreement. It is more 
probable that the word comes 
from Chinese rather than from 
the Portuguese senhora, with 
the elision of the first syllable, 
as in gareja from ' iyreja.' " 

GongalvesViana tracesa con- 
nection between senhora and 
nyora, nyonya, nonya and nona, 
and indirectly conveys that 
there has been an evolu- 
tionary process involved ; Dr. 
Schuchardt holds this origin 
as most certain and supports 
it with an intermediate form 
nhonha, used in Cape Verde. 

But this does not appear 
to be so very certain. The 
word nona, as an honorific 
praenomen and a title of rever- 
ence, is current in the Por- 
tuguese dialects of Ceylon, 
Cochin, Mah6, Bombay, Diu, 
Malacca and Singapore ; and, 
in some of these, it has ac- 
quired the additional meaningof 
4 grandmother/ as nono, in the 
Portuguese dialect of Ceylon, 
exclusively means grand- 

father.' Now, in the Portu- 
guese dialect of Malay and of 
the Cape Verde Islands, dono 
signifies * grandfather ' and 
dona ' grandmother,' and these 
are mentioned by Morais as 
archaic meanings of the word 
in Portuguese. 1 

The transition from dona to 
nona is much easier and more 
natural (by means of regress- 
ive assimilation) than from sen- 
hora (sinhara, nhara, siara in 
Portuguese dialects), which 
would have to be subjected to 
an extensive process of the 
aphesis of a syllable, the assi- 
milation of a liquid and nasal 
palatal, and of single and 
double depalatalization. And 
the word senhor did not go 
through this process in Malay 
when it was transformed into 
sinho and siyu. Besides this, 

1 " Do you know the reason ? It is 
because Dona is a term which in the 
Portuguese dialect of the place means 
* the name of the house,' and is used 
of children. And it is by this name 
they are called till they reach majority 

or till death Now, if you wish 

to know what Dona means, I will 
tell you ; it is equivalent in Portu- 
guese to av6 ('grandmother') and Dono 
to avo ('grandfather'). Creolo da ilka 
de Santo Antao, in Jour. Oeo. Soc. 
Lisb., 2nd ser., p. 131. 




the influence of another word 
having the same sound, nona 
= anona (#.v.), not only with 
respect to phonetics, but 
equally so with regard to the 
diminutive sense that the 
word has acquired, is not 

It is pertinent to note that 
the Malay variants are not in 
fact successive but synchron- 
ous, with difference in mean- 
ing, and that dona was em- 
ployed formerly to signify ' a 
lady, a woman of quality,' and 
was used by itself without being 
prefixed to a name. 1 In this 
sense, the word is still in 
vogue in East Africa, where it 
is used of ladies of Portuguese 
descent. 2 

1 " The virtuous Dona beating her 
breast in sign of great surprise." Fer- 
nfio Pinto, ch. xxxv. 

"With the letters which His Majesty 
addressed to you, there goes a list of 
despatches, which are, by his Majesty's 
, command, this year to be delivered to 
some donas, wives of hidalgos, and 
other persons who have served this 
State" (1597). Archivo Port. Or., Fasc. 
5th, p. 1493. 

"This Dona was as yet young in 
age, but a very gentle woman," Diogo 
do Couto, Dec. V. x. 7. 

2 Dona. Title given in East Afri- 
ca to women of mixed (Portuguese 
and Negro) origin." A. C. de Paiva 

The palatalized forms nonha 
and nhonha do not necessarily 
imply their derivation from, 
or the influence of, senhora ; 
they could have been the 
result of the evolution of nona, 
as can be seen in the Por- 
tuguese vizinha from Latin 
vicina, ponha from poniat, 
nenhum from nem hum, ninho 
from nidum, with the previous 
assimilation of d. 

Of. pipinhu (from pepino, a 
cucumber) in the Portuguese 
dialect of Malacca. Moreover, 
nonha (1. us.) in the Portuguese 
dialect of Ceylon, and nhonha 
in that of Macau have a dimi- 
nutive meaning, and are pro- 
bably diminutive forms. 

On this account, I do not re- 
gard as improbable the deriva- 
tion from dona and the contact 
of dona and senhora and their 

Raposo, Die. da lingua landina, in 
Jour. Geo. Soc. Lisb. 8th ser,, p. 59. 

The title of ono of Ismail Gracias's 
publications is Uma Dona Portugueses 
net Cdrte do Qrao-Mogol. [The Dona 
Portuguesa is Dona Juliana da Costa 
who played an important r6le in the 
reign of Aurangzebe's successor, Baha- 
dur Shah. She died about 1733. 
There are references to her, and there 
is also a portrait of her, in Francois 
Valentijn's Oud en Niew Oost-Indien 




mutual influence ; and what 
appears to me also possible is 
the influence of nona = anona 
(' bullock's heart ') and of nina 
= menina (' a girl'), which in 
the Portuguese of Macau makes 
its diminutive nhinina, accord- 
ing to J. F. Marques Pereira 
(Ta-ssi-yang-kuo, 1st series. 
Vol. 1, no. 1). See senhor and 
senhora. 1 

Dossel (canopy). Konk. 
dosel ; vern. terms sezo, 
mandvi. Tet. dosel. 

Dourado (adj., gilded). 
Konk. daurdd (1. us.) ; vern. 
terms bhangar kadhlalo. Bug. 

Dourado (subst., the name 
of a fish). Anglo-Ind. dorado. 
Indo-Fr. dorade. 

It is called dourada in the 
Portuguese of Goa. [It is the 
Con/phaena hippurus, Day, 
* the gilt hoad/ the sea-bream, 
often called dolphin.] 

Doutor (doctor; physician). 
Konk. dotor ; vern. term^ 
6astri ; vaiz. ? Mai. dogtor, 
which Fabre derives from Por- 
tuguese. Bug. dortoro, which 

1 Gongalves Viana says that by 
nhonha language is meant " the corrupt 
Portuguese dialect spoken in Macau." 

[Others call it nhom.] 

Matthes derives from the 
Dutch dokter. Tet., Gal. 
dotor, physician ; vern. term 

Doutrina (Christian doc- 
trine). Konk. dotin, doton. 
Tet., Gal. dolrina. 

Durar (to last). Konk. 
durdr-zavunk : vern. terms are 
tagunk. zaguhk, urunk. Mai. 
durar. " Durar, ' to last ', there 
is no 3pecial word to express 
this, in Malay." Haex. Tet., 
Gal. dura (also used in the sense 
of * duration ') ; vern. term 

Duzia (a dozen). Konk. 
duz. Tet., Gal. duzi, dusi. 

Elefante (elephant). Konk. 
elephant, an unbleached or 
white cotton shirting. [Anglo- 
Tnd. elephanta.] ? Nic. li- 
fanta. ? Malag. elifanla. 

In the Portuguese of Goa 
elefante is also the name of 
a white shirting ; the elephant 
'chop' or mark on the piece 
appears to have given rise to 
the name ; there are other 
kinds with the 'camel' and 
'deer' marks, but not so largely 
in demand as the former. 


It is quite possible that the 
original of the Nicobarese 
word is, as Man suggests, the 
English * elephant.' 

[In Anglo-Indian speech and 
writings one meets with the 
term 'Elephanta' in connection 
withshowersof rain: elephantas 
or elephanta showers. Ele- 
phanta is, according to Yule, 
a name given originally by the 
Portuguese to violent sborms 
occurring at the termination, 
though some travellers describe 
them as at the setting-in. of 
the Monsoon. 1 Crooke is of the 
opinion that " the Portuguese 
took the name from the Hindi 
kattiyd, Sansk. hasta, the 13th 
lunar Asterism, connected with 
hastin, an elephant, and hence 
sometimes called ' the sign of 
the elephant.' " But the 
Sansk. hasta means ' a hand,' 
and this is the name of the 
Nakshatra because of its sup- 
posed resemblance to a hand. 
In Marathi, too, hasta means 

1 ["The Mussoans are rude and 
boisterous in their departure, as well as 
at their coming in, which two seasons 
are called Elephant in India, and 
just before their breaking up, take 
their farewell for the most part in 
very ruggid huffing weather.*' Oving- 
ton, A Voyage to Suratt, O.U.P. p. 83,] 


* a hand,' and the plural form 
of the word, hastin, is used to 
signify " the thirteenth lunar 
asterism, designated by a hand" 
(Molesworth). The thirteenth 
asterism has nothing to do 
with an elephant ; and yet in 
popular speech and proverbial 
sayings, whether in the Deccan 
or Gujarat, this asterism is 
associated with the elephant : 
Padel hathi tar padel bhinti 
(Mar.), lit. 'if the elephant falls, 
then walls will begin to tum- 
ble', which is a way of saying 
that, if the ' Elephant Naksha- 
tra ' should send rain, there will 
be heavy downpours and 
houses will collapse ; Hdthyia- 
nim sundh fari khari (Guj.), 
* the trunk of the elephant has 
| verily turned.' by which it is 
intended to convey that tor- 
rents of rain have descended 
from the constellation Hasta. 
Etymologically it is not possi- 
ble to connect the Sansk. hasta t 
directly, with hdthiyo (Guj.) or 
hatti (Mar.), These two forms 
could have come from hastin, 
an animal that uses one of its 
limbs as a, hand, i.e., the 
elephant. But the difficulty 
is to show how the * Hand 
Nakshatra' came to be trans- 



formed in the popular ima- 
gination into the * Elephant 
Nakshatra.' We deliberately 
say ' popular imagination,' for, 
among the learned, the term 
used is. not hathiyo or hattl but 
hasta. The only plausible 
explanation, to some extent 
borne out by the quotation 
below from Thevenot, that we 
can offer, is that when the Sun 
enters Hasta, just about the 
end of the Monsoon, perhaps, 
the banking of immense dark 
clouds in the north-east creat- 
ed in the popular mind the 
picture of a herd of elephants 
assembling together, and the 
deep rumbling sounds, which 
accompany the thunderstorms, 
became associated with the 
trumpetings and terror-in- 
spiring rage of these mighty 
beasts. 1 The name of this 
Nakshatra in Western Astro- 
nomy is Corvus, ' the Raven,' 

l [" Especially in the Gulf of Cambay , 
there is such great danger for ships at 
the commencement of this month, 
because of a wind which blows towards 
it with great violence from the west, 
and which is always accompanied by 
heavy clouds which are called Elefans, 
because they have the appearance of 
these beasts, that shipwreck is almost 
inevitable." Thevenot, Voyages, III, 
p. 38.] 

and this in itself is proof of how 
the imagination of different 
peoples can conjure up differ- 
ent pictures or forms from the 
same object. 

Dr. S. K. Banerji, Metereolo- 
gist, writing to The Times of 
India, 24th April, 1929, 
propounds, however, a novel 
theory with regard to the 
origin of the name ' elephantas.' 
This is what he says: '* I do 
not propose to discuss the 
origin of the word * ele- 
phantas,' as to whether the 
Portuguese got the word from 
the Nakshatra ' Hasti ' (Ele- 
phant, one of the 27 Naksha- 
tras in Hindi Astrology), but 
there appears to be no harm 
in calling these heat thunder- 
storms * Elephantas,' for 
amongst the hills over which 
they are seen to develop from 
the Colaba observatory, the 
most well-known is the little 
island-hill ' Elephanta."' 

The observation that the 
thunderclouds form in the 
direction of the Elephanta 
Island is no new one, 1 but the 

1 [" A tremendous burst of thunder 
and lightning, termed the Elephanta. . 
The heavy thunderbolts appa- 
rently form directly over the Island of 



attempt to explain the term 
* elephanta ' by connecting it 
with the Elephanta Island is 
new. A Ilha do Elephante 1 
('The Island of the Elephant'), 
and not ' Elephanta' (an Anglo- 
Indian transformation, femi- 
nine in form) was the name 
given by the Portuguese, in 
the early part of the sixteenth 
century, to the island which 
was then known, as it is even 
to this day, to its inhabitants 
and those of the surrounding 
country, as Gharapuri or, 
shortly, Purl. This name was 
given because of the life-size 
figure of an elephant, hewn 
from one single mass of trap- 
rock, which formerly stood in 
the south of the island, not 
far from the usual landing- 
place, and which, to save it 
from destruction, was removed 
in 1864-5 to the Victoria Gar- 
dens, Bombay, where it can 
still be seen. Dr. Banerjee's 

Elephanta." Life in Bombay, (1852), 
p, 194, in 0. E. .] 

i [" This is called Ilha do Alifante 
because in a forest there is found a 
large allfante of stone, very similar 
to living specimens, in colour, size, 
and appearance." D. JoSo de Castro, 
who visited the island in 1538, in 
Rotbiro deade Ooa at Dio.} 

explanation appears to us un- 
tenable, first of all, because it 
is not to be presumed that the 
indigenous people, who to this 
day cling tenaciously to their 
own name for the island, viz., 
Gharapuri, and will not make 
use of the foreign name * Ele- 
phanta,' could have introduced 
the latter term into their folk- 
lore and proverbial sayings. 
Again, the term * elephanta ' 
was used of the storms that 
were usual about the termina- 
tion of the Monsoon in places 
far away from Bombay or 
the Island of Elephanta. Sir 
Thomas Roe when at the 
Moghul Emperor's Court at 
Ajmere experienced on the 
20th August, 1616, " a storme 
of rayne called the Oliphant, 
vsuall at goeing out of the 
raynes " (The Embassy of Sir 
Thomas Roe, Hak. Soc. p. 
247). And Fryer when sail 
ing near Ceylon (1673) refers 
to these thunderstorms and 
definitely connects them with 
the 4 Elephant Constella- 
tion V 

1 ["Not to deviate any longer, we 
are now winding about the South- 
West part of Get/on ; where we have 
the Tail of the Elephant full in our 




There is a reference to ' the 
Elephant ' in a quaint letter 
dated " Suratt, October the 
31st, 1704." From " Sir N. 
Waite and Council at Surat for 
the New Company, to " Sir 
John Gayer, knight, Oenerall 
(for the) Honble Old Company 
and (Council)," quoted in 
Hedges' Diary (Hak. Soc., Vol. 
II, p. cccxlix) 1 which suggests 

mouths; a constellation by the Portu- 
gal* called Rabo del Elephanto (' Tail 
of the Elephant'), known for the 
breaking up of the Munsoons, which 
is the last Flory this season makes, 
generally concluding with September, 
which goes out with dismal storms." 
East India, etc. Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 127. See also. Vol. IT, p 94.] 

1 [" Is very plaine and evident to 
every impartiall man there's no other 
time if any Limitted to Sir Nicho : 
Waite goeing to Bombay then the 
3 months allowed and appointed Sr 
Jno : Gayer, the one month aftere the 
Turne of the Monsoon is a Espetiall 
ffavour and respect Singly to Sr Jno : 
Gayer without any coherance relating 
to Sr : Nicho : Waite, every one of us 
unwilling interfearing in said affaire 
expecting that you Gentlemen or the 
Deputy Governour and Councill for 
the United Trade at Bombay to have 
Notified the true Genuin Time and 
Turne of the Monsoone as held and 
Esteemed by the Portugueiz and other 
antient European and the severall 
inhabitants of India for the Queens 
Men of Warr Rashly comeing to this 

further and interesting folklore 
this time not Hindu but 
Christian associated with the 

What has ' St. Francisco ' 
to do with ' the Elephant,' 
and which of the different 
saints that go by this name in 
the Roman Catholic Calendar 
is the one referred to here ? 
Here is Sir Richard Temple's 
conjecture (Indian Anti- 
quary, Vol. xxx, p. 395) : 
'* What these early Europeans 
were told was that the SW 
Monsoon " turned " during 
the asterism Hathi, i.e., in 
September-October, which 
is the fact. With the Ele- 
phant was clearly associated 

Barr alters not the Annual! Season 
that by accident may meet with 
Severe & Calme weather otherwise 
any Nation mty assume an Almighty 
Power equally with Mr. Burniston and 

" But it being notorious & Certified 
by all Europeans, Dutch, Ffrench, 
English, Portugueez, the Last under a 
Notary publick as well as the Moores 
Accountt, the turne of the Monsoone 
St : Francisco or the Elephant ends 
att or upon and not before the new 
moon in 7ber : which fell out this 
year to be the 18th Ulto : and the new 
moon the 17th Inst : or the 18th Inst : 
a full Callender month. . . "] 



the term " St. Francisco," 

alluding, I suppose, to the 
Saint's Day, either of St. 
Francis of Assisi, the founder 
of the Franciscans, 4th Octo- 
ber, or of St. Francis Borgia, 
the third General of the Jesuits, 
10th October." I am inclined 
to think that the odds are in 
favour of ' St. Francisco ' being 
the Assisian, rather than the 
Jesuit General, for the earliest 
religious to come out to India 
were the Franciscans who were 
spread all over the East ; they 
were very influential, and their 
convent in Goa was described 
by Pyrard (Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
p. 53) as " the handsomest and 
richest in the world," and 
they were indefatigable in pro- 
moting everywhere the cult 
of their great founder. They 
must have helped to create 
the general belief in the minds 
of the Portuguese and the 
Indian Christians that after 
the feast-day of St. Francis of 
Assisi there were no more 
* elephantas ' to be feared 
and the fair season might 
safely be assumed to have 
begun. Even up to the pre- 
sent day there survives an 
analogous belief in Goa. It 

is, that the sand-bar, which 
blocks the mouth of the har- 
bour of Goa from the begin- 
ning of the rains, disappears 
on the feast-day of St. Law- 
rence, the 10th of August, 
from which date it becomes 
possible for vessels to enter 
the port, Compare with this 
the Hindu belief associated 
with the festival of the Nardl 
Punima, which takes place on 
the 15th day of Shravan, usu- 
ally sometime early in August, 
viz., that after this date it is 
safe for ships and boats to put 
out to sea. This popular be- 
lief is connected with the ap- 
pearance in the sky at this 
time . of the star Agastya 
('Canopus'), named after the 
great Rishi of this name, one 
of whose feats was to drink 
up the ocean because it had 
offended him. I feel perfectly 
convinced that the Christian 
legends associating St. Francis 
and St. Lawrence with certain 
weather conditions in Western 
India are instances of the way 
in which the Roman Catholic 
Church has in all ages been ever 
ready to accept habits, cus- 
toms, dress, and legends of the 
people to whom she preached 




the new faith, so long as they 
did not appear to conflict with 
her principles of faith and 
morals, and very often to 
adopt them by giving them a 
Christian setting or back- 
ground. In India, as far as the 
bulk of the people is con- 
cerned, not only are weather 
conditions governed by the 
movements of the stars and 
constellations, but practically 
most of the events in their 
lives, even such questions as 
the propriety of eating parti- 
cular fruits or foods at certain 
seasons. For instance, in the 
Konkan, the popular belief is 
that it is not wholesome to eat 
anvalas (Phyllantus emblica) , 
siigar-cane, or the fruit of the 
tamarind tree before the 12th 
day of the first half of Kartika 
('Pleiades'), on which day is 
commemorated the marriage 
of Krishna and the Tulsi plant ; 
in Gujarat, the mango is be- 
lieved to be unhealthy if eaten 
before Holi, i.e., the fifteenth 
day of Falguna. 

How keen the early admin- 
istrators were on collecting 
and co-ordinating all kinds of 
information and traditions 
about weather conditions in 

India, no matter whether the 
reports were derived from 
friends or foes so long as they 
were trustworthy and they 
could help in rendering naviga- 
tion safe, is also borne out by 
a reference given by Foster 
in his edition of Roe in con- 
nection with the quotation 
from him given above. 1 

There can be no doubt, from 
all that has been said above, 
that Anglo-India owes the 
name ' elephanta ' to the 
Portuguese, but it is very 
strange that there are 
hardly any references to this 
term among the Portuguese 
chroniclers. Dalgado s in his 

1 At a consultation held September 
3rd, 1637 (I.O. Marine Records, Misc. 
i), mention was made of "The Genne- 
rail reports of all or most of the 
Cheefe Portugall Gentlemen and fryers 
as well of this place (Bombay) as 
others near Aioyninge, That before the 
new Moone in September .... It was 
impossible for any shipp of Charge to 
gett Cleere of the Coast without ap- 
parent and eminent dainger (if Bound 
to the Southwards) By Reason they 
Constantly expect euery yeare at that 
Season an extraordinarie storm vpon 
the Coast, Called by them the Elo- 
phant, which Comes with such Vyo- 
lence and soe variable that noe Shipp 
or Vessoll may pass without eminent 
dainger as aforesaid." 





Konk. emprds 
fo. ?Tel. 

Glossario, says that he has 
met with only one reference 
to this word, and that, dated 
1662. 1 ] 

Empatar (to make equal). 
Konk. empatdr-karunk (1. us.) ; 
vern. term bad karunk or 
divunk. Tet. empdta ; vern. 
term hatdu. 

(a plaster), 
vern. term 
r ?Kan. paldstar ; probably from 
the English * plaster.' Malag. 

Emprego (employment). 
Konk. empreg ; vern. term 
chakri. Tet. empregu ; vern. 
term. Jdkon. 

Emprestar (to lend). 
Konk. emprestdr-karunk (1. us.); 
vern. term u$no divunk. Mai. 
impusta. Tet. empresta. 

Enganar (to cheat). Mai. 
enganar (Haex); vern. term 

Engenho (skill, art; also 
an engine or machine). Mai. 
inginio, "a contrivance to 
raise up something, a pulley " 

1 [1662. "And because a big shower 
was threatening (towards the end of 
September) which they call an elle- 
fante, they began to moor and secure 
both the ships.'* Apud J61io Biker, 
de Tratadoa, III, p. li.] 

(Haex). Mol. ingeniyo. 1 

Aohinese has enjin, from the 
English ' engine/ 

Entao (adv., then). Mai. 
entaon ( Haex) . Tet. anta ; 
vern. terms alo, bd-dd. 

Entendimento (under- 
standing). Mai. entendimento 

Entregar (to deliver). 
Konk. entregdr-karunk (1. us.)j 
vern. terms divunk, samar- 
punk. Mai. entregar (Haex). 
Tet. entrega ; vern. terms sdra, 

Entrudo (Shrovetide ; 

carnival). Konk. intrud. 
Beng. entrudu. Tet. entrudu. 

? Enxerto (used in the sense 
of c a grafted mango-tree'). 
Konk. isdd, tied. Mar. isdd, 
is add. 

Molesworth derives the 
Marathi word from the 

1 There were (in Muscat) orchards, 
gardens, and palm-groves with wells for 
irrigation from which water was 
drawn by an engenho (contrivance) 
which made use of bullocks." Com- 
mentaries de Afonso de Albuquerque, 
I, ch. 24. [In the Hak. Soc.*s edition 
Vol. I, p 83, " con engenho de 6ot" is 
rendered 'by means of wooden engines'. 
The translator has confounded the 
Portuguese bo is which is the pi. of 
boi t * an ox ', with the French bois 9 
'timber or wood.'] 




Sansk. laa, " the shaft of a 
car or the beam of a plough." 
In Konkani gdrph (from the 
Port. garfo 9 'graft') is also used 
of 'a grafted mango-tree ? . 

Era (Christian era). Mao. 

Ermida (hermitage with 
a chapel by its side). Konk. 
irmit. Tet. ermida. 

Ervilha (a species of Doli- 
chos, Linn., a kind of French 
beans). Konk. virvil. Tet. 

Escada (stair-case). Konk. 
iskdd ; vern. terms 6idi (1. us.), 
nisan, ladder. L.-Hindust. 
iskdt. [Yule mentions iskat in 
Hobson-Jobson and gives 
' ratlines ' as its meaning ; that 
is also its meaning in L.- 

Escaler (a ship's boat ; 
also a barge). Konk., Tet. 

Escandalo (scandal). Konk. 
eskdnd, Tet. iskanddlu. 

Escola (a school). Konk. 
iskdl^; vern. terms sdl, pafhsdl, 
vidyasdl. Sinh. skolaya, is- 
kdle ; vern. terms pafha&aldva, 
ak&ara&aldva , akaru-maduva . 
Skolaye sahakdriya, a school- 
fellow. Tarn. iskolei. Mfrl. 
skola, sakola, sekola. Sekula 

(Pavre) indicates the influence 
of Dutch, or of the English 
* school '. Sund. iskola. Jav. 
skolah (h, in order to retain 
the sound of a, which other- 
wise would have become 6), 
to go to school. Nyekolahakd, 
nyekolahaken (causative verb), 
to send to school. Mad. 
sekold. Tet., Gal. escola ; 
vern. term andri. 

Escolta (a guard, an escort). 
Konk. eskolt\ vern. terms 
valavo, balavo. Tet., Gal. 

Escova (brush). Konk. 
eskov. Tet., Gal. eskSva. 

[Escrito (a note under one's 
hand; an attestation). Anglo- 
Ind. scrito, screet. 1 ] 

The O.E.D. mentions scrite, 
' a writing, written document,' 
as an obsolete word with re- 
ferences that do not go beyond 

1 ['* A Plummer dyeing there about 
the same tyme, the officers came to 
enquire his estate and beeing tould 
he was a soruant and a poore man 
were satisfied, yet with their brokers 
Scrito in testemony." The Embassy 
of Sir Thomas Roe, Hak. Soc., Vol I, 
p. 70.] 

["This night the Officers, seeing I 
sent not, deliuered the Prisoners into 
my Procuradors power, and tooke his 
Screete for Sixtie Rupias." Idem, 
Vol. II, p. 446.] 



Escrit6rio (a writing-desk) . 
Quj. iskotard, [iscotri, iscutri. 
Anglo-Ind. screetore, scri- 
toire, screwtore.] 1 

[" The word (iscotri or iscu- 
tri), though of rare occurrence 
in good literary Marathi, may 
occasionally be heard of used 
by old-world men and women 
of the middle classes as a col- 
loquialism." Balcrushna V. 
Wassoodew, in Indian Anti- 
quary, Vol. XXIX, p. 307. 
Sir Richard Temple (op. cit. 
p. 116) connects the Anglo- 
Indian names for the desk 
"with the English auctioneers' 
word escritoir for a fancy 

1 [1669. "(Goods imported into 
Achin) ffrom Siam Tinne, Coppar, 
China Wares, Rice and Screetores 
both plaine and lackared, etc." MS. 
Account of India, by T.B., p. 158, 
cit. by R. C. Temple, in Indian Anti- 
quary, Vol. XXIX, p. 116.] 

[' ' The Seamen, handing a small 
Scritoire into y e boat, in which were 
Gold Mohurs and Rupees to y value 

of R. 2036: 11 for account of , 

the said Scritoire dropt into the 
Sea, striking on y Shipp's Side, 
broke y e Scritoire, and the money 
dropt out into y e Sea". Hedges, 
Diary, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 182.] 

[1700. "I have sent a Small 
Sandal Screwfore for a Pallakeen." 
Letter of Gath: Nicks in Hedges, 
Diary, Vol. II, p. cclx.] 

writing table (bureau), which 
is perhaps old French for 
Scritoire, a horn or other 
receptacle for ink." The O.E. 
D. mentions several instances 
of the use of * scrutoire ' in the 
17th and 18th centuries, and 
these not necessarily con- 
nected with India. Iskotaro, 
iscotri, etc., in Guj. and Mar., 
however, are undoubtedly of 
Portuguese origin, and the 
entry of the words in these 
languages can be accounted 
for by the Portuguese influ- 
ence in Bombay, Bassein, and 
Damaun, it being scarcely 
credible that they could have 
derived them from English in 
which ' escritoire ' has never 
been in ordinary use. Has 
the Port, escritorio, in the 
archaic sense of 'writing-desk' 
(its present-day acceptation 
being ' an office-room'), in any 
way been responsible orchar f- 
Anglo-Indian terms ? Ver 
old writing-desks believed to 
be of Chinese workmanship are 
still to be seen in many fami- 
lies in Goa preserved as heir- 
looms. The Portuguese must 
have had many of these pieces 
of furniture turned out in 
their settlements in India and 




imported others of superior 
craftsmanship from the Far 
East and thus familiarised the 
indigenous population both 
with the uses and name of 
this type of writing-desk.] 

Escrivao (a scrivener, a re- 
corder). Konk. iskrivdmv (es- 
pecially, ' the clerk or recorder 
of the village communities'), 
sikirdmv (popular form); vern. 
terms 6enay, karkiln, srlkar- 
qi. Tain, iskirivdn, clerk of 
a sodality. Anglo-Ind. scrivan 
(obs.) 1 Tet., Gal. eskrivdn. 
Jap. ishikiriban (obs.). 

Esmola (charity). Konk. 
izmol (us. among the Christi- 

1 ["This is indeed the custome of 
Persia Merchants, to bring all to the 
King..., who takes his choice and 
deliuers the rest to his Nobilitie, his 
Scriuanoes writing to whom, and his 
Officer cutting price." The Embassy 
of Mr T. Roe, Hak. Soc., p. 416.] 

["We continued at Tunis till our 
Scrivan, or purser, had made " Con- 
solato " for y damage done y e 
Shippe..." Hedges, Diary, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. I, p. 239.] 

["The Sinais ('Shenvis') are more 
biass'd by Secular Offices, out of 
which are made their fighting Bishops, 
Desiea ('Desais'), or Farmers of the 
King's Rents, Pundits^ . . . Physicians, 
Accountants, Scrivans, and Inter- 
preters " Fryer, East India, etc., Hak. 
Soc., Vol. II, p. 101. See also ibidem, 
p. 104.] 

ans); vern. terms bhik, 
dharm. Bong, ejmold. Mai. 
ismola (Haex), samola. Tet. 
Gal. esmola. 

Espada (a sword), Konk. 
ispdd ; vern. terms tar- 
vdr, khadg. Hindi, Hindust., 
Beng., Punj. (also aspdt) ispdt, 
steel. Mai. spada (Haex) ; 
vern. terms pedang, sudang. 
Mac. sapada Ar. spdda. 
Rab. espdthe. 

[The Portuguese are reputed 
to have introduced the straight 
cut and thrust swords into 
India, and these and others 
made in imitation of them 
were known as Farhangi or 

Espadilha (the ace of 
spades). Konk. espadilh. 
Mac., Bug. sapadila. See az. 

Espera (a sphere ; also a 
piece of ordnance). Mai. spera 
(" fire-spitting machines," 

Haex). Mol. espera, "a 
cannon, from the old word 
espera (from the Malay of the 
Moluccas," Castro) 1 . 

i "They (the Turks) fired against 
him some esperas, the shots from 
which fell around the Fusta (q.v.)." 
Diogo do Couto, Deo. V, iii, 6. " There 
where three basilisks, and six esperas, 
which he entrusted to Beran Baxa." 
Id., 7. 



Esperanga (hope). Konk. 
esperdrhs (1. us.) ; vern. term 
bharvaihso. Jap. superansa 

Esperto (wide awake, 
smart). Konk. eSpert ; vern. 
terms hu6dr, 6iduk, chatur. 
Tet. espertu ; vern. terms 
matenek, badain. 

Espingarda (a gun, a rifle). 
Mai. espingarda (Haex) , 
istingarda, \ istingar \ ; vern. 
term terkul. Bedil-espingarda 
(Haex), a sort of big gun, a 

Espirito (spirit). Sinh. 
sprituva ; vern. terms dtmaya, 
prdqaya. Tet. ispiritu ; vern. 
term kldmar, Gal. ispiritu ; 
vern. term mdnar. 

Espirito Santo (the Holy 
Ghost). Konk. Sprit Sdnt. 
Beng. Spiritu Santu. Tarn., 
Tel., Kan. Spiritu Sdntu. 
Ann. Chua 6i-phirit6. ;,, < 

Espoleta (a percussion cap). 
Konk. ispitet.Tet,., Gal. es- 

Esponja (a sponge). Konk. 
esponj. HindT ispanj. Hin- 
dust. ispanj, isfanj. Beng. 
apon^ Malayal. spoftu. Tel. 
spanji. Kan . spanju. Ar. 
eapinkh, esfinkh, isfonkh, is- 
fankh, safankh, sifankh, su- 


The original word is Greek. 

Essa (a cenotaph ; an empty 
tomb set up in honour of the 
dead). Konk. es ; vern. term 
gar (not in use among the 
Christians). Tet., Gal, esa. 

Estado (state, condition). 
Konk. estdd ; vern. terms gat, 
bhe& ; dabazo. Mar. istdd, 
household furniture. ? Tel. 
istuva, istuvu, property. Tet. 
estddu, government. ^^ r V, ; 

Molesworth and ^ Wilson 
derive istdd from the Ar. 
isti'ddd, * capacity, aptitude ' ; 
6ut they do not explain why 
only Marathi should have 
adopted it. 

? Estala (stable ; stall). 
Sinh. stdlaya, istdlaya, istdle. 
Sund. istal. 

Also in the Portuguese dia- 
lect of Ceylon, stella, stal. 
Probably from, the Dutch stal. 

Estante (book-case, a desk). 
Konk. estdnt. Beng. stanti. 
Tarn, stdntei. 

Esticar (to stretch, to ex- 
tend). Sinh. istrikaya, istirl- 
kaya 9 strikaya (subst.), flat-iron 
for smoothing clothes. I stir i- 
kayen madinava, to run the flat- 
iron. Mai. istrika, flat-iron ; 




Tet., Gal. estrika, to smooth | 
with a flat-iron, to starch. 

The Portuguese dialect of 
Malacca has estika. See es- 

Estingue (naut., brails). 
L.-Hindust. istingi. Istingi 
chdmpnd, to furl the sails. 

Estirar (to extend ; to 
stretch out). Mar. istri 
(subst.), a flat-iron for smooth- 
ing linen ; the act of passing 
the iron over. Istri karnerti, 
to run the iron on the clothes. 
Guj. istri, astri, astari (subst. 
and verb), flat-iron ; to pass 
the iron over. Hindi, Hin- 
dust., Or., Beng., Ass., Punj., 
Malayal., Khas. istri, flat-iron. 
Sindh. isitiri, flat-iron. 
Tel. istiri, the act of passing 
the iron over. Kan., Tul. 
istri, to pass the iron over. 

Swettenham says that the 
Malay istrika comes from the 
Hindustani and signifies liter- 
ally 'the woman's work'. 
But neither Hindustani has 
istrika nor does strlka in Sans- 
krit mean ' woman's work ' ; 
but at the end of the com- 
pound possessive (bahuvirlhi) 
it means ' accompanied by a 
woman, he who has a wife, 
married.' Strikarvam is what 

stands for * work, woman's 
work'; it cannot, therefore, 
be the source word of istrika, 
because it is very generic, and 
because the washing of linen 
as a profession is done in 
India, since the remotest times 
(and, perhaps in modern times, 
also that of ironing clothes) > 
more by men than by women. 
The form in use in the Portu- 
guese spoken in India, mainato, 
'washerman' (q.v.), is indica- 
tive that washing was done 
more by men than by women. 

Shakespear, in his Hindu- 
stani dictionary, distinguishes 
between istri, istiri orstri, Sans- 
krit, 'woman, female, 'and istri, 
'flat-iron,' which he says is 
from Hindi. But Molesvvorth 
connects the Marathi istri 
with the Sanskrit stri, through 
the intervention of Hindu- 
stani, without assigning any 
reason. And Wilson derives 
the Hindustani istri from the 
Sanskrit verb, sty, ' to stretch 
out,' and mentions the com- 
pound stri-vald, 'an ironing 
man, one who irons linen.' 

It is very probable that the 
flat-iron (Konkani ph6r from 
Portuguese ferro, 'iron'), which 
has the same shape as the one 




used in Europe, and which is 
only employed by tailors and 
washermen, was not formerly 
known in India. I am of the 
opinion that the true originals 
of istrika and istri are the 
Portuguese words esticar and 
estirar, which would have been 
used in the sense of 'running or 
passing the iron over'. 1 

Estivador (one employed in 
loading and unloading ships). 
Anglo-Ind. stevedore. 

Estopa (oakum). L.-Hin- 
dust. istap, istub. [Anglo- 
Ind. istoop, oakum. " A 
marine term from Port, estopa 
(Roebuck).] Ar. usthubba. 

Estribo (stirrup). Konk. 
eslrib ; vern. term rik&bi. 
Tet., Gal., estribit. * \ . 

Estudar (to study). Konk. 
estuddr-karunk (1. us.) ; vern. 
terms Sikuhk, pathuhk.Tet. 
estuda ; vern. terms hanoin, 

Estudo (study). Konk. 
istud ; vern. term Sikap. -Tet. 
estudu ; vern. term hanonun. 

Evangelho (gospel, evan- 
gel). Konk. vdnjel. Kan. 
evanjelu. Tet., Gal. evanjelhu. 

Hindustani, Oriya, Bengali. 
Malay and other languages of 

l C. Alwis (The Sinhalese Hand 
Book) admits the Portuguese origin 
but does not mention the source-word. 

the Malay Archipelago have 
injil, from Arabic-Persian. 1 

Exame (an examination). 
Konk. ezdm ; vern. terms 
parilc&d or parikhyd, zhadti. 
Tet., Gal. ezdmi. \ 

Excomunhao (excommu- 
nion). Konk. eskomunhdrtiv, 
eskomunydmv. Tet., Gal. es- 

Exemplo (example). Konk. 
ezempl ; vern. term dekh. 
Tet., Gal. ezemplu. 

Explicar (to explain). 
Konk. esplikdr-karunk ; vern. 
terms samzavunk, duvaluhk, 
arthunk. Tet. esplika ; vern. 
terms hakldken, kdtak.~~G&l. 


Fadlga (used in the sense 
of 'gonorrhoea'). Mai. fadiga 
(Schuchardt). [The usual 
meaning of the Port, word is 
' toil, anguish of mind/] 

Falca (side-boards of a ship 
which are removed to take 
in the cargo). L.-Hindu?t. 
. Mai. falka (Marre). 

1 [" Ho then turned to me and said 
that he had nothing to say in reply to 
me, as those were all truths in our 
sacred Anzir (for so they name our 
blessed Gospel)." Travels of Fray 
Sebastien Manrique (1629-1643), Hak. 
Soo., Vol. IT, 112. See also idem, 
Vol. I, pp. 37 and 101.] 



Falcao (in the archaic sense 
of 'a species of cannon'). 
Bug. palakko. 

[The ordinary meaning of 
the Port, word is 'falcon, the 
bird of prey'.] 

Falso (false). Konk., Mar. 
phdls ; vern. terms latik, khoto 
or khotd. Mai., Sund. palsy. 
Mad. pdlso. Tet. jalsu ; 
vern. terms /a, Ids, bosoku. 

The term is used particular- 
ly in connection with coins 
and precious stones. 

Faltar (to want, to need). 
Konk. phaltdr-zavuhk. Beng. 
phaltdr (in use among the 
Christians). Tet. fdlta; vern. 
term mukiti. 

Falto (deficient, wanting). 
Konk. phdlt ; vern. terms uno, 
vikhan, apilrn. Mar. phaltn, 
excessive. Guj., Hindi, Hin- 
dust., Punj. phdltu, excessive. 
L.-Hindust. phaltu, faltu, 
deficient, short ; what is neces- 
sary to make up deficiency, 
superabundant. Nep. fal(o, 
excessive. Sindh. phalitu, ex- 
ceeding. Mai. fdltu (Marre). 

? Falua (a barge). Mai. 

The final q leads one to sus- 
pect a Spanish origin (faluca) 
or Arabic (fulq). 

Fama (report). Konk. 
phdm ; vern. terms are dag, 
khabar, namvrup. Guj. phdm, 
remembrance, memory. Tet. 
fdman ; vern. term ndran. 
Gal. fdma. 

Fantasma (a phantom, a 
ghost). Mai. fantasma, pan- 

Dr. Fokker says that it is 
little used ; but it is men- 
tioned by Haex. 

Farol (a light-house). 
Konk. pholer. -Tet., Gal. farol. 
Fastio (weariness, distaste). 
Mai. fastio (Haex.) 

Fatia (slice). Konk. phati\ 
vern. terms kap t sir, pes. 
? Sinh. petta (pi. peti). 

Favor (favour). Konk. 
phavor (1. us.); vern. term 
upkdr. Tet., Gal. favor. 

Fazendeiro (subst.. a land- 
holder). Konk. phajenddr (1. 
us.). Mar. phajinddr ; vern. 
terms malkdr, vittkdr. Anglo- 
Ind. fazendar. [ Fazendari 

[ Fazendeiro is derived from 
the Port, word fazenda, which 
means ' an estate.' It is 
strange that the word does not 
find a place in Hobson-Jobson. 
Whit worth (Anglo-Indian Dic- 
tionary) says that " Fazendar 




is a superior landholder under 
the Portuguese government. 
He paid a small quit-rent, and 
levied from the cultivators a 
fixed proportion of the pro- 
duce' 5 .] 

F6 (faith). Konk. pke- 
bhavdrth (us. among the Chris- 
tians). Bhdvdrth is the verna- 
cular synonym for ' faith.' 
Gal. fe. 

Fechar (in the sense of * to 
solder '). Mai. pijar. Batt. 
pijer. Mac. pijara, pija. 
Bug. pija. 

Fecho (the bolt of a rifle). 
Mai. pichu. Batt. pechu. 

Feira (a fair). Konk. pher ; 
vern. terms sdnt, penth. Tet., 
Gal. feira ; vern. term bazar. 

[Feiti^o (sorcery, charm). 
Konk. phitis ; vern. terms 
jadu, mantar ; also phitser 
from the Port, feiliceiro, a 
sorcerer, a wizard ; vern. terms 
ghadi, jadukar. Anglo-Ind. 
fetish. 1 

1 [1553." And as all the nation 
of this Ethiopia is much given to 
feitios (sorceries) in which stands all 
their trust and faith. . . .and to satisfy 
himself the more surely of the truth 
about his son, the King ordered a 
feitiO, which was used among them 
(in Congo). This felt 190 being tied in 
a cloth was sent by a slave to one of 

"The word is not Anglo- 
Indian ; but it was at an early 
date applied by the Portu- 
guese to the magical figures, 
etc., used by natives in Africa 
and India, and has thence 
been adopted into French and 
English" (Hobson-Jobson).] 

Feitor (a factor). Konk. 

pheytdr.--- 1 * Anglo-Ind. factor. 

Mai. feitor, fetor, petor, 

| petur | . Sund., Jav, petor. 

Mac. petoro. 

Feitoria (factory). Konk. 
pheytori. ? Anglo-Ind. factory. 
Yule and Burnell say : 
" Possibly the expressions Fac- 
tor, Factory, may have been 
adopted from the Portuguese 
Feitor, Feitoria"', (perhaps 
through the intervention of the 
Spanish fator, fatoria. \ 

Feriado (holiday) Konk. 
pherydd ; vern. tex'm suti. 
Tet. feriddu ; vern. term 

Ferreiro (smith). Konk. 
pherrer ; vern. terms lohdr, 

his women, of whom he had a sus- 
picion." Barros, Dec. I, iii, 10.] 

[ " As we rowed by the Powder- 
Mills, we saw several tho Holy Office 
had branded with the names of Fetis- 
ceroes, or Charmers, or in English, 
Wizards, released thence to work here.'* 
Fryer, East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
p. 24.] 




kamdr, salikdr. Mai. ferrero 
(Haex) ; vern. terms pdndei 
b6si, tukan bisi, kimpu besi. 

Festa (feast). Konk. phest ; 
vern. terms parab, uchav. 
Phestakdr, feaster. Beng. 
phestd. Mai. festa, pesta, 
p&ttu. Sund. pesta. Jav. 
pesto, pistd. Pestan, pistan, 
to feast. Bug. peseta. Tet., 
Gal. festa ; vern, term ksolok. 

Fiador (a surety ; one that 
is bound for another). Konk., 
Tet., Gal. phyddor. 

Fidalgo (one nobly de- 
scended, a hidalgo). Konk. 
phiddlg. Mar. phidalkor. 
Mai. fidalgo, hidalgo (Haex). 

Moles worth derives phidal- 
khdr from the onomatopoeic 
word phid ! phid !, and gives as 
its meaning : " That swells 
and vapors, puffs and vaunts ; 
a swaggerer or braggart ; that 
giggles sillily." 

Figura (figure). Konk. 
phigur (us. in a lit. as also in a 
fig. sense) ; vern. terms bahu- 
Um, putli ; song, yantr. Mai. 
figura, image, picture. Tet., 
Gal. figura , image, effigy ; 
vern. terms hilas, ein. 

Filh6 (fritter, pancake). 
Konk. philho, [us. generally in 
the pi., philhds.] Beng. phild 

(us. among the Christians). 
Jap. hiryuzu. 

Finta (tax, imposition). 
Konk. phint (I. us. at present) , 
vern. terms dand, patti. Tet., 
Gal. finta. 

Fiscal (subst., inspector , 
superintendent). Konk. phis- 
kdl. \ Tarn. pUkar \ .Mai. 
piskal. Bug. pasikdla. 

Fita (ribbon). Konk., Mar., 
Guj. phit, phint. Hindi phitd. 
Hindust. fttd, fltd, phitd. 
Or., Beng., Ass. phitd. Sindh. 
phita Punj. /^a, jitah. 
Sinh. pitta-pafaya, pitta-pafaja 
Malayal. phitta, phittu, lace. 
Tel. phita, pita. Khas. 
phita, fita. Mai. fita, pita. 
Ach. jitah, pita. Sund. pita. 
Jav. pitd. Mad. ptta. Bug. 
pita. Tet., Gal. fita ; vern. 
term tali. The Neo-Aryan 
terms are nadi, nado, ddl, 

Such languages as have no / 
sound find a substitute for it in 
p. The tonic i becomes nasalis- 
ed in some of the Neo-Aryan 
languages, as for instance pint, 
c bile', from the Sansk. pitta. 
Cf. pipa. 

Fitar (to fix one's eyes 
upon'; to hit). Mai. pitar, to 
aim at. 




Fivela (shoe-buckle). Konk. 
phiveL Tet. fivela, fiela. 

[Flamengo, flamenco, or 
framengo (Phoenicopterus ; 
the long-necked, long-legged 
scarlet-feathered bird). Eng- 
lish and Anglo-Ind. flamingo.] 1 

Flanela (flannel). Konk. 
phlanel. Tet., Gal. flane- 
la t | ? Chin, fdh-ldn-jin \ . 

Foga?a (a cake baked in 
embers). Anglo-Ind. fogass 
(us. in S. India). 

[Yule describes it as being 
composed of minced radish with 
chillies, etc., used as a sort of 
curry, and eaten with rice.] 

? Foguete (in the sense of 
* Chinese cracker ') . Konk. 
phugati. Mar. phatkadi.-*- Hin- 
dusb. phafakhd. Ass. phatakd. 
Sindhi. phafakd. Tarn., 
Malay al. patlake. Tel., Kan., 
Tul. phatoki*. 

1 [" In this place (Bharoch). . . .in the 
moist ground we beheld at a distance 
many Fowls, as big or bigger than 
Turkies, go up and down rather run 
ning than flying. They told us they 
were the same which the PortugaU 
call Paxaroa Flamencos, from their 
bright colour" Pietro Delia Valle, 
Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 119. 
Poajaro*=Port. pdasaros, birds.] 

2 " What threw most of them into 
confusion were the foguettes and fire 
bombs which the Turks used at the 
first onrush." Joflo de Barros, Dec. 
IV, vii, 12. "~---'- .-... 

It is used in the same sense 
in the Portuguese dialects 
of the East which distinguish 
it from the foquete do ar, ' a 
rocket ', which in Portuguese is 
simply foguete. 

It appears that the names 
of the cracker in the Indian 
languages, with the exception 
of the one in Konkani, are 
onomatopoeic (of phat, 'a crack- 
ing explosive noise'); the cere- 
bralisation of the Konkani 
name ought not to offer diffi- 
culty with regard to its Portu- 
guese derivation. Cf. tumor. 

Folha (in the sense of ' a 
sheet of paper '). Konk., Mar. 
(in Savantvadi) phdl. Tul. 

[Fdlha, in Port, also means 
'leaf of a tree or of a book.'] 
Fonte (in the sense of ' a 
seton ; a sore or ulcer which 
is the result of cauterisation '). 
Konk. phdnt. Phontyo, one 
who has a discharging sore. 
Phontlo, the pus which is dis- 
charged ; (us. fig. in the sense 
of 'filth, impurity').? Mar, 
pot, pont, ponth. 

" Discharging some shots and many 
foguetes." Gaspar Correia, I, p. 165. 

" He ordered the governor to make 
a signal to the armada by discharging 
three foguetes." Diogo do Couto, 
Doc. VI, iv, 1. 




Molesworth does not give 
the etymology of the Marathi 

Forca (gibbet, gallows). 
Sinh. porke (pi. pdrka). 

F6ra (strength, force). 
Konk. phdrs ; vern. terms 
bal, tej, trdn. Mai. forsa 
(Haex), parusa\ vern. term 
kakudtan. Tet., Gal. forsa', 
vern. term "biiti. 

Forma (in the sense of 
'mould, appearance'). Konk. 
pharm ; vern. terms sdncho , 
sa(ho ; alcdr, rup, akriti. Guj. 
pharmo, phdrm, pattern, 
mould; plan, map; model. 
Hindust. farmd, mould ; 
configuration. Beng. pharmd, 
pharmmd. Punj. farmd. 
Tet. forma. 

In Konkani: phormi (adj.), 
having shape; printed. Phormi 
kagad, printed paper. Phormi 
letr, print-type letter. Ekphor- 
macho (genitive-adjective), of 
the same form ; of the same 

Tn Marathi : ekpharmd (adj.) 9 
" of one shape, size and general 
appearance troops in array, 
letters of a writing, etc.; of 
one form more generally. 
Ekpharmd 1 (subst.), unity of 

1 Ek is from the eka, * one '. 

form or of general appearance" 

F6rno (oven). Konk. pharn 
(inSalsete), kharn (in Bardes); 1 
it is also used to denote a re- 
ceptacle in which are stored 
rice-husks and ashes. Sinh. 
poryuva, poranuva; 2 vern. 
term uduna. Malayal. bdrm- 
ma. Mai. furnu, furun. Tet., 
Gal. fornu. ? Pers. foran, 
furnace, boiler. Ar. forn, 
furn. Rab. forni. 

F6ro (in the sense of * quit- 
rent, or small rent payable by 
tenants to the lord of the 
manor '). Konk. phor ; vern. 
terms &iddv, pat. Anglo-Ind. 
[/oro,] foras ( = Port. foros; 
us. in Bombay). Foras lands 9 
lands subject to foro, * a quit- 
rent'. Forasddrs are holders 
of * foras lands/ 8 

^ In Bardds (a district of Qoa) kh 
frequently takes the place of/: khuri 
from Port, furia ('fury'); khursbm 
('viper') for phurshh ; khursat (leisure* ) 
for phursat. 

2 N after r becomes a cerebral, just 
like other dentals. 

3 " Especially that of the coco-nut 
groves of Chaul, and the foros which 
they had to pay " Bocarro, Dec. XIII> 
p. 352. 

[1671. "That in regard the Gen u 
charges of the Island are great and 
doe far exceed the revenew, .... to 
the end that the sole burthen of y e 




[Whitworth very briefly 
describes Foras as the name 
of the tenure on which the 
lands reclaimed from the sea, 
or inter-insular channels about 
the island of Bombay, used to 
be held before the settlement 
made by Act No. VI of 1851. 
These lands were reclaimed 
ohiefly by the erection of 
vellards (see valado), and 
being originally very salt, they 
were let out at very low rents 
to induce people to cultivate 
them. In process of time they 
improved and became valuable, 
and it was a question much 
discussed in 1844 whether the 
foras quit-rent could be raised 
or not. For the way this 
question was decided, see 
Hobson-Jobson. s. v. Foras- 

That philology and the 
correct derivation of words are 
not without their influence on 
legislation ia seen in the man- 
charge may not light on the Comp a 
only, ... it seems reasonable that a 
Qen^ tax or assesment be enordered 
on the respective Inhabitants over 
and above the present foro ; w is 
only a kind of quit -rent and very in- 
considerable.'* Forrest, Selections, 
Home Series, Vol. I, p. 51.] 

ner in which this Port, term 
fdro was derived and interpre- 
ted by an eminent jurist like 
Sir Michael Westropp, a Chief 
Justice of Bombay, an inter- 
pretation vitiated by the 
learned judge's ignorance of 
the Portuguese language : 
" Foras is derived from the 
Portuguese word /ora, (Latin 
foras, from foris, a door) signi- 
fying outside. It here indi- 
cates the rent or revenue de- 
rived from outlying lands. 
The whole island of Bombay fell 
under that denomination when 
under Portuguese rule, being 
then a mere outlying depen- 
dency of Bassein. Subsequent- 
ly the term foras was, for the 
most part, though perhaps not 
quite exclusively, limited to 
the new salt batty ground 
claimed from the sea, or other 
waste ground lying outside the 
fort, native town, and other 
the more ancient settled and 
cultivated grounds in the 
island, or to the quit-rent 
arising from that new salt batty 
ground and outlying ground. 
The quit-rent in Governor 
Aungier's convention called 
foras also bore the still older 
name of pensio (pensao, pen- 




sion), and since that conven- 
tion has been chiefly known by 
the name of pension. It was 
payable in respect of the 
ancient settled and cultivated 
ground only ". Bombay High 
Court Reports, Vol. IV, 1866- 

Dr. Gerson da Cunha (The 
Origin of Bombay, BBRAS. 
Vol. XX, Extra No., p. 228) 
has very lucidly and effec- 
tively pointed out the faults 
in the judge's derivations 
and the consequences they 
led to. " Fdro has no con- 
nection whatever with fora, 
nor can the latter be deriv- 
ed from the Latin fori s f a 
door '. There are two foris 
in Latin, one a substantive and 
the other adverb. The first 
foris .means * a door,' and the 
second foris, with a grave 
accent on i means outside. It 
is from the latter that the 
Portuguese fora is derived, 
which means ' without,' ' ab- 
road ' or ' out of doors ' 

"Foro means a quit-rent pay- 
able by tenants to the King or 

the Lord of the Manor It 

also means * court or hall of 
justice.' If foro is to be traced 
to a Latin origin, it is more 

appropriate to derive it from 
forum, a public place, where 
public affairs, like the payment 
of rents or tributes, were trans- 
acted. A Latin word more 
appropriate to foro is census, 
meaning valuation of estates 
or rating of property, and not 
registry or roll of the citizens, 
just as foral corresponds to 
liber censuum or ' book of rates 
to be paid.' It is in this sense 
that the Portuguese term 
pensdo, derived directly from 
the Latin pensio ' payment,' is 
taken. . . 

" From the assumption that 
fdro was derived from fora, 
and the latter from the Latin 
foris l a door,' the eminent 
Bombay Judge concluded that 
this derivation plainly indicat- 
ed that the rent or revenue 
was drawn from the outlying 
lands alone, and that the whole 
island of Bombay fell under 
that denomination when under 
the Portuguese rule, Bombay 
being then a mere outlying 
dependency of Bassein. And 
in order to justify this far- 
fetched derivation of the word 
fdro from fora, he confined the 
quit-rent to the outlying 
ground, and to the island of 




Bombay, as a mere outlying 
dependency of Bassein. But 
the fact generally known that 
fdro was imposed both on the 
inlying as well as on the out- 
lying ground, and that it was 
not limited to Bombay, but 
was indifferently applied to 
Bassein, to S&lsette and to all 
other parts of that province, 
ought to have convinced him 
of the feebleness of Liis i ypo- 
thesis." A male tenant who 
paid the quit-rent was spoken 
of as the foreiro, a female 
tenant as the foreira of the 
estate; thus, in 1727, D. Sen- 
horinba de Souza e Tavora was 
the foreira of the village of 
Mazagon, and, in 1731 upon her 
demise, her grandson Martinho 
da Silveira de Menezes was 
entered in the records as the 
foreiro of the said village. 

Another term intimately 
connected with fdro and fre- 
quently met with in a study of 
the old land tenures of Bom- 
bay is aforamento, which origin- 
ally denoted the contract by 
which the grantor made a 
grant of a holding or estate to 
be held in possession and en- 
joyed by the grantee, either in 
perpetuity or for a specified 

period, upon his paying a cer- 
tain annual foro or quit-rent. 
In course of time the term 
came to denote the holding 
itself rather than the contract 
of the lease. 

Forrar (to line ; to cover). 
Konk. phorrar-karunk. L.- 
Hindust. pharal (karnd), to 
cover the cable. Tet. fora. 

Forro (subst., lining). 
Konk. phorr. Guj. phor. 
Sinh. poru. Poru redda, cloth 
used for lining. 

Forte (adj., strong). Konk. 
phort ; vern. terms bali, ghaft, 
nibar. Tet., Gal. forti ; vern. 
term rosak. 

Fortuna (fortune). Konk. 
phurtun ; vern. terms na$ib> 
/afcfo. Tet., Gal. furtuna. 

Fraco (adj., weak). Konk. 
phrdk, phardk ; vern. terms 
a$akt or askat. Tet. frdku ; 
vern. term mdmal. Gal. frdku. 
In Konkani, from phrdk are 
derived pharkatdy or pharka- 
jdy, ' weakness.' Fraquez 
(from Port, jraqueza, 4 weak- 
ness ') is also used in the same 

Frade (a friar). Konk. 
phrdd, phardd. Tet. frddi. 

In Konkani, phardd, as a 
substantive feminine, denotes 




n common parlance the 
clerical tonsure.' See coroa. 
Fragata (a frigate). Konk. 
ihargdt. Mar. phargdd. Mai. 
yragata. Bug. pardgata. 
Pet., Gal. fragata. \ Turk. 
irgateyn. \ 

Franga (a pullet, chicken). 
\la\. franga (Haex) ; vern. 
;erms dyam, dnak dyam, dyam 

Frasco (a flask): Konk. 
ohrdsk (1. us.); vern. terms 
nmso, kupd. Tet., Gal. 
^rdsku. Jap. jurasuko (per- 
biaps from the Engl. flask'); 
pern, term tokuri. Ar. of 
Egypt, falaskiya, balaskiya. 

Frasqueira (a box or case 
for bottles). Konk. phras- 
ker. Tet., Gal. fraskeira. 

Frecha (an arrow, a shaft). 
iMal. parecha. 

Freguesia (a parish). 
Konk. phirgaz. [ Anglo-Ind. 
freguezia (obs.)]. Tet., Gal. 

[Yule mentions the word in 
his Glossary, and says that 
" this Portuguese word for ' a 
parish ' appears to have been 
formerly familiar in the West 
of India."] 

Freio (a bridle). V Konk. 
phrey ; vern. term lagam. Tet. 

1 1 

Fresco (adj., cool, fresh). 
Konk. phresk (I. us.); vern. 
terms thand, ital. Mai. par- 
esku. i" - ^ ,--_ 

[Fryer uses * fresco ' and 
* f risco ' as substantives in the 
sense of * a cool wind '.*] p> r ] 

? Fulano (such a one). Konk. 
phalatyo, phuldru)- Mar. ph ala- 
nd. Guj . phaldqum. Hin- 
dust. fuidn, fuland. Beng- 
phaland. Sindh. phalano. 
Punj. phaland, phaldni t phald- 
uqd. Tvl.jphuldna, phaldni. 
Kan. phaldni. Tul. phaldne. 
Anglo-Ind. falaun. Mai. 
fuldn, pidan. 

It appears that the word 
was imported directly from 
Arabic or through Persian. 
Gon9alves Viana remarks that 
"the true Portuguese form is 
fuao, fulano being Castilian." , 

Fundal (' lower extremity 
of a mast'). L.-Hindust, 
funddl, punddl. [Fundal in 
the above sense is not men- 
tioned in most Portuguese dic- 

i ["Near the Latitude of 30 deg. 
South we had a promising Fresco. 11 
East India, etc., Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 51.] 

[" Although in the Afternoon we 
had an humming Frisco." Idem 
p. 131. 




Funil (a funnel)^ Konk. 
phunel ; vern. term turbaqi 
(\. us.). L.-Hindust. phannel, 
fannel. Beng. phunneL 
Sinh. punilaya ; vern. term 
kemiya. Kan. phanndle, vern. 
term Idlike. Tet., Gal. funil ; 
vern. term kakun mdtan. 

Fusta (a foist, a pinnace). 
Mai. fusta. 1 

[The English 'foist' is not 
derived, as one might have 
supposed, from the Port, 
word which one meets with 
so frequently in the Portu- 
guese chroniclers, but, accord- 
ing to the O.E.D.< from 0. Fr. 
juste adapted from the It. 
fusta, fern., originally a log, 
piece of timber, from Lat. 
fustis, * a cudgel.' The earliest 
mention of the word is by 
Caxton in Paris and Venus 

1 " They build other small boats for 
rowing, like bar g ant Ins or fustas." 
" Duarte Barbosa, Livro, p. 353 [Hak. 
Soc., Vol. II, p. 108. "The atalayaa (q.v.) 
were shore boats often used for patrol- 
ling ; the fustas made longer voyages, 
and were employed in the attaok from 
Gujarat on Lourenco D' Almeida's 
ships at Chaul." Longworth Dames, 
Barbosa, Vol. II, p. 236. Bargantina 
were light rowing boats, drawing little 
water and suitable for coast work; 
they had no resemblance to the 
modern brigantine]. 

? Fuzil (a steel with which to 
strike fire). Mai., Ach., Batt., 
Sund., Low-Jav., Mad., Bal. 
bedil. Day. badil. Mao. bd- 
dili. Bug, bdlili. 

Dr. Heyligers says that the 
interchange of e and u is 
frequent, and that / changing 
into p, the latter would easily 
be transformed into ft, resulting 
in the form bezil or besil, the 
corruption of which would be 

Gage (arch., gift over and 
above wages ; bye-profits, 
pledges.) Mai. gade, pledge ; 
gdji, stipend. Qddei, gddei- 
kan t to pawn. Ach., Sund., 
Jav., Mac., Bug. gdji, stipend. 1 

? Gago (adj., stammering ; 
us. also as a substantive). 
Konk. gag (subst.), stammer; 

1 Two thousand cruzados on 
account of their salaries and gagens 
(perquisites)." Bocarro, p. 490. 
[Cruzado was a Portuguese piece of 
money so called because of the cross 
(cruz) on it, and worth about two 
shillings and a half.] 

| "The salaries, gages, and other 
interests of these as well as of the 
Fortresses were not only sufficient but 
even superfluous/' Faria y Sousa, 
Asia Portugueaa, III, p. 678. | 




vern. terms ludbepaq, totrepa$. 
chonchrepaq, (derived from the 
adjectives ludbo, toiro, chon- 
chro). Gag yevunk (dative of 
the person), to have a stam- 
mer. Gagyo, a stammerer. 
G&gyefo ulaunk, to speak 
stammeringly. Gagevuhk, to 
stammer. Sund. gdgu, stam- 
mer. Mol., Batav. gdgu. 
Mac., Bug. gaga, to stammer. 
Ach. gagab, to stammer ; to 
prattle. In Batta, gagap 
signifies, according to Joustra, 
*' to follow a wrong way ". 
Mai. gagap, ? kokok. 

Haex has gagu, ' to stammer', 
&ndgagab, bergagab, 'to prattle'. 
Dr. Schuchardt mentions the 
following Malay forms : gegcb, 
* to stammer', gagap, gagdp, 
gegdp ' confused ', and gugup, 
4 murmur '. And he observes 
that "in Batavia gagu is equi- 
valent to dumb" ; but, in the 
vocabulary of the Portuguese 
dialect of Malay, he gives 
" oen-gagoe ( = tm gdgu) ein 
Stotterer (orang gagoe)". 
Kriolische Studien, ix. 

Gonsalves Viana says : " The 
etymology of the Portuguese 
word gago is unknown : what 
Dr. Ad. Coelho gives us in his 
Diccionario Etymologico, viz., 

that it is from the Castilian 
gago, does not take us far, and 
besides this and the fact that 
it is little used in Castilian, it 
must be noted that in it the 
word has an entirely different 
meaning which corresponds 
more or less to * a snuffler ' 
rather than to ' a stammerer.' 
In the opinion of Candido de 
Figueiredo, it is an onomato- 
poeic word. Gago, as a nick- 
name or surname, appears very 
often in the old writers : Gabriel 
Gago in Joao de Barros. 
Fernao Gomes Gago in Gasper 
Correia, Diogo Gago in Lem- 
bran$as das Cousas da India. 

Dr. Schuchardt maintains 
that gagap, because of its 
termination, is Malay and 
not of Portuguese origin ; 
Gongalves Viana eliminates it 
from his new list, revised and 
augmented, of Portuguese 
words introduced into Malay. 
But the reason alleged for this 
is not good as far as the form 
gdgu in the other dialects is 
concerned. Matthes derives 
the Macassar gaga from the 
Malay gdgap. 

It is not possible to explain 
why among the Indian lan- 
guages Konkani alone should 




have gag ('stammer'), with 
some derivatives of the word, 
all in common use, and even 
more current than the verna- 
cular terms. Onomatopoeia 
is improbable in the case, 
because onomatopoeic words 
of this kind are, as a rule, 
common to Konkani and 
Marathi. Might it have been 
imported from Portuguese or, 
rather, from Malay through the 
intervention of Portuguese ? 

It is useful to note that in 
the Portuguese spoke a in Goa 
the word cacoethe is used in the 
sense of * stammering '. This 
term does not appear in the 
Diccionario Contemporaneo, nor 
in the dictionary of Candido 
de Figueiredo ; but it is men- 
tioned by old lexicographers, 
like Morais, who says: "Cacoe- 
the (from Lat. cacoethes ; from 
Gk. kakos ( bad ' and ethos 
'custom'). V. Oachexia. Bad 
bodily habit, like twisting the 
body, or similar movements 
or ugly gesticulations. An 
evil habit." 1 

1 "Cacoete Although this term 

may appear more scientific than 
common place, yet we have many 
times heard it, in the province o! 
Minho (Portugal), used by persons who 
are illiterate." Cardinal Saraiva, IX, 
p. 24. 

Galao (gold-lace). Konk. 
galdrnv ; vern. term zarpafi. 
Tel., galan. Tet., Gal. gala. 

Gale (galley). Mai. galey, 
galay. Bug. gale. 1 

Can thfey have come from 
the Dutch galei ? ' 

Galeao (galleon). , Mai. gal- 
yun, | galiong \ . Ar. gallon? 

Galeota (" a small galley 
with one mast and with 15 or 
20 benches a side, and one 
oar to each bench"). Anglo- 
Ind. gallevat. Ar. galitha* 

Fr. Jose de Moura says that 
galiun and galinta are Turkish 

[Sir J. Campbell (Bombay 
Gazetteer, XIII, 417) states that 
galbat, a form of gallevat, was 
in use in Bombay to denote 
large foreign vessels, such as 

According to Marsden, gdgu, in 
Malay, is the name o! A small fish. 

* " An armada of three hundred 
sail, in which there were gales, 
lancharas (q. v.) t bantins." Diogo do 
Couto, Dec. VI, v, 1. 

Bantim (pi. bantins) is a brigan- 
tine or a brig; the word is derived 
from the Malay banting, a two-masted 
trading vessel. See Olosaario. 

2 'He gave a Galeao with plenty 
of munitions." Diogo do Couto, Dec. 
VI, viii, 5. 

" He chartered a beautiful Galeo- 
ta." Diogo do Couto, Dec. VI, Hi, 




English ships and steamers, 
and he refers galbat to jalba, 
a word for a small boat in the 
Red Sea. The correct Arabic 
form, however, is jilba, and it 
is met with among 'the early 
Portuguese chroniclers as gelba 
and gelva (Glossario, s.v.). 
Yule does not look with favour 
upon Campbell's derivation of 
gallevat and is more inclined 
to trace it directly to the 
Portuguese galeota. For the 
connection of galeota with 
1 galley ' and the very remark- 
able etymological history of 
the latter, see Hobson-Jobson 
s. v. gallevat.] 

Galeria (a gallery.) Konk. 
galeri. ? Mai. galari, galri. 
? Jav. galadri, gladri. ? Mad. 

Gon9alves Viana thinks 
the Portuguese origin is un- 
likely in respect of the 
Malaysian words. .. r , 

Galo (a cock). Mai. gallo 
(Haex); vern. terms dyam 
jantam, dyam Jcambiri. 

The reason for the introduc- 
tion of this word is not known ; 
it is not mentioned in modern 

Gamela (wooden bowl ; 
porringer). Konk. qamil ; vern. 

te swiparderti, karlefii. Mar. 
gam&l t a mason's trough. 
[ Anglo-Ind. ghamtlla ]. ? 
Malag. gamela. 1 

Molesworth also mentions 
gabelem, as used in the Konkan 
in the same sense. 

Gancho (hook; hair-pin). 
Konk. gdnch ; vern. terms 
ankdo, phaso, ktt- Tarn, gdn- 
chu t bolt. Mai. gdnchu (subst.) , 
a hook ; also used as an 
adj. in the sense of 'pro- 
vided with a hook '. M ug- 
gdnchu, to hook. Turk, can- 
cha, according to Simonet. 

Ganho (profit). Konk. 
(subst.) gdhh, gain ; also used 
in the sense of * interest on 
money 5 . Mac. (adj.) gdnhu 
(a term used in sport), 
gained, won. Bug. gdnho (the 
same as in Macassar). 

PGanso (a goose). | Burm. 
ngan \ . Mai. gdnsa, gdsa. 
Batt. kdnsa. Sund. gdnsa. 
Day. gdsa. Jap. gan, wild 
goose ; gacho, domesticated 

1 " Hoes, crow-bars, picks, game- 
las." Gaspar Correia, III, p. 619. 

[" Ghamellas, Powrahs, Picks, 
Steel Bars, and all kinds of excavating 
tools " Advertisement in The Times of 
India, 8 October, 1929.] 



goose. Malag. gisa ; vern. 
term, vorombe. 1 

" Angsa and gangsa are the 
usual words, in the whole of 
the Archipelago, for goose, and 
they are evidently from the 
Sanskrit hansa" Rigg. 

? Gara (heron)/? Kamb. 
carsa, crdsa. Siam.' kra-sd, 

Kambojan and Siamese 
have no g. Cf. Kambojan 
gazette; Siarn. 
guru, khiri = 
Sansk. giri. 

It appears that carsa, krasd 
are corruptions of gansa, which 
is met with in the Malayo-Poly- 
nesian languages. Moura gives 
' crane ' as the meaning of 
carsa. ' 

Garfo (a fork). Konk. 
gdrph (more us. kdhto, lit. 'a 
thorn'). Sinh. gdrpuva, gdrp- 
puva, gerpuva, gdruppuva. 
Malayal. kdrpu (us. in 
Cochin). Mai. gdrfu, gdrpu 9 
| kdrpu | . Sund. gdrpu. 

[Garopo (a kind of sailing 
vessel from Malasia). Anglo- 
Ind. grab. 2 

l "Peacocks, gan^os, ducks, and 
all domestic fowls." Lucena, Bk. X, 
ch. 18. 

* [1552. "The fleet consisted of 

The Portuguese word is 
from the Malay gorap, which, 
in its turn, is the Ar. ghurab, 
' a crow ', * a raven '. The 
Marathi gurab, a sailing vessel, 
also owes its origin to the very 
same Ar. ghurab.} 

Gasto (expense). Konk. 
gdst (H us.); vern. terms kharch, 
vech. More in use is gastdr- 
karunk, ' to spend ', concur- 
rently with the vern. kharchuhk, 
sarunk, ' to spend '. Sinh. 
gdstuva, honorarium, gratuity. 

Gfivea (top sail). Guj., L.- 
Hindust. gam. Mai. gdvei. 
Ar. gabia. 1 

twenty -four lancharas. And six of 
these were very big ; these we call 
in their language garopos." Castan- 
heda, Historic*, III; ch. 151, cit. in 

[" It was found to be the fleet of 
Achem, of a hundred and more three- 
masted galleys and fitty gurabos." 
Antonio Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 412.] 

[" On appearance of the Desy's 
Grob they (Seva Gi's men) retreated 
again". Fryer, East India, Hak. 
Soc., II, p. 6.] 

["An old English Master of a Grab, 
or small Vessel, George Toach, has 
frequently reported this Story to me." 
Ovington, A Voyage to Surat (O.U.P.), 
1929, p. 158.] 

1 "They used to take many fire- 
spears and powder pots which they 
used to place on the gaveas." Gas- 
par Correia I, p. 512. 




Gaveta (a drawer). Konk. 
gavet ; vern. term khaq. Tarn. 
gavdtei. Tet., Gal. gav&ta. 

Gaxeta (naut., the lines 
that fasten the sails to the 
yards). L.-Hindust. ghaset, 
ghaseth, ghanset, ghansit. 

Gelosia (a window-blind), 
Sinh. jalusi. 1 

Genebra (gin, the spirit 
distilled from malt). Konk. 
jenebr. Tet., Gal. jenebra. 

General (subst., a general). 
Konk. jenerdl', jernel (from 
English) ; vern. terms, senapati, 
dalpati. Malayal. janardl. 
Mai. jendral. Jendrdl laut 
(/cm==sea), general of the sea, 
admiral. Ach. jendral. Bug. 
jinerdla. Tet. jeneral* T- l . 

Gentio (gentile, a heathen ; 
applied by the Portuguese 
in India to the Hindus in con- 
tradistinction to the Mouros 
or 'Moors', i.e., Moham- 
medans). 3 Konk. jintu (used 

1 " There were many windows 
projecting outside, with gelozias." 
Diogo do Couto, Deo. VI, iv, 7. 

2 "The general sent one Bernardo 
de la Torre as the captain of a small 
galleon." Diogo do Couto, Deo. V, 
VIII, 10. 

3 [ And before this kingdom of 
Guzerate fell into the hands of the 
Moors, a certain race of Gentlos whom 

in combination with Konkqo 
of which it is a synonym, or 
as a depreciative) ; venu terms 
anbhavarthi (lit. 'an un- 
believer ') , Konkno (lit. ' a 
Konkani ' or ' Konkan man.'). 
Anglo-Ind. gentoo, pagan ; 
Hindus ; * Telugu-speaking 
Hindus and their language. 2 

the Moors called Resbutos dwelt there- 
in." Duarte Barboaa, ed. Dames, 
Vol. I, p. 109.] 

[ " And in this kingdom there is 
another sort of Gentio whom they 
call Baneanes" Idem, p. 110.] 

1 [ " The Originall of this Petition 
(to Charles IT) .... is signed by 225 of 
the principalesb Inhabitants of this 
Island, vizt. 

123 : Christians and 
84: Gentuies 
18 : Moores. 

Anglo -Portuguese Negotiations rela- 
ting to Bombay 1660-1677 (O.U.P.), by 
S. A. Khan, p. 453.] 

[ " The late scarcity of provisions 
necessitating us to take some cows 
from the Jentue inhabitants to supply 
the fleet...." Forrest, Selections, 
Home Series, Vol. II, p. 31.] 

[" The Gentues, the Portugal Idiom 
for Gentiles, are the Aborigines, who 
enjoyed their freedom, till the Moors 
or Scythian Tartars . . . undermining 
them, took advantage of their Civil 
Commotions.'* Fryer, East India, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 81.] 

2 [For citations of 'gentoo* in the 
acceptation of Telugu Hindus and 
Telugu language, see Hobsoyi-Jobson. ] 




Tet. jentiu. Gal. jentiu, 

The word * gentoo ' is used 
at the present time only in 
Madras of the Telugu-speaking 
Hindus, and of their language. 
But formerly it had a very 
wide meaning ; the first digest 
of Indian legislation, which 
was compiled under the orders 
of Warren Hastings and pub- 
lished in 1773, has the title 
A Code of Gentoo Law. 

[According to Yule, the 
reason why the term became 
thus specifically applied to the 
Telugu people is probably 
because, when the Portuguese 
arrived, the Telugu monarchy 
of Vijayanagara was dominant 
over a great part of the Penin- 
sula. The officials were chiefly 
of Telugu race, and thus the 
people of this race, as the 
most important section of the 
Hindus, were par excellence the 
' Gentiles ' and their language 
the ' Gentile language '. This 
appears to be a very plausible 
view, because of the intimate 
political and commercial rela- 
tions that existed between the 
Portuguese in Goa and the 
Vijayanagar sovereigns. 

Yule is led to believe that 

the English form ' Gentoo ' 
did not come into general use 
till late in the 17th century, 
whilst Longworth Dames 
(Intro. Duarte Barbosa, p. 
Ixiii) is of the opinion that 
in the 18th century * Gentoo ' 
was limited in its meaning to 
some of the lower castes in 
South India. 

From gentio, the Portuguese 
formed gentilico* (subst. masc.) 
with the meaning 4 language 
of the Hindus.' The word is 
used in the phrase em gentili- 
co (' in the Hindu or vernacu- 
lar language ').] 

Gera^ao (generation). Konk. 
jerasdrhv\ vern. terms pindkd, 
pilgi. Tet., Gal. jerasa. 

Gergelim (the seed of 
Sesamum indicum). Mar., 
Hindust. jinjali (trade name, 
according to Hobs^n-Jobson)', 
vern. terms til, til. Anglo- 
Ind. gingeli, gingelly. 2 

The word is of Arabic origin 

1 [ " I had some notices published in 
Gentillco. .. " Apud Julio Biker, 
Collec$do de Tratados, viii, p. 174, in 

2 "They make much uce of gerge- 
lin oil." Duarte Barbosa [Hak. Soc., 
ed. L. Dames, Vol. 1. p. 13]. 

" Full of rice, oil, and jerzilim*" 
Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 478. 




(juljuldn). [Dr. Rice, quoted 
by Watt, derives it from the 
Arabic chul-chulan.] 

[Botanists are of the opinion 
that sesamum is not a native 
of India, but was introduced 
into India, perhaps at a period 
prior to the Aryan invasion. 
"Indeed some of the Indian 
names given to it come from 
Arabic or Persian ; few or 
none belong to the aboriginal 
languages of India. . . .There 
is, moreover, no reason to 
doubt that the tila of the 
Sanskrit authors is the til of 
India to-day" (Watt, The 
Comm. Prod, of India (1908), 
p. 982). It is interesting to 
note how tila, which originally 
was the name of the seasum 
plant, came to assume the gen- 
eric significance of oil (taila). 
Watt observes : " It is certain- 
ly very remarkable that few. if 
any, of the early European 
travellers in India, such as 
Garcia de Orta, Linschoten, 
etc. etc., make mention of 
this plant or its oil ". In this 
he is mistaken, for Duarte 
Barbosa (1516), forty-seven 
years before the publication 
of da Orta's Colloquies (1563), 
and Castanheda (1552) refer 

to ' gergelin ' and its oil. 
References to it by later 
travellers and writers are 

Gesso (chalk). Konk. jes\ 
vern. term $ed, kh&d. Ar. 
chess, chiss. 

Globo (a spherical glass 
bowl used as a candle-holder). 
Konk. gldb, galob. Sinh. gold- 
va. Tarn, galobei. 

Sinhalese has gola (Sansk.), 
* globe in general, sphere,' 
which could give golava, but 
not golova, where the v takes 
the place of b. 

Goiaba (Psidium guyava). 
? Tarn, goyd palam (lit. ' guava 
fruit or Goa fruit '?). It is also 
called perd. ? Tel. gova-pandu 
(pandu = fruit). ? Anglo-Ind. 
guava. ? Indo-Fr. gouave, 
goyave, goyavier. | Mai. kuy- 
dvu (Rumphius). Mol. guay- 
dva, goydvu (idem) \ . Nic. 
koyanva. Tet., Gal. koyabas. 
Malag. guavy. [In modern 
Arabic this fruit is called 
juwdfa, Arabicised from 
' guava.' See JRAS, July, 
1927, p. 560.] 

Just as the Portuguese called 
bananas figos (' figs'), so like- 
wise they gave the name pera 
(* pear ') to the guava, when 




they introduced it into India ; 
and just as subsequently the 
word banana made its way into 
India, so likewise did goiaba or 
goiava. But have banana and 
goiaba, as a matter of fact, 
been introduced from Portu- 
guese into Anglo-India and 
Indo-French ? It appears 
that the Tamil goyd and the 
Telugu gova are for 'Goa'. 
[An exact parallel of the Tarn, 
and Tel. names is found in 
one of the Bengali names of 
the fruit goa&chiphal, which 
obviously means ' fruit from 
Goa '.] See pera and banana. 1 
[The guava tree is a native of 
South America now natural- 
ised and largely cultivated 
throughout India. It was, in 
all probability, introduced into 

1 Some of the Indian languages give 
the guava the name * jambo.' 

[ The Port, form goiaba is derived 
from guayaba by which name the 
fruit was known in Brazil and from 
where it was introduced into India. 
The name pera ('pear'), which the 
Portuguese first gave it because of its 
resemblance to that fruit, has its 
counterpart in the Hindustani name 
for the guava, amrud (Pers.), which 
means' ' a pear '. In Gujarat the fruit 
is also called jam, and j amrud, the 
latter, perhaps, a combination of jam 
and amrud.] 

this country by the Portu- 

Gola (collar of a coat). 
Konk. gol ; vern. term. galo. 
Tarn, golla. ^ : f\ -~ 

Goma (gum). Konk. gom ; 
vern. terms Ml, chik. Tet. 
goma. Jap. gomu (perhaps 
from English). Arabiya gomu, 
gum Arabic. ' fv^ 

Gorgoleta (" an earthen 
and narrow-mouthed vessel, 
out of which the water runs 
and gurgles*'). Konk. gurgu- 
let\ vern. term kuzo. Sinh. 
gurulittuva. Anglo-Ind, gog- 
let, guglet. Mai. gargalet, bar- 
galet. Mac., Bug. gultta, 
Tet. gorgoleta, ? gargo ; vern. 
term dardon. Gal. gorgoleta. 1 

[The Portuguese word is 
itself derived from gorja, an 
archaic term, meaning ' throat', 
and the pitcher perhaps gets 
its name from the gurgling 
sound made in the throat when 
the water poured out of it into 
the mouth is drunk, as Indians 
do, without touching the spout 
with their lips. Linschoten 
(Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 207) and 

1 " Because we threw among them 
many pots, and gorgoletas contain 
ing powder", Jofto Ribeiro, Fatali- 
dade historica, Bk, II,.ch. 25. , 




Pyrard (Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 
74) describe the way this water 
vessel had to be handled and 
the derision that followed its 
employment in an improper 
fashion. 1 ] 

G6sto (taste, savour). 
Konk. g6st\ vern. terms ruck, 
svdd. Gal. g&stu. 

Governador (governor). 

1 [ " When they (the Portuguese and 
Mestico women) drinke they have cer- 
taine pots made of blacke earth very 
fine and thin, and much like those 
that we use in Holland for flower 
pottos, having in the necke thereof a 
partition full of holes with a spout, (and 
these cruses are called Gorgoletta), 
to this end, that when they drinke, 
they may hold the potte on high, and 
touch it not with their mouthes, but 
the water running from the spout 
falleth into their mouthes, never spill- 
ing drop, which they doe for clean- 
linesse, because no man should put it 
to his mouth, and when any man com- 
meth nowly out of Portingall, and 
then beginneth to drinke after their 
manner, because he is not used to 
that kinde of drinking, he spilleth 
it in his bosome, wherein they take 
great pleasure and laugh at him." 

[*' The same way they have of cool- 
ing their Liquors, by a Wet Cloth 
wrapped about their Gurgulets and 
Jars, which are Vessels made of a 
porous kind of Earth ; the best of 
Mcecha, reasonable good from Ooa.. . " 
Fryer, East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 125J 

Konk. governador (in popular 
speech 'razd'). Malayal. gov- 
ernriador (archaic ; current 
gavarnar, from English). Mai. 
gubernadur, gubernur, gurnadur^ 
gurundur. Bug. goronddora. 

Govferno (government). 
Konk. govern ; vern. term 
sarkdr. Tet., Gal. governu. 

Graa (grace, indulgence ; 
pleasantry, fun). Konk. grds, 
joke, jest ; vern. terms khebad, 
chestdy. Tet. grasa ; vern. 
terms diak, tulun ('help'). 
Gal. grasa ; vern. term Idlan 
(' jest ').: Jap. garasa l . 

Grade (grate, ; railing). ' 
Konk., Guj. gardd. Mar. 
gardd, gardz, garadd. Hin- 
dust., Beng. garadiyd. Sinh* 
garddiya. Garddimessa, railing. 
Garddi dammalada, railed in. 
Garadivuta, a palisade. Tarn. 
gardde, girddi. Malayal. gird- 
di, grddi, grdsi* Siam. kra- 
tu* Mai. grado (Haex), 
gerddi. The Neo-Aryan term 
is kathdo. 

^W* !-.' -*" *" 

Gralha (crow, rook). Mol. 
graia (Castro). 

1 In Konkani, the equivalent for 
divine grace ' is kurpd, from the 
Sansk. krpd. 

* Cf. Siam. khru= Sansk. guru r 
' master * ; thut=* Sansk. duta, messen- 
ger*. See garca. 




Granada (* grenade, bomb'). 
Konk. garndl, garn&l. Mar., 
Hindust. garndl. Tul. gar- 
nalu. 1 T".^ ( 

? Granadeiro (grenadier) . 
Hindust. garandil. Tel. gar- 

? Grande (big). Pid-Engl. 
galanti, ka-lan-ti. 

It appears more probable 
that the source is Portuguese 
rather than English (from 
' grand '). The change from r 
to I and from d to Ms normal. 

Grao (grain). Konk. grdriiv 
' : (weight)*. Anglo-Ind. gram, 
tHe chick-pea, Cicer arietinum, 
Linn. , 8 

["This word (gram) is 
properly the Portuguese grao, 

1 "For only in this (company of 
grenadiers) consists our defence, and 
in the awe they inspire in them, the 
dread these barbarians have of the 
new granadas being something 
extraordinary " (1728). Chronistade 
Tiasuary, I, p. 52. 

2 " But, more than in any other part, 
in this province (of Basaein and 
Damaun) there is the need of a com- 
pany of granadeiros, which ought 
never to withdraw from here except 
in case of necessity." Ibid. 

3 [" These serais are generally noble 
monuments of individual bounty, and 
were 'in ancient times liberally 
endowed, and furnished supplies of 
.gram, milk .. to the traveller*'. 
Heber, Narrative, (1828), p. 303.] 

i.e. ' grain ', but it has been 
specially appropriated to that 
kind of vetch (Cicer arietinum, 
L.) which is the most general 
grain- (rather pulse-) food of 
horses all over India, called 
in Hindustani chana." Hob- 
son-Jobson. The Portuguese 
formerly called the above 
vetch grdo de cavalo ('vetch 
for horses ') and not merely 
grdo ; it is smaller than the 
kind grown in the Iberic 
Peninsula. At the time when 
the Portuguese book Goa they 
found that mnngo, the Hindust. 
mung (Phaseolus mungo), was 
used there as horse-feed.] 

Graxa (blacking for boots). 
Konk. gra$. Tet. gracha. 

Grosso (big, thick). Mai. 
grosso, dense, thick (Haex). 

Crude (glue). Konk. gurud ; 

vern. terms pdnk chikatvan ; 

>-'*'- " '~~ 

khal. Tet. grudi\ vern. terms 
reten, darner. '(, :>< 

Guarda (guard). Konk. 
guvdrd. Mar. gardi, gaddi. 
Gardai, " insurrectionary tu- 
mult amongst foot-soldiers, 
and hence tumult, con- 
fusion, uproar, more gener- 
ally " (Molesworth). Guj. 
gardi, gaddi. Hindust. ga- 
rad. Khas. garod, karod. 



Mai. gdrdu, gardu. Sund. gar- 
du. Jav. gdrdu, gerdu, gredu. 
Tet., Gal. guarda. Ar. 
virdiydn (from the Italian 
guardia, says Belot). In 
Javanese it is also employed as 
a verb, in the sense of ' to 
place guard'. 

Molesworth observes that 
the word is met with in the 
most ancient Marathi docu- 
ments and does not regard it 
as foreign ; but he does not 
say whether the documents 
are anterior to the sixteenth 
century. He adds that it 
denotes especially the infantry 
soldier employed to guard the 
person of the Peshwa or other 
Raja. But Wilson derives it 
from the English * guard ' and 
remarks that it is obsolete. 
[It is well known that Portu- 
guese military officers were 
employed in the Peshwa's 
armies, and it is, therefore, 
reasonable to suppose that 
guarda and other military 
terms such as coronel, ronda, 
tronco found their way through 
them into Marathi.] 

Guardanapo (napkin ; ser- 
viette). Konk. guvardandp. 
Sinh. gardenappa. Mai. garde- 
nappa (Haex). 

Gudao (' a warehouse for 
goods and stores ' ; it is an 
Indo-Port. word) 1 . Konk., Mar. 
guddmv ; vern. terms kafhi, 
kafhdr, san(ho t thevo. Hin- 
dust., Nep. goddm. Or. gudd- 
ma. Beng. gudam. Ass. 
guddm. Sinh. gudama. 
?Tam. gidangu. Malayal. gud- 
dam. ? Tel. gadangu, gid- 
dingi. Kan., Tul. gadangu. 
Anglo-Ind. godown. Khas. 
kudam. Day. gudang (nearer 
to the Port, form than to that 
of the original word). Bug. 
gudang, pantry in European 
houses, besides gadong which 
is the vernacular terra for 'a 

The word is the Malay 
gadong or godong \ or gudang, 

1 " Gudoes, which are rooms almost 
underground as a protection against 
fire." JoSo de Barros, Dec. II, vi, 3. 

" Two gudoes of the king which it 
was said were full of goods." Id., 4. 

" It will be stored in the gudoes of 
the Customs Office." Filipe Neri 
Xavier, CoUec$Qo de Bandos. 

[' 1615. Was given me old ruined 
brick house or godung . . . the same 
goods to be locked up in the gad- 
donea . . . the one half of the charges 
of building and purchasing a godone 
and houses." Foster, Letters of the 
E.I.C. Vol. Ill, pp. 109, 169, 181, in 
Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXX, p. 466. 




Wilkinson, | disseminated by 
the Portuguese. Yule and 
Burnell, however, say that the 
word appears to have come 
primarily from the South of 
India, where in Telugu gidangi, 
in Tamil kidahgu, signify * a 
place where goods lie,' from 
kifeit 'to M e '- Ifc appears in 
SmHalese also as gudama. It 
is a fact that many common 
Malay and Javanese words are 
Tamil, or only to be explained 
by Tamil. Free intercourse 
between the Coromandel Coast 
and the Archipelago is very 
ancient, and when the 
Portuguese first appeared at 
Malacca they found there 
numerous settlers from S. 

Guisado (subst., ragout, 
stew). Konk. gizdd ; vern. 
terms pakvan. Tet. gizddu. 

Guitarra (guitar). Konk. 
gitdr; vern. terra tn#d. Sinh. 
kittdrama. Mai. getera. Also 
found in the same form in the 
Port, dialect of Malacca. Ar. 

The original of the Arabic 
word is by some referred to 

Guloso (gourmand). Mai. 


Hbita. See dbita. 

Hbito (in the meaning of 
* habit of a monk; soutane'). 
Beng. abdu (us. among the 
Christians), Jap. abiio (obs.). 

Harpa (harp). Konk. drp. 
Bug. arapa, which Matthes 
derives from the Dutch harp. 

Harm6nio (harmonium). 
Konk., Tet. armonyu. UC 

Herdar (to inherit). Konk. 
erddr-karunk. Tet. erda ; 
vern. term hetan. 

Hissope (hyssop). ^ Konk. 
isop. Beng. isopa. ? Sinh. 
hisop (perhaps from English). 
Tarn, isopei. , 

Histdria/ (history). Konk. 
istor ; vern. terms kathd or 
kanthd, charitr, itihas. Mai., 
Jav., Mad. setori (also used in 
the sense of ' a cabal, machina- 
tion 1 ). High-Jav. setanton. 
Sund. stori. Tet., Gal. istori. 
11 anarchy, contention, contro- 
versy, debate, misunderstand- 
ing, disorder, discord, dispute, 
dissension, disturbance, rising, 
litigation, riot, scuffle, law-suit, 
wrangling, quarrel " (Raphael 
das Dores). 1 ? Malag. hisi- 
toria. Ar. usthura. 

i << Forbes claims that in the island 



The Malay o-Polynesi an 
meanings of the word are 
supported by old Portuguese 
writers. Francisco Vaz de 
Almada, referring to the boat- 
swain of a ship, says : " He 
conducted himself in such a 
proud, uneducated, and un- 
restrained manner, that there 
was scarcely a person with 
whom he did not have historias 
(* quarrels ')." (Hist, tragico- 
marit., ix, p.H.) 

Honra (honour). Konk. 
onr\ vern. terms man, i&im, 
Kbru. Tet., Gal. onra ; vern. 
term diak. , / ' " ( . 

V ' 

Hora,. (hour). Konk. or. 
? Sinh. hdrd, horava; vern. 
terms peya, kanisama. Mai. 
'hora (Haex) ; vern. term jam 
(Pers.). Tet., Gal. ora. 
Malag. ora. 

There is hora in Sanskrit, 
borrowed from Greek, little 
used in modern Prakrits, 
except in astronomical works 
and in a figurative sense. But 
the h aspirate of the Sinhalese 
word appears to indicate such 
an origin, perhaps by way of 

of Timor the word iatori is employed 
as an adjective in the sense of ' bad V 
Heyligers. My sources of information 
do not confirm this statement. 

Pali, the sacred language of 
the Buddhists. In Malay, 
however, I believe it represents 
simply the imitation of the 
Portuguese word. 

Awar in Marathi and 
Gujarati is obviously the 
English * hour '. 

The Neo-Aryan terms are 


tds, ghanfd ; ghadi, gha(kd (of 
24 minutes). M' r , 

Horta (a garden, an 
orchard). Konk. orl ; vern. 
terms parsum, bag. Malayal. 
odam. Anglo-Ind. oart (us. in 
Western India), a coco-nut 
garden. 1 

Hortulana (200^., a small 

1 "To cut down the hortas and 
coco-nut groves which the Portuguese 
had therein.'* Bocarro, Dec. XIII, 
p. 22. 

["There is also a great number of 
Palmero or orta, like our orchards 
here (Goa), full of coco* trees planted 
close together. .. .They are enclosed 
with walls, and, along with a house 
and pretty garden, are called orta, 
wherein they take their recreation with 
their families." Pyrard, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. II, p. 28.] 

[1758. " Oart Charney, situated at 
Bombay, containing 200 cocoanut 
trees, bearing fruit, let to the Bhan- 
daris, for Rs. 627 ". Materials towards 
a Statistical Account, etc., Part III, 
pp. 439-440, in da Cunha's The Origin 
of Bombay, p. 223.*'] 




lark, Calandrellabrachydactyla, 
Temm., and also Pyrrhalauda 
grisea, Scopoli). Anglo-Ind., 
Tndo-Fr. ortolan. 

Littre derives ortolan from 
old Fr. hortelan, a gardener." 
iut the application of the 
erm to Indian birds must be 
iue to the Portuguese. [The 
iame of the bird in Hindi is 
argel or bageri.] 

Hospital (hospital). Konk. 
>spitdl ; ispafal (influenced by 
3nglish) . Sinh . ispiritale. 
flfaiayal., fet, Kan!, Tul. 
Ispatri. Tet., Gal. ispital. 
| Turk, isspitdlya. \ 

Espertal and espextd are 
ised in the Portuguese dialect 
>f CeyJ n - I n Alentejo 
^Portugal) are found the 
r orms : espital, espitel, espri- 

}d L 

Hdstia (host, consecrated 
ivafer). Konk. 6st. Beng. 
wti. Tarn., Kan. ostu. Tet., 
Gal. ostia. Jap. dstiya. 


Igreja (church). Konk. 
igraz, igarz. Hindi girjd. 
Badd girjd (lit. * a big church '), 

1 " For the expenses of the esprttall 
(hospital).' 1 Simfto Botelho, p. 23. 

a cathedral. Hindust. girjd 
(us. only in the north of 
India). 1 Or. girjd. Beng. 
girjd, girjjd. Vadgirjd, a 
cathedral. Girjjavishayak, 
ecclesiastical. A s s . girjd , 
Catholic worship. Girjdghar 
(lit. 'house of the church '), a 
church. Punj. girjd. The 
Neo-Aryan terras are devul, 
devasthan, devmandir. Tul. 
igreje. Anglo-Ind. girja. 
Garo gilja. Khas. kirja. 
Mai. igresia (Haex), greja, 
grija. Burung greja, a 
sparrow. Sund. greja, grija. 
Manuk greja , a sparrow. Jav. 
grejo, grijd, garinjd. Mad. 
grejo, grijd. Mac., Bug. gare- 
ja. Mol. greja. Tet,, Gal. 

1 [The following incident, quoted 
in Hobson-Jobson (a.v. girja), has an 
interest of its own, apart from the 
philological : " It \L related that a 
certain Maulvi, celebrated for the 
power of his curses, was called upon 
by his fellow religionists to curse a 
certain church built by the English in 
close proximity to a Masjid. Anxious 
to stand well with them, and at the 
same time not to offend his English 
rulers, he got out of the difficulty by 
cursing the building thus : 

'Girja ghar ! Girja ghar ! Girja!' 
(i.e.) ' Fail down, house ! Fall down, 
house ! Fall down ! ' or simply 

* Church-house ! Church-houset 
Church!'" W. J. D'Gruyter, in 
Panjab Notes and Queries, II, 125.] 




krda. 1 Jap. ekirinjiya t ekirin- 
ji (from the Latin ecclesia, 
according to Dr. Murakami). 
[The Port, igreja is itself a 
corruption of the Lat. ecclesia.] 

Imagem (image). Konk. 
imdz ; vern. terms rupkdr, 
sarkem, sarupdy, murti, bahuli, 
putli. Mai. imagem (Haex). 

Incenso (incense.) Beng. 
insensu (us. among the Christi- 
ans). Kan. insdnsu (us. 
among the Christians). Mai. 
incenso (Haex). Tet M Gal. 

Indiano (adj., Indian). 
Sinh. indiydnu. Indiydnu tinta, 
Indian ink. ? Malag. indiana. 

Indulgencia (eccles., an 
indulgence). Konk. dulgems. 
Tet. indulgensia. 

Inferno (hell). Konk. iihph- 
ern ; vern. terms yam kand 9 
patdl, narak. Tet. infernu ; 
vern. terms rdi kidun, rdi 
okoa. Gal. infernu. Jap. in- 
ferno, imberno. 

Ingles (arch, and pop. 
form, ingr&s 9 English). Konk. 

1 In the languages of Timor the 
initial g is changed at times into k: 
kojabas or koabas^goiabaa (<guavas'). 
The same is the case in Khassi: 
kudam=gudao ('godown'). With regard 
to d taking the place of j, of. ajudar. 

ingttz, ingrez (subst.}, ingrezi 
(adj.). Mar. ingleji (also 
ingli*, from English '). Guj. 
angrSj, angreji. Hindi, Hin- 
dust, angrezi. Bihari angrej, 
angreji. Beng. ingldj. Ass. 
ingrdji. Sinh. ingrisi. Mala- 
yal. ingirisy. Kamb. dnc- 
gris. Mai., Sund. ingris. 
Mac., Bug. angarisi. Jap. 
ingirisu. ! 

Some of the above words 
might owe their origin directly 
to the term ' English '. 

| Inhame (the name given 
to various species of Dios- 
corea). Anglo-Ind. yam. Indo- 
Fr. igname. 

It appears that the word is 
of American origin. | 

[The author in his Olossario 
says that the Portuguese word 
is borrowed from a West 
African language, probably 

1 "They suffered in it many mis- 
fortunes, as much owing to bad times, 
as to robbers who were ingreses." 
Fr. Jofto dos Santos, Ethiop. Or., II, 
p. 170. 

"The ingrezes, who were in the 
anchorage with a man-of-war and a 
pinnace, at once left the place." 
Ant6nio Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 25. 

[The English factory at Malda was 
called Angrez&b&d or Englishavad. 
See Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
P- 71.] 

178 INJUSTigA 


from Guinea, and this is also 
the view of Skeat (Etymolo- 
gical Dictionary, and Notes on 
English Etymology) who defi- 
nitely mentions that the name 
of the tuber originally came 
from Benin, on the West African 
coast. This, he thinks, is set- 
tled by a passage in Hakluyt's 
Voyages, in which a voyage 
made by Master James Welsh 
in 1588 is described. 1 The 
O. E. D., however, says that 
the ultimate origin is uncer- 
tain. For other derivations of 
the word, see Watt (The 
Comm. Prod, of India (1908), 
p. 496, 5. Dioscorea.] 
^ Injusti^a (injustice). Konk. 
injustis ; vern. terms anit, 
anydy. Tet. injustisa ; vern. 
term adti. 

Inocencia (innocence) . 

Konk. inoseths (1. us.) ; vern. 
terms anaparddh, nirmalpay,. 

i ["Their (of the people of Benin) 
bread is a kind of roots ; they call it 
inamia ; and when it is well sodden 
I would leave our bread to eat of it ; 
it is pleasant in eating, and light of 
digestion ; the roote thereof is as 
bigge as a man's arme. Our men 
upon fish- day es had rather eate the 
rootes with oyle and vinegar, then to 
eate good stockfish/' Hakluyt, 
Voyages (1904), Vol. VI, p. 457.] 

nentepaq,. Tet. inos6nsi ; vern. 
term la sdla. 

Instrumento (tool; musical 
instrument). Konk. instru- 
ment; vern. terms aspdv, 
yantr ; vazantr. Tet. instru- 

Inteiro (entire, whole). Mai. 
intero (Haex), intlru, enteiro, 
entfro, anttro; vern. terms 
sagolla , samuvdnya . Sund . 
antero. Jav. antero. Sa- 
antero, soanterone, wholly 

Inten^ao (intention). Konk. 
intemsdmv ; vern. terms man, 
yojan, bhdv. Gal. intensd. 

Irmao (brother) . Konk . 
irmdihv, elder brother ; vern. 
terms dadd, bdb (not used by 
the Christians of Goa); also 
used as an honorific suffix to 
names of persons older than 
the speaker, as for instance : 
A nton-irmdihv, Pedru irmdmv 
(lit. * Anthony brother, Peter 
brother'). Beng. irmdn (us. 
among the Christians). Jap. 
iruman t a friar. See mana. 

Jaca (the tree called by 
botanists Artocarpus integri- 
folia, and its fruit). Anglo- 




Ind. jack. Indo-Fr. jaque, 
jaquier. 1 

The original word is the 
Malayalam chakka. 2 [In Tamil 
the tree is called pila or 

Jagra (coarse sugar from 

1 " Fruits of the country (Calecut), 
which are different from ours, but 
very savoury, and some of them are 
called jacas, and others mangoes, and 
a third kind figs." Gas tan tied a, I, 
ch 16. 

"There were many fruits of the 
country, such as durians and jacas, 
dainties when once you take to them." 
JoSo de Barros, Dec. Ill, v, 7. 

2 " They are called in Malavar 
jacas.' 1 Garcia da Orta, Col. xxviii 
[ed. Markham, p. 235]. 

[" A oertaine fruite that in Malabar is 
called laca, in Canara and Gusurate, 
Panar and Panasa, by the Arabians, 
Panax, by the Persians, Fanax. This 
fruite groweth upon great trees, not 
out of the branches like other fruites, 
but out of the body of the tree, above 
the earth, and under the leaves." 
Linschoten, Voyage, Vol. IT, p. 20. 
Burnell, in a note, remarks that the 
fruit only is called chakka, the tree 
is called pilava in Malayalam.] 

[* Jacke trees, whose Fruitte grow- 
eth on the very body, stemme, or big- 
gest braunches of the tree. There bee 
some thatt Wey Near 40 pound 
waight, and in my opinion is the 
biggest Fruit thatt groweth on trees, 
as I thincke the Coootree bearest 
the biggest Nutte." Peter Mundy, 
Travels, Hak. Soo., Vol. I, p. 67.] 

cane juice or sap of various 
palms). Anglo-Ind. jaggery, 
jagri. Indo-Fr. jagra, jagara, 

The author of the Roteiro 
da Viagem de Vasco da Gama 
describes the article without 
giving it a name. "Four 
vessels containing some cheese- 
shaped cakes of palm-sugar." * 

1 " Palm sugar, which they call 
jagra." Duarte Barbosa, p. 274 
(Hak. Soc., ed. L. Dames, Vol. 1, p. 

Coco-nuts and jagra, which is 
produced from them, in the manner 
of sugar." Jo&o de Barros. Dec. Ill, 
iii, 7. 

" And this sugar (from the palm) 
is called, in India, jagra/* Jo&o dos 
Santos, Ethiopia Oriental, I, p. 297. 

[" Here {in Chaul) is great traffike for 
all sortes of spices and drugges, silke, 

and cloth of silke, sandales, 

and much sugar which is made of the 
nutte called Gagara." Fitch, in 
Foster's Early Travels, O.U.P. (1921), 
p. 13.] 

[They call it (wine) Raack (arrack), 
distilled from sugar and a spicie rinde 
of a tree, called Jagra. Terry, in 
Foster's Early Travels, p. 300.] 

[" Sugar and Jaggaree or Mulasso's 
made into Past." Fryer, East India, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 251.] 

[" Araok is a liquor distilled Several! 
ways, as Some out of the graine 
called Rice, another Sort from the 
Jagaree or Very coarse Sugar." 
Bowrey, p. 77 et aeq."} 




The immediate source-word 
is the Malayalam chakkara 
(of. jaca=chakka) 9 which is 
connected with the Sanskrit 
iarkard through the interven- 
tion of the Neo- Aryan forms 
idkar, sdkar, sdkhar. Refined 
sugar goes by the name of pan- 
chasdra in Malayalam. 

[The quotations above from 
Fitch and Terry will show 
what confused notions they 
had about ' jagri ' and the 
way it was prepared.] 

Jalapa (jalap root). Konk. 
zuldb. Kan., Tul. juldbu. 
Jap. yarapa. Perhaps imported 
directly from English in the 
last mentioned language. 

The word jalap comes from 
Xalapa, a Mexican city. 

In the sense of evacuation 
of the bowels in general and 
of a purgative: Mar., Guj., 
Beng. juldb. Hindust., Ar. 
juldb or julldb (Port, julepo, 
julep). Khas. julap. This i& 
derived from the PQTQ. gul. 
' rose ' and aft, * water '. 

In Konkani, Kanarese, and 
Tulu there has probably been 
a shifting of meaning in 
consequence of the phonetic 
similarities of the two words. 
Janela (window). Konk 

zanel ; vern. term khidki (1. us. 
in Goa). ? Hindust, jhil- 
miL Beng. janald, janald. 
Ass. jalangani. ? Sindh. 
jhirmiri. Sinh. janelaya, jane- 
le ; vern. terms kavaluva, sime- 
dura. Janelatiraya, a window- 
curtain, a window-blind. Tarn. 
janald, jannal. Jannal-pinnal, 
window-blind ; (fig.) confused, 
intricate, Malayal. janel, 
chenel, chendrel, janavatil ; 
vern. terms chdhl;am. Tel. 
janalu. ? Anglo-Ind. jillmill, 
Venetian shutters. Mai. jane- 
la, janald, jineld, jandela, 
jend&la, jindela ; vern. term 
tingkap. Sund. jandela. Jav. 
jendilo, jindelo. Mad. jinde- 
16. Bal. jendela, gendela. 
Mac., Bug. jandela. Tet. 
janela, jinela. Gal. janela. 

[With regard to the Anglo- 
Ind. Jill-mill, Yul^ also makes 
an alternative suggestion that 
it might be the Hindi jhilmild 
which seems to mean * spark- 
ing', and to have been applied 
to some kind of gauze. Possi- 
bly this may have been used 
for blinds, and thence transfer- 
red to shutters. This is also, 
according to Crooke, the view 
of Platts (A Diet, of Urdu, 
Classical Hindi, and English).} 




Jangada (a raft ; two boats 
lashed together, with a plank- 
ing laid across them). TuL_ 
jangdly,, jangaty, jangdry. 
Anglo-Ind. jangar. + *t 

Candido de Pigueiredo 
derives jangada from jangd 
(janga, according to other 
dictionary-writers), " a small 
vessel worked by oars in former 
times." But Yule and Bur- 
nell give as its source the 
Tamil-Malayal. shangadam, 
transcribed as zdngara in the 
Periplus Maria Erythrei, of the 
first century. Konkani and 
Marathi also have sangad in 
the same sense, derived from 
the Sansk. sahghafta^ ' junc^ 
tion, union, cohesion', which 
is without a doubt related to 
shangddam. Many of the old 
Portuguese writers regard the 
word as foreign. 1 

1 " Vasco da Qama sailed with our 
men in two almadias (' canoes '), 
which were fastened together, form- 
ing, what in that country is called, a 
jangada." Castanheda, I, ch. 16. 

&' They had constructed a jangada 
of pieces of wood, and of planks which 
were ready at hand, and fastened 
them with the ropes of the sails. '* 
Fernfto Pinto, ch. clxxix. 

" And Pulatecfio got aboard a 
jangada which was made up of 
many small boats fastened together 

[For the seven different 
acceptations in which jangada 
is employed by the old Portu- 
guese writers, see Glossario, 
p. 482, and Contributes etc., 
p. 138. Yule regards the 
term of particular interest as 
being one of the few 
Dravidian words, preserved in 
the remains of classical 
antiquity, occurring in the 
Periplus. But as the Malaya- 
lam changadam is, as has been 
noted above, affiliated to the 
Sansk. sanghatfa, (from the 
verb sanghaf), it is scarcely 
correct to regard jangada as 
a purely Dravidian word.] 

and boarded on top, enabling 800 
well armed men to cross over." 
Gaspar Correia, Lendas, II, p. 89. 

They crossed the river in jangadas 
made of timber and branches of trees 
which a Jew had gone in advance to 
get ready." Id., IV, p. 373. 

[" We therefore set out to look for a 
ford through the fierce current, but 
could find none, and so decided to 
make a janguada or raft of big logs 
firmly bound together with grass 
ropes." Manrique, Travels, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. I, p. 105. The editor Lt.-Col. 
Luard, hazards the opinion that 
janguada may be the Hindi word 
chaughada or changada, a raft made of 
bamboo frame supported on earthen 
pots, the Portuguese word being a 




There is another word jan- 
gada [in Anglo-Ind. jancada], 
of Malabar origin, which 
denotes a guide in the Nair 
country who escorted and 
guarded travellers from one 
place to another. 1 See under 

[This word too is from 
shangadam and its application 
to the Nair guides is derived 
from the ideal of the moral 
bond, close and indissoluble, 
between the guide and his 

Jantar (archaic form gentar ; 
to dine). Mai. sentar (Haex). 
Tet. jantar. 

Jaqueta (jacket). Konk. 
jaket. L.-Hindust. jaket. 
Jap. jaketsu. Hepburn men- 
tions chpkki as derived from 
the English ' jacket '. 2 

Jarra (a jar). Konk. jar; 

1 "A stranger requiring help in 
going from one part to another 
against robbers or highway men, 
when he comes across a Nair asks 
him to be his jangada, and for this 
service he gives him some money. . . . 
and, taking him as his jangada, 
goes perfectly secure. .. .without 
anybody troubling him." Diogo do 
Couto, Dec. IV, vii, 14. 

2 " Men with gilt halberds wearing 
jaquetas of black velvet. 9 ' Caspar 
Correia, I, p. 533. 

vern. terms barm, kundi. 
Tet. jara ; vern. term t6os. 
Gal. jara. 

Jaspe (jasper). Mai. jaspe, 

Dutch has jaspis. 

Jejuar (to fast). Konk. 
jinvdr (subst. m.), a fast. Cf. 
jogar, casar, pintar, pagar. 
The vern. terms are upas 
(starvation), ekbhakt (ecclesias- 
tical fast). Jinvdr dharunk, to 

The nasal of jinvdr is due to 
the Goa-Portuguese word 
jenjuar. The e after j becomes 
sometimes softened into i. Cf . 
gentio. The second j was 
absorbed by the nasal and was 
the cause of the u being 
changed into the consonant v. 

Jejum (a fast) . Tet. jinjum, 
dindum. Gal. jinjum, jijum, , 
to fast. Jap. jejur (arch.) 

Jibao (doublet, a kind of 
waistcoat.) Konk. zubdmv ; 
vern. terms jhubo, daglo. 
? Bug. jumba. Jap. jiban, 

| juban, * shirt ' | * 


1 " They wear a gibao of coloured 
satin." Castanheda, I, 91. 

"A jubao of rose-coloured satin, 
very short, and lined with blue 
taffeta." Gaspar Correia, II, p. 




The source of the Portu- 
guese word is the Arabic jubba, 
which passed directly into 
Hindustani and the other 
Indian languages. | Bluteau 
mentions the form jubfto. \ 

Jogar (in the sense of 
' a game of chance or game 
with stakes ; a raffle.') Konk. 
jugdr (us. outside Goa). Jugdr 
khel, game of chance with 
stakes. Jugdr -kheluhk, to 
gamble. Jugari, gambler. In 
Goa, the words jogo and 
jogador are used in the above 
sense of gambling ; vern. terms 
dudvancho khel ; khelgadyo. 

Mar. jugdr, juvd, juvebdji, 
juvd khelqem. Jugdr or juvd 
khelnem, to gamble. Jugari, 
jugaryd* juvebdj, gambler. 
Jugarachd or jugdryachd, 
juvydchd addd, gaming-house. 

Guj. jugdr, jugdru, juverh, 
jud, game with stakes. Jugdru 
dda, jugdr or jugat ramvum, to 
gamble. Jugari juvdkhor, 
jugdru aduvava, a gambler. 
Juvakhdnum, a gaming-house. 

Hindi jua, games of chance 
for money ; vern. term dyut. 
Jud khelnd* to gamble. Juari, 
juvari, juandi 9 a gambler. 

Hindust. jud, game of 
chance ; raffle. Jud khelnd, to 

gamble. Juakhand, a gaming- 
house. Juan, ju&bdj, a 

Nep. juvd, game of chance. 
Juvd khelnu, to gamble. 

Or. jua, game of chance. 
Juard, a gambler. 

Beng. jud, juvd-kheld, jud- 
kheld, juyd-kheld, jurd-kheld, 
game of chance. Juvd-kheld, 
juyd 'kheld, jurd-kheld kri 
( = ' to make ') , to gamble. 
Jud-chor, trickster, cheat. 
Juyari, jurdri, gambler. 

Ass. jud, game of chance. 
Jud kheld, to gamble. 

Sindh. jud, game of chance. 
Jud khelnu, to gamble. Jud- 
khano, gaming-house. Juari, 

Punj. jud, game of chance; 
dice. Jud khelnd, jud mama, 
to gamble. Jue-khand, gaming- 
house. Juari. juarid, juebdj, 
a gambler. Juebaji, game of 

? Sinh. sudu, suduva, sudu- 
keliya, sudu-kelima t game of 
chance. Sudu-kelinava, to 
gamble. Sudu-maduva, sudu- 
gedara, gaming-house. Sudu- 
m&saya, gaming-table. Suduva, 
&udu-kdiya, sudu-kelina, gamb- 

Tarn, jud, judd^am (dttam, 




game in general,' like khel 
in Neo- Aryan languages), game 
of chance. Judddi, j&dadikon, 
juddan, gambler. Judddu, 
jud-vilaiyddu, to gamble. 

Malay al. chudu-kali (kali, 
1 game in general '), chiidddum, 
game of chance. Chudaduka, 
chudu-kalike, to gamble. Chu- 
ddli, chudukdran, gambler. 1 

Tel. juddamu, game. Juada- 
mddu, to gamble. Juddari, 

Kan. jugdru, juju, game of 
chance. Jugdru ddu 9 jujddu 
(adu 9 'game in general'), to 
gamble. Jujugdra, jugdru 
aduvava, jujdduvava, jujunega, 
gambler. Jftjuna pade, set of 
players or gamblers. Jujuna 
koli, fighting-cock. 

Till, jugdry,, jugari, jugari- 
gobbundya, gambler. Jugari- 
gobbuni, to gamble. 

Gar. joa, game of chance, 
Joa kala, to gamble. 

Khas. juvari, game of 
chance ; gambler. 

MaL jogar, game of draughts. 
Ber-jogar, to play with 
draughts ; what is played with 

draughts. Juvdra, expert in 
the game, especially, of cock- 
fighting. Judi, game of dice, 
game of chance. Ber-judi, to 
gamble; gambler. Ach., Jav. 
judi. Batt. judi, game of 
chance. Erjudi, to play for 
money, to play with dice, to 
bet. 'Njudiken, to lose in a 
game of chance. Perjudin, 
gaming-house. Day. judo, lot, 
destiny. Mac., Bug. jugard, 
to gamble. 1 

Tet. juga, duka, doka, yoka, 
to gamble, game of chance ; 
vern. term halimar. Gal. 
juga, to gamble, also game. 

Molesworth derives the 
Marathi juva from the Hindus t. 
jud, which Shakespear derives 
from the Sansk. yuga (Lat. 

1 Malay alam does not retain, as 
a rule, the soft initial sounds of 
foreign vocables, and changes g, j, d f 
6, into k, ch, t, p. 

1 The game of tabula* (* back- 
gammon') was introduced into India 
by the Portuguese. T i Konkani : tdbl 
is ' dice '. Tablancho khel is ' game of 
dice.' T abler is * backgammon board.' 

" He found Ruy Dias, seated in the 
forepart of the ship, playing tauolas 
with the Captain Jorge Fogaca." 
Caspar Correia, II, p. 116. 'He was 
playing tauolas for heavy stakes 
which all of them used to win from 
him." Id., p. 284. "Manoel FalcSo 
ordered that they should go to him 
and play a game of tauolas, which 
they often used to do " (in the 
Moluccas). Diogo do Couto, Deo. IV, 
iv, 3. 




jugum, 'a yoke'), which 
signifies 'a yoke', and also 
' one of the ages of the world.' 
But Wilson, more plausibly, 
connects jud with the Sansk. 
dyuta, a game.' Reeve like- 
wise attributes to Sanskrit the 
Kanarese words, but does not 
mention their source-word. 
Favre, following Newbranner 
Van der Tuuck, connects the 
Malay judi with the Sansk, 
yodhl ; but he does not explain 
how the word, in passing over 
to Malay, lost its meaning of 
' warrior ' and acquired that of 
' game of dice and of chance ', 
seeing that, phonetically, yodhl 
oould give judi just as yoga, 
* union ' (if not yuga), gave 

The verb jogar, according to 
the regular law, became 
changed in the Portuguese 
dialects of Asia into jugd, 
which, with the loss of the 
intervocalic </, became jud or 
juvd. Cf. Hindust. jud, * a 
yoke', from the Sansk. yuga\ 
Mar. juld, 'twins', from the 
Sansk. yugala\ Konk. mui 
(or muy), ' ant ', from the Mar. 

The d that is to be found in 
some of the languages may 

have been intercalated in 
order to remove the hiatus, 
or makes its appearance 
because of the influence of 
jugador, or of the Sansk. 
dyuta, a game of chance ', the 
intervocalic t being changed 
into d. Cf. Konk. kapad, *a 
saree, or cloth which consti- 
tutes the main part of a 
woman's dress ', from the 
Sansk. karpata ; mad, { coco-nut 
palm ', from mahatala : chedo, 
* boy,' from chefa. 

It is, however, a matter for 
wonder that the Portuguese 
word should have penetrated 
so thoroughly into so many 
languages (in many of them, 
as is to be expected, mediately) , 
and produced so many forms. 

Games of chance, especially 
those of dice, have, in India, 
been indulged in from Vedic 
times, as is evidenced by : 
' The Lament of the Gambler ' 
(Rigveda, x, 34) 1 ; the dis- 
astrous contest of Yudhisthira ; 
and the celebrated episode of 

1 J. Muir translates the first 
strophe as follows (Original Sanskrit 
Texts) : 

These dice that roll upon the board 
To me intense delight afford. 
Sweet Soma- juice has not more power 
To lure me in an evil hour. 




Nala, one of the oldest and 
most beautiful in the Maha- 
bharata. The Yajurveda ironic- 
ally calls confirmed gamblers 
' pillars of the gaming-house ', 
sabhasthanu. Sir Arthur Mac- 
donell observes that the 
principal social recreation of 
men in Vedic times, when they 
came together, was the game of 
dice, which were made from 
the nuts of [the Vibhidaka 
tree] Terminalia bellerica. The 
moralists of that age held 
dice, wine, and wrath as the 
principal causes of sin. And 
Manu prohibits gaming, even 
as a pastime, and desires that 
the king should mete out to 
the gambler corporal punish- 

It is probable that the 
Portuguese introduced new 
games, and that either they or 
their descendants popularised 
the game of dice, which had 
fallen into disuse, thanks to 
civil and religious legislation. 
The word dado ('dice') has 
been adopted in Konkani, 
Sinhalese, Malay, Javanese, 
and Sundanese. 1 

The Sansk. dyuta could also 

1 See Lucena, Bk. Ill, ch. 12. 

have been corrupted into juda 
or judi. Of. Konk. uzo ' fire ', 
from Prakrit vijju, Sansk. 
vidyut, which also gave viz, 
lightning-bolt ', in Marathi 
and Konkani. And Bisndgar 
or Bisnaga, of the old Portu- 
guese chroniclers, is a corrup- 
tion of V ijayanagara ('City 
of Victory') or of Vidyanagara 
('City of Wisdom'), both 
names being applied to the 
capital of Narsinga. 

It appears that the Sinhalese 
sudu is in place of judu in the 
other languages and is derived 
from the Portuguese word. 
The Malayal. chudu does not 
present great difficulty. Cf. 
chenel, chenarel from Port. 
janela ('a window'), side by 
side with janel. Cf. also the 
Port, jaca from the Malayal. 
chakka ; jagra, from the 
Malayal. chakkara, Sansk. 

| Joia (jewel). Anglo-Ind. 
joy. "This seems from the 
quotation to have been used 
on the west coast for * jewel' " l 
Hobson-Jobson. \ 

l [1810 "The vanity of parents 
sometimes leads them to dress their 
children, even while infants, in this 
manner, which affords a temptation* 




Jornal (in the meaning of 
newspaper '). Konk. jornal ; 
phol is also used, from the 
Port, folha (* a sheet of paper'); 
vern. term vartamdnpatr. 
Tet. jorndl. 

>' Juiz (judge). Konk. juyiz ; 
vern. terms mansubiddr, niti- 
ddr. Tet. juiz, duiz. Gal. 
juiz, juis, duis. 

Julho (July). Konk, 
Julh. Mai. Julu. Tet., Gal. 

Junho (June). Konk. 
Junh. l Mai. Jun. Tet. ? 
Gal. Junho. 

Favre derives Jun from the 
English ' June ' ; but Marre 
prefers the Portuguese prove- 

Juramento (oath). Konk. 
jurament ; vern. terms pramdn, 
saputh. Tet., Gal. juramentu, 

Jurat (to take an oath). 
Konk. jurdr-zavunk ; vern. 
terms pramdn or Saputh 
divuhk. Tet. Gal. jura, to 
take an oath, oath. 

Juro (interest on money). 
Konk. jur ; juri (us. in Kanara); 

to murder these helpless crea* 

tures for the sake of their ornaments or 
joys." Maria Graham, 3, in Hobson- 

vern. terms kalantar, vddh, 
vydz. Tet., Gal., juru\ vern. 
term ddnik. 

Justi(a (justice). Konk. 
justis (us. only in Goa) ; vern. 
terms nit, nydy. Tet., Gal. 

Justo (just). Konk. just 
(adj. and adv.) ; vern. terms 
sarko, samko, barabar, thik. 
Mai. lusto ; vern. terms adil 
(from Ar.), pdtul, hdrus. 

It appears that lusto passed 
through an intermediate form 
*dusto. Cf. lidal, didal, from 
Portuguese dedal, ' a thimble ' 

La^o (tie, knot). Konk. Ids 
(1. us.) ; vern. terms phds 9 
kat. Tet. Idsu ; vern. term 

Lacre (a resinous incrusta- 
tion on certain trees produced 
by the lac insect). [Anglo-Ind. 
and Eng. lacre, lacquer, 
lacker. 1 ] Mac. lakdri; \ al- 
kdri, according to Wilkinson. | 

i [" Between these (havens) is one 
called Martaban whither come many 
ships. . . and obtain cargoes. . for 
the most part of laquar . . . this the 
Indians and Persians call laquar 
Martabam, " Martaban lac.'* Barbosa, 
ed. Dames, Vol. II, p. 158.] 

["From whence I went the same 




[The Port, lacre and its other 
variants laca, and alacre is the 
Sansk. laksa or raksa which 
became in Prakrit lakkha and 
in Hindi lakh from which the 
Anglo-Ind. ' lac ' is apparently 
derived. No form with the r, 
as there is in Portuguese, can 
be traced in any Indian lan- 
guage, and we must therefore 
conclude that the Portuguese 
form is directly responsible 
for the above English and 
Anglo-Indian words. 

Garcia da Orta (Col. XXIX) 
was perhaps the first European 
who critically examined and 
described lac in India, and 
Watt (The Gomm. Prod, oj 
India, p. 1054) says that he 
gives the properties and uses 
of both the dye and the resin 
in such detail that the passage 
may be quoted as from the 
pen of a 20th instead of 16th 
century writer.] 

Ladainha (litany) . Konk . 
ladin. Tet., Gal. ladainha. 

Lagarto (alligator), Anglo- 
Ind. alligator. Mai. lagdrti. 1 

day to a Moorman that cuts all sorts 
of Stones, except Diamonds, with a 
certain Wheel made of Lacre." 
Fryer, East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 284.] 

l " There are also in this kingdom 

[The Port, word, which is the 
same as the Spanish, is itself a 
corruption of the Lat. lacerta, 
4 a lizard.' The prefix al or, 
el bespeaks Spanish influence. 
The early European writers, 
both Portuguese and English, 
used the terms ' alligator ' and 
' crocodile ' promiscuously ; 
often, when they describe the 
alligator, they refer to it as 
being very much like the 
crocodile of the Nile.] 

(of Cananor) in some of the big rivers, 
very large lagartos which devour 
men." Duarte Barbosa, p. 344 [Hak. 
Soc., Vol. II, p. 83. Longworth Dames 
translates lagartos as lizards (which is 
etymologically correct) but notes that 
the word refers to crocodiles. For 
the various forms which this word 
took in the writings of the old 
chroniclers, see Hobson-Jobson.] 

" All along this River there were 
a great many lagartos, which might 
more properly be called Serpents." 
FernSo Pinto, Peregnnayao, ch. xiv 
[in Cogan's tr. 17]. 

"Very big largartos which in 
form and nature are just the croco- 
diles of the Nile." Jofto de Barros, 
Dec. I, iii, 8. 

"In which there are so many 
tagartos that, at times, they overturn 
little boats and get hold of the 
passengers." Gaspar Correia, II. 

["In this place I have seen very 
great aligartos (which we call in 
English crocodiles), seven yards long." 
Master Antonie Knivet, in Purchas, 
iv. 1228, cit. in Hobsan-Jobaon.] 



Lais (yard arm in a ship). 
L.-Hindust. Ids. 

| Lamina (thin metal 
plate ; also picture painted on 
copper). Konk. ldmn t framed 
picture. Mai. lamina. \ 

LSmpada (lamp). Konk. 
Idmpt (especially the sanctuary 
lamp). Hindust. lamp (pro- 
bably from English.) ? Sinh. 
Idmpuva ; vern. term pdna. 
Mai., Sund. Idmpu, Idmpo. ? 
Ach. lampo. ? Batt. Idmpu. 
Tet., Gal. Idmpa. 1 

Dr. Fokker attributes and 
it seems on good grounds the 
Malasian terms to the Dutch 
lamp. 2 The Japanese rampu 
is, I believe, derived from 

Lampiao (a lantern]. 
Konk. lampydmv. Tet., Gal. 

Lan^a (a lance). Sinh. 
lansaya, lanse ; vern. terms 
sellaya, hellaya. Gal. lansa. 

1 " With their altars, f rentals, cano- 
pies, and lampadas always lighted." 
Lucena, Bk. VI, oh. 6. 

2 " The loss of the final syllable of 
Idmpada I would explain in the last 
extremity by reference to its deriva- 
tion, seeing that it is impossible to 
admit in Malay a combination of 
three consonants like mpd ; neverthe- 
less it is more natural to expect that 
the source word is the Dutch lamp." 
Gongalves Viana. 

[In Pyrard's Dictionary of 
Some words of the Maldive 
Language (Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
pt. II, p. 414) occurs lancia as 
meaning * lance ' ; its modern 
equivalent is lonsi ; both terms 
are undoubtedly of Port, 

Lanceta (a lancet). Konk. 
lamset. Jap. ranseta. 

Lancha (a launch). Konk. 
Idnch (us. in Goa). Guj. 
lancha (us. in Damaun). Mai. 

[" Launch is a name for a 
boat picked up by Portuguese 
sailors in the East (it is 
probably of Malay origin), and 
handed on by them to Spanish 
sailors, from whom it was 
borrowed into English." 
Logan Pearsall Smith, Words 
and Idioms (1925), p. 17. 
This view is based on the 
O.E.D. which opines that 
launch is probably derived 
from Malay. Candido Figu- 
eiredo, in the Novo Diction- 
ario, refers it to Castilian 
lancha, Gon9alves Viana, an 
acknowledged authority on 
the influence of Portuguese on 
Malay vocabulary, does not 
dispute in his Apostilas Figuei- 
redo's derivation of the word. 




Spanish dictionaries trace 
lancha to Lat. planca. Wilkin- 
son (Malay Eng. Diet.) derives 
the Malay lancha from Portu- 
guese. On the other hand, 
the Portuguese dictionaries of 
Lacerda, Morais, and of Edu- 
ardo Paria, are inclined to con- 
nect the Port, word with the 
East. The Diccionario Con- 
temporaneo, at present regard- 
ed as most authoritative, how- 
ever, says that the derivation 
of the word is uncertain. The 
early Portuguese writers speak 
of lanchara (the correct Malay 
form is lancharan, ' a swift 
ship of war, a kind of Malay 
cruiser'), lanchuem ('a light 
and small Chinese vessel ') , and 
also lantea (' a large oared 
barge or cargo boat ') , and it is 
not surprising if the Portu- 
guese lexicographers were led 
to assume that lancha was 
either a contraction or trans- 
formation of one of these 
terms. Yule says that he 
cannot identify lantea, but 
Dalgado (Olossario) seems to 
think it is the Malay lantey 
' a storey or raised place,' 
which the lantea would be sure 
to have. Malay owes her 
names for several kinds of 

ships, not to speak of many 
naval and sea-faring terms, to 
Portuguese. See fragata, 
fusta, gale, galeao.] 

[Lanchara (a small swift 
oar-boat mentioned by Portu- 
guese chroniclers of the 16th 
and 17th centuries). Anglo- 
Ind. lanchara. 

The original of the Port, 
word is the Malay lancharan* 
* rapid, swift.' Wilkinson 
has pVrahu lancharan, ' swift 
vessel.' See O.E.D.] 

Lanchao (a lighter, barge). 
Mai. lanchong, \ lanchang. \ 

Lanol (abed-sheet). Smb. 
lansoluva. Tet., Gal. lensol. 

[ The form lan$ol is not to 
be found in the Port, dic- 
tionary C ontemporaneo ; the 
more usual form is lenqol.] 

[Lanha (coco-nut when it 
is not quite ripe and, there- 
fore, tender and soft). Anglo- 
Ind. lanho lagne, lanha (obs.). 1 

1 [ " When this Coquo is green it is 
called Elevi in Malayalam, and here 
in Goa lanha " Orta, Col. XVI, ed. 
Markham, p. 140.] 

[" As I was taking leave of the King, 
he caused to be presented to me, . . . 
and delivered to my Servants to carry 
home, four Lagne, (so they in India, 
especially the Portugals, call the 
Indian Nuts before they be ripe, when, 




The Port, form is the Tamil- 
Malayalam ilanir, < milk of a 
tender coco-nut,' from ilanir- 
kkay, ila = * tender,' nlr = 
* water,' and kay = t fruit.' In 
Malayalam ilarilr is also ' the 
tender coco-nut. ' Tender coco- 
nuts were much in use in the 
old Portuguese fleets because 
of the abundance of sweet and 
refreshing water they con- 
tained. They are even to-day 
sold in large numbers in 
Bombay, on the Esplanade 
and on Chowpatty. Lanha is 
not in Hobson-Jobson, but an 
allusion is made to it in a note 
on p. 874, under 'Sura'. 

instead of Pulp, they contain a sweet 
refreshing water which is drunk for 
delight." Delia Valle, Trawl*, Hftk. 
Soc., Vol. II, p. 336.] 

[" But first he (the King of Gale- 
cut) caused many bunches of Indian 
Figs and Lagne to be brought and 
presented to us." Idem, p. 375.] 

[" Sometimes they gather the cocoa 
fruit before it comes to perfect 
maturity, and then it is called 
*Lanho'". Mandelslo quoted by 
Grey, editor of Delia Valle, in note to 
passage on p. 336 given above.] 

["When grown (the coco-nuts) to 
the size of twenty- eight up to thirty 
inches round, and as much in length, 
they are called lanha. The nut is 
then full of a sweet water, a drink of 
which is very refreshing." Manucci, 
Travels, ed. Irvine, Vol. Ill, p. 186.] 

There, Yule conjectures that 
it might be Tarn, lanha, but 
Dalgado (Glossario, note s.v.) 
says that there is no such 
word in that language. The 
word is not in the O.E.D.] 

Lanterna (a lantern.) 
Konk. lantern. Beng. lan- 
iard. Sinh. lanteruma, lante- 
rema. Tarn., Malay al. lantar. 
Tel. Idntaru, landaru. 
Kan. Idntaru. Tul. landaru. 
Khas. linten (perhaps from 
English). Mai. lanterna, Ian- 
tera. Sund., Mac., Bug. Ian- 
tera. Jav., Mad. lantero. 

Lapis (pencil ; crayon) . 
Konk. laps ; vern. term 
chim. Tet., Gal. lapis. 

Largo (broad, wide, open). 
L.-Hindust. largd. Largd bulin 
rakhnd, to sail full, to gain 
the offing. 

Lascarim (in the sense of 
'an Indian soldier'). ? Konk. 
laftkari. Anglo-Ind. lascar. 1 

The source-word is the 

* ' ' A thousand lasquarys on 

foot Lasquarys on horseback." 

Lembrancas das Cousas da India, 
p. 37. 

"That in the said Kingdom there 
should be no class of fighting men, 
called lascarins, except in the 
service of the King. 1 ' Simfio 
Botelho Tombo, p. 83. 




Persian laahkari from Ioshkar, 
* an army '. 

[Yule remarks : " The word 
lascar or lascar (both these pro- 
nunciations are in vogue) ap- 
pears to have been corrupted, 
through the Portuguese use of 
Idshkari in the forms lasquarin, 
lascari, etc., either by the 
Portuguese themselves, or by 
the Dutch and English who 
took up the word from them, 
and from these laskar has 
passed back again into native 
use in this corrupt shape." 
The early Portuguese writers 
distinguished between lascar 
and lascar im. The former 
they used in the sense of * an 
Indian seaman or marine', 
perhaps, because in the 
Indian languages laskar was 
used as a collective noun to 
denote ' the entire crew '.* 

1 [" With the exception of some 
who go out in their own vessels or 
in those of His Majesty as masters 
and pilots, the entire crew of the 
ships consists of Mohammedans who 
are called Las chares." Lucena, Life 
oj St. Francis , Bk. IV, ch. 1.] 

[' Where the Portuguese are well 
received, they associate with the 
natives , and join in their voyages ; 
yet all the mariners and pilots are 
Indians, either Qentiles or Mahome- 
tans. All these seamen are called 

The later they used in the 
sense of 'a land soldier', now 
designated by the term 'sepoy '. 
There is one other meaning 
given by them to lascar when 
the term is used with reference 
to Bengal, viz., that of ' a 
governor of a city V In this 
meaning there appears to be 
a latent suggestion that lascar 
or lascari is employed to 
denote * the commander of an 
army ', much in the same way 
as the Sansk. senapati, which 
literally means ' lord of the 
army,' is used. See Glossario. 

Lascar, and the soldiers Lascar its." 
Pyrard de Laval, Hak. Soc., Vol. I. 
p. 438.] 

1 [" Within the gates he (the King 
of Bengal) employs eunuchs who in 
course of time come to occupy im- 
portant positions and become gover- 
nors of cities who in the language of 
the country are called lascares." 
Castanheda, IV, 37, cit. in Qlossario.] 

[" When the governor (of Chatig&o), 
who is called Lascar, heard of this . . ." 
Dami&o de Gois, Chronica de D. 
Manuel, IV, ch. 27, cit. in Glossario.] 

["On its (a parley) being granted 
they told us, on behalf of their 
Lascor, or Captain General, to have 
no misgivings as their King had no 
wish to break or violate the treaties 
made with the Portuguese of the City 
of Ugulim." Manrique, Travels, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. I, p. 15.] 




Manrique (Travels, ed. Col. 
Luard) employs a compound 
form La scour usil l which the 
editor surmises might be a 
corruption of la&kar-aswar. 
Lascarin or Lascoreen, in the 
sense of a l soldier,' is still 
current in Ceylon where the 
Portuguese influence was very 
intense. 2 Gray (Pyrard, Tra- 
vels, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 438, 
n.) says it means ' a native 
gunner ', or 'a trooper of the 
Governor's native body- 

Lata (tin ; tin-box). Konk. 
Idt ; more in use is pholinh, 
derived from the Portuguese 
folha, a sheet. Tet., Gal. 

Lzaro (a lazar; a leper). 
Sinh. lasuru. Ldduru, leprosy. 8 

Ladru for ' Lazarus ' (proper 
name) is used in Konkani. 

Lebre (hare). Nic. Uvere. 
See cobra. 

1 [' First came the Lascorusil, 
that is the captain of the cavalry escort 
and of the eunuch swordsmen." Hak. 
Soc., Vol. I, p. 373.] 

2 [" A large open boat formed 
the van, containing his Excellency's 
guard or lascoreens. " Cordiner, 
Ceylon, 170, in O. E. D.] 

" To the lazaros he would himself 
give the most Holy Communion." 
Lucena, Bk* II, ch. 2. 


Lei (law). Konk. ley\ vern. 
terms nydy, Icaydo, nem. Tet. 
lei ; vern. term lia fuan. Gal. 
lei ; vern. term limusan. 

Leilao (auction sale) . Konk. 
ley Idrkv ; vern. term pavni. 
Mar. lildmv, lildm, nildm. 
Guj. lildm, nildm. Hindi 
nildm, nildm. Hindust., Or. 
nildm. Nep. ll lam. Beng. 
nildm, nildm, nildmd. Ass. 
lildm. Sindh. nildmu, nil- 
dmu. Punj. laldm, nildm. 
Tarn, elam. 1 Malayal. lelam, 
elam. Tel. lelam, ydlam , 
yalam, yilamu. Kan. leylam, 
lildmu, ydlam, yelamu. Tul. 
leildmu, yelamu, yelamu. 
Anglo-Ind. leelam, neelam. 
Gar. Ham. Bur. lay-Ian. 
Khas. lilam, nilam. Die 
lilam, to sell at an auction. 
Siam. leldng. Mai. lelan, 
lelon, lelong. Ach., Batt., 
Sund., Jav., Mac., Bug., 
lelang. Day. lelang. Tet., 
Gal. leila, lel&. Chinese of 
Canton y&long. Amoy lelang. 
Swatow loylang. 

LeylamMr (Konk.), lildmv- 
karnard, lildm-v&ld, [lifamdar, 
lilamvdar.] (Mar.) , lildm- 
karndr (Guj.), nildm-karnd, 

See fonpo, and the note to it. 




nllam-vald (Hindi, Hindust.), 
nllangar (Hindi), nlldm-kari- 
vdld (Beng.) , yalamgdra, 
ydlam-hakuvara (Kan.) , an 
auctioneer. Void (Hindi- 
Hindust.) means ' agent, man 
of, and is equivalent to the 
Portuguese suffix-dor and 

Lalami, bought at an 
auction sale (Punj.). Yalam- 
chUu, a lottery ticket. Yalam- 
vigufa, to sell by auction 
(Telugu) . Nglelong, ngleng- 
lanq, to place in an auction. 
Ngligan gake, negfa langaken, 
to put up for sale, to sell 

With regard to the change 
of I into n, cf. nimbu and 
limbu (' lemon ') , ndngar and 
Idngar (' anchor ') , ndchdr and 
Idchdr ('indigent, wretched'); 
and the Portuguese laranja 
from the Ar. naranj, Spanish 
naranja. l 

Candido de Figueiredo says 
that the origin of leildo is 
uncertain. Brown gives as 
its probable derivation the 

* This was also the case in the 
following : lembrar < nembrar, < Latin 

[Lembrar in Port., and memorare 
in Latin =< to remember '.] 

Arabic al-i^lam, "proclama- 
tion, advertisement, notice, 
placard ", which, according to 
Belot, signifies " to stamp, to 
distinguish with a sign." 

Auction -sales took place 
very largely among the Portu- 
guese, when one of them died 
or was transferred from one 
place to another. The Dutch 
traveller Linschoten (1698) is 
a witness to the fact that 
even the effects of a Viceroy 
were disposed of by auction. 
There were in the city of Goa 
signboards with the following 
inscription "The auction-sale 
which is held every morning 
in the Rua Direita ('The 
Straight Street ') of Goa." l 

1 "Gil Fernandas de Carvalho 
received them and soon had them set 
up in the market place (of Cochin) 
where they hold leilSes ' (' auctions '). 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. VI, x, 9. 

[The following is the passage in 
Linschoten (Hak. Soc., I, 184) referred 
to above ; " In Goa there is holden a 
daylie assemblie, as wel of the 
Citizens and Inhabitants, as of all 
nations throughout India, and of the 
countries bordering on the same, which 
is like the meeting upon the burse in 
Andwarpe, yet differeth much from 
that, for that hether in Goa there 
come as well Gentlemen, as marohants, 
and there are all kindes of Indian 
commodities to sell, so that in a 




Lenf o (a handkerchief) . 
Konk. lems ; vern. term rumdl, 
urmdl (1. us. in this meaning 
in Goa). Sinh. lemsuva ; vern. 
terms redikadd, indulkadd. 
Tarn, ilansi. 1 Malay al. lanchi, 

manner it is like a Faire. This meeting 
is only before Noone, everie day in 
the yeare, except Sondayes and holie 
dayes : it beginnebh in ye morning at 
7, and continueth till 9, but not in 
the heate of the day, nor after Noone, 
in the principal str4ete of Citie, 
named the straight streete, and is 
called the Ley Ion, which is as much 
to say. as an outroop . . . There are 
also Arabian horses, all kinde of 
spices and dryed drugges, sw^et 
gummes, and such like things, fine 
and costly coverlets, and many 
curious things, out of Cambaia, Sinde, 
Bengala, China, etc.... And when 
any man dieth, all his goods are 
brought thether and sold to the last 
pennieworth, in the same outroop, 
who soever they be, ye although 
they were the Viceroyes' goods: and 
this is done to doe right and justice 
unto Orphanes and widdows, and that 
it may be sold with the first (* at 
the dearest '). . . .The like assemblie is 
holden in all places of India where the 
Portingales inhabite." In the original 
edition there is a very interesting and 
vivid copper-plate illustration of 
the market place and an auction sale 
in the ' Straight Street ' in the city of 

1 " No old Dravidian word can 
commence with I or r. Hence r&ja, 
a king, becomes commonly erasd, 
I6ka, ulagam." Oaldwell. 

-Tul. lesu, lesu. Mol. 
-llic. Ieu6e. Tet., Gal. 



Ler (to read). Mol. 
(Schuohardt). Tet. le. 

In the Portuguese dialect of 
Ceylon les is used for ' ler'. 

Lestes (ready). Sinh. lesti, 
lestiya. Lesti-karaqava, to get 
ready, to prepare. 

Lesto (light, brisk, ready). 
Mai. listro (Schuehardt). 

Letra (alphabetic letter ; 
also bill of exchange). Konk. 
letr ; vern. terms ak6ar or 
akher ; hundi (a commercial 
bill). Tet., Gal. letra. Letra 
konta, an arithmetical number. 

Levantar (to raise ; to 
lift). Mai. levantar, "to rebel, 
to raise one's self " (Haex). 1 

Liao (lion). Malayal. leyam, 
sign of the Zodiac (Gund- 
ert). Mai. liao\ mentioned 
in an unpublished vocabulary 
of the Malay language ; vern. 
term singa (from Hindust.). 
Tet. liao. 

Li^ao (lesson). Konk. 

1 " With this army he (the King of 
Benametapa) goes about subduing 
kings who have risen (que se 
levantaom) or would rise (alevantar) 
against their lord.'* Duarte Barbosa, 
p. 235 [Hak. Soc., ed. Dames, Vol. I, 
p. 13]. 




lisdrtiv; vern. terms pdjh, 
dhadd. Tet., Gal. lisa ; vern. 
term handnun. 

Licen? a (permission) . 

Konk. lisefas; vern. term 
raja. Mai. licensa (Haex). 
Tet., Gal. lisensa. 

Lima (bot., the fruit of the 
small Citrus medica). Anglo- 
Ind. lime. 

[The Portuguese word is 
itself derived from the Ar. 
U ma. Yule believes that ' lime ' 
probably came into English 
from the Portuguese in India, 
but the O.E.D. says that the 
English word is an adaptation 
of Fr. lime = modern Port. limo. 
This is evidently a mistake, for 
limo in Port, is a. plant of the 
algae family which has no 
connection with that of the 

Limao (hot., Citrus medica, 
var. Limonum, Hooker ; 
lemon). Konk. limbo, nimbo, 
nimbu. Mar. limbu, nimbu. 
Guj. limbu, limbu. Hindi 
nlbu. Hindust. limu, lemu, 
nimbu. Or. lemu, * nemu, 
nimu. Beng. lebu. Ass. 

nemfy. Sindh. llmd. Llmai, 
limad (adj.), that which has 
the colour of lemon. Punj. 
nimbu. Tel. nimma. Kan. 

limbe, nimbe. Tul. limbe. 
? Siam. manao. Mai. limon 
(Haex), liman, limdn, limun. 
Sund. limo. Day. liman. 
Mac., Bug. limo. \ Turk. 

Limbi, nimbi (Konk.); Urn- 
bun, nimbun, limbuni, nimbuni, 
limboni, nimboni (Mar.) ; 
limbudi (Guj.), the lemon- 

The Portuguese word comes 
from the Arabic leimun, or 
limun (Pers. limu), which, in 
its turn, comes from India, 
Sansk. nimbuka. It appears 
that from this last are derived 
almost all the Indian forms, 
the n being changed into /. 

[Mr. Skeat writes: "The 
Malay form is liman, ' a lime, 
lemon, or orange'. The Port* 
limao may possibly come from 
this Malay form. I feel sure 
that limau, which in some dia- 
lects is limar, is an indigenous 
word which was transferred 
to Europe." The Ency. Brit. 
(Uth ed.) says that the lemon 
which seems to have been 
unknown to the ancient Greeks 
and Romans was introduced 
by the Arabs into Spain 

i"Figs, oranges, limdes, cu- 
cumbers.* 1 Gaspar Correia, I, p. 605. 




between the 12th and 13th 
centuries. In 1494 the fruit 
was cultivated in the Azores, 
even then subject to Portugal. 
After all this evidence, it is 
scarcely credible that the 
Portuguese should have deriv- 
ed limao from Malay. The 
O.E.D. traces 'lemon' to the 
Arabic leimun ; there is, there- 
fore, all the more reason for 
assuming that the Portuguese 
also derived the word from 
the same source. 

But is leimun an Arabic 
word and is it correct to 
hold the view generally 
accepted that the lemon is 
indigenous to Arabia? Or is it 
more correct to hold with 
V. Hehn, quoted by Yule, 
that the fruit and its name 
leimun are of Indian origin ? 
It would appear to us that the 
citations furnished by Prof. 
S. H. Hodivala (Notes on 
Hobson-Jobson in The Indian 
Antiquary, Vol. LVIII, 1929) 
go to prove conclusively that 
the Arabs became acquainted 
with the lemon only in the 
10th century and it was then 
known in Sindh as laimun. 1 ] 

i [c. 951. "The land of Mansura 
(in Sindh) also produces a fruit of the 

Lingua (an interpreter). 
Anglo-Ind. linguist (obs.). 1 

Even at the present day 
there is an official in Goa who 
is called the lingua do estado, 
i.e., ' the official interpreter '. 

Linguifa (thin sausage). 
Konk. lingis. Hindi, Hindust, 
languchd ; vern. term kulmd. 
Sinh. linguyis, lingus. 

Lista (roll; list). Konk. 
list ; vern. terms patfi, &ivdi, 
patrak, khardo. Malayal. 

size of the apple, which is called 
Laimtin and is exceedingly sour." 
Kitabu-l-aqdlim of Istakhri, Tr. in 
Elliot and Dow son, History of India, 
I, 27.] 

[See also Ibn Hankal, Ashkdlu-l- 
bildd (c. 976). Ibid., p, 35.] 

1 "Ready to listen to all that the 
lingua was recapitulating to them." 
Jofto de Barros, Dec. I, iii, 2. 

" To a lingua of the factory at Goa 
two pardaus (q.v.) monthly." SimSo 
Botelho, Tombo da India, p. 63. 

"And as lingua there was one 
Antonio de Noronha." Antonio 
Tenreiro, Itinerario, ch. ii. 

[" He commaunded all his owne 
people out of the roome leaving none 
but Mr. Wight, John Tucker, linguist, 
and my self e." The English Factories 
in India (1618-1621), ed. Foster, 
p. 73.] 

[ He (the President of the Bombay 
Council) has his Chaplains, Physician, 
Chyrurgeons, and Domestioks; his 
Linguist and Mint-Master." Fryer, 
East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 178.] 




It**.- Tnl. listu, U6tu.~- \ Mai. 
Us. | Tet., Gal. lista. 

Gundert refers the Malayal- 
am word to the English ' list '. 

Livrar (to deliver, to set 
free). Konk. livrdr-karunk 
(1. us.) ; vern. term vafavuhk. 
Tet. lima ; vern. term sdri. 

Livre (free). Konk. livr 
(1. us.) ; vern. terms svadhin, 
sut, sud. Tet. livri; vern. 
term isin-leeti. 

Livro (a book). Konk. 
livr] vern. terms pustak, 
granth.M&\. libro (Haex) ; 
vern. term kitdb (Ar.) ; buku 
also is used from the Dutch 
boek or the English ' book '. 
Nic. lebare, book, letter, 
paper. An6t-lebare, pen, 

pencil. Peniiva-anet-l6bare, 
ink. Karm-lebare, to read. 
Et-et-lebare, to write *. Tet., 
Gal. livru. 

Loba (soutane). Konk. 
I6b. Tarn, lobei. 2 

1 In Nicobarese, the compound 
consonant is done away with either 
as the result of extension or suarabacti 
(of. livare from Port, lebre, 'hare') 
and the final o is replaced by e (of. 
lente, from Port. len$o t handker- 

2 "The priest was carrying with 
him one loba of black camlet." 
Fernfto Pinto, ch. ccix. 

Loiga (plates, dishes). 
Konk. loys. Tet,, Gal. loisa. 

Loja (ground-room ; shop). 
Konk. loz ; vern. terms kothi, 
kothdr, mdnd, pasro, angad. 
Indo-Fr. loje. Mai., Jav., 
Mac,, Bug. 16 ji, warehouses, 
big shops, fortresses. 

Matthes derives logi from 
the Dutch loge, Ci a hut, room, 
cabin"; but the meanings of 
loji are more like those of the 
Portuguese than of the Dutch 
word. 1 

[PLorcha (a small kind 
of trading vessel used in China) . 
Anglo-Ind. lorcha. 2 

"To spread over the bed of Nuno 
da Cunha, a coverlet of velvety 
crimson satin, and he to wear an open 
loba of camlet." Jo&o de Barros, 
Dec. iv, viii, 5. 

1 "He (D. Fernando) was ordered 
to be placed in the logea of the tower 
of Banastarim in a very small house." 
Gaspar Correia, Lendas, II, p. 319. 
"All the people used to retire to the 
loglas of the towers, in which they 
found themselves very crowded." Id., 
p. 899. 

2 j> In this ill-fated storm two 
junks were lost, and one lorcha, or 
lanted, in which more than hundred 
persons perished." F. M. Pinto, 
PeregrinoQftOt oh. 62, cit. in Oloasario.'] 

[" The lorcha 'Arrow ', employed in 
the river trade between Canton and 
the mouth of the river, commanded 
by an English captain and flying 




" Giles explains it as having 
a hull of European build, but 
the masts and sails Chinese 
fashion, generally with a 
European skipper and a 
Chinese crew. The word is 
said to have been introduced 
by the Portuguese from 
S. America (Giles, 81). But 
Pin to 's passage (Peregrinacao 
(1540), ch. xlii, Cogan's tr., 
p. 50, cit. in Hobson-Jobsori) 
shows how early, the word was 
used in the China seas, a fact 
which throws doubt on that 
view." The O.E.D. quotes 
Cobden, Speeches (1878), 370: 
" A vessel called a lorcha 
which is a name derived from 
the Portuguese settlement at 
Macao..." Dalgado (Glossario) 
thinks it quite possible that 
lorcha is a corruption of long- 
chuen, a description of which 
he quotes from T. B. du Halde 
(Description Geographique, etc., 
1735, I, p. 189): -For this 
feast small barks, long and 
narrow, all gilt are got ready ; 
they carry at one end the 

an English flag, had been boarded 
by a party of Mandarims and their 
escort while at anohor near Dutch 
Folly." Boulger, History of China, 
1884, iii. 396, cit. in Hobson-Jobson.] 

figure of a dragon and, on this 
account, they are called Long 
tchuen." Crooke quotes a 
suggestion that lorcha may be 
the Port, lancha, the English 
' launch '.] 

Lotaria (lottery). Konk. 
loteri. Sinh. lottareya, lota- 
ruyiya. See sorte. 

Louvado (in the sense of 
4 an expert, an arbitrator'). 
Konk. lovdd. Mar., Guj. 
lavdd. The Neo- Aryan terms 
are panchdtkdr, panchdiddr , 
madyasth, madesth, dkdri, 
dmin. Anglo-Ind. lawad. 1 

Lavddi (subst.), the office 
of an arbitrator; (adj.) 
relating to an arbitrator or 
an arbitration. Lavddichd 
nivddd, opinion of an 
umpire, arbitration. Lavddi- 
hukumndmd, arbitration deed 

Lavddi, opinion of an 
arbitrator, arbitration. Lava- 
dichu kdv6 9 arbitration (Guj). 

['Lawad' as an Anglo- 
Indian term is not mentioned 
by Yule and Burnell, but 
finds a place in Whitworth's 

1 For they were agreed about 
having their case settled by louvados 
('arbitrators')." JoSo de Barros, 
Dec. III. i, 9. 




Anglo-Indian Dictionary which 
assigns it to Marathi. Besides 
giving it the meaning of k an 
arbiter' and ' an umpire,' the 
author says it is the name of 
some arbitration courts lately 
established in Poona and some 
other districts to decide civil 
claims without the expense 
of resorting to the courts esta- 
blished by government. As 
arbitration courts are, at the 
present time, claiming an 
unusual amount of interest, it 
is, we trust, not irrelevant to 
describe the constitution of the 
4 Lawad Courts ': " A set of 
rules has been framed defining 
the constitution and function 
of the courts. The members 
are drawn for the most part 
from the class of pleaders, 
traders, and retired govern- 
ment officials. They agree to 
serve as arbiters in turn for 
a week at a time. They receive 
no remuneration. The arrange- 
ments of the court are in the 
hands of a secretary, who, 
in each week, chooses two 
members to act as umpires. 
Each court has a staff of 
clerks and messengers. To 
meet this expense fees are 
charged. But these are very 

moderate, amounting to not 
more than one-third of the 
cost in the ordinary subor- 
dinate civil courts" (Bombay 
Administration Report for 
1876-77, in Whitworth). 

Luminarias (illumination 
on occasions of public rejoic- 
ing). Konk. lumindd; vern. 
terms dlpavqli^ dipochav. 
Tet., Gal. lumindri. ^ ** < 

Luto (mourning). Konk. 
lut (1. us.) ; vern. terms duhkh, 
kalem. Tet. lutu. (\'\ f 

Luva (glove). Konk. luv. 

Tet., Gal. luva. , 

f \ 


Maga (apple). Sinh. masan. 

[Macar6u (the name given 
to dangerous tides and to the 
phenomenon of the bore or 
tidal wave in certain seas 
and rivers). Anglo-Ind. ma- 
careo. 1 ? French macree, 

1 [" Sailing from these ports is very 
dangerous for keeled ships, because 
being at the top of the tide the water 
here runs so far in the gulf that, in 
a very short space of time, four or five 
leagues are left bare, more in some 
places and less in others, and when 
there is a flowing tide it flows so 
strongly that they say a man running 
at full speed cannot escape it/' 




mascaret (used for the bore in 
the Seine) . 

This is what the author 
has to say about this curious 
word in his Olossario : ''The 
origin of this word is not quite 
clear. It is generally sup- 
posed to be the Sansk. makara, 
the name of a mythological 
monster, and also of the 
zodiacal sign Capricorn. This 
designation would not be at 
all inapt if the monster were 
regarded as the author of the 

" But none of the Indian 
languages actually employs 
the term makara to denote 
the phenomena referred to. 

Duarte Barbosa, ed. Dames, Vol. I, p. 

[" T was advised by the people of 
the place to unload the ships, so that 
they might be light when the flood tide 
came, for they would be destroyed 
if they were laden and had to meet 
the full force of the macareo." 
Castanheda, Historic*, VIII, ch. 107, in 

["The sea-coast in some parts of 
this kingdom (of Cambay) extends 
over two and three leagues, and with 
the flood tide there comes a wind with 
such suddenness that a man, no 
matter with what speed he runs, can- 
not save himself from the macareo." 
DamiSo de G6is, Chronica de D. 
Manuel, III, ch. 64.] 

There are other names 
employed to do this, like 
Ohora ('The Horse') in 
Gujarati, Mendha ('The 
Ram ') in Hindi, and it is, 
therefore, not unlikely that 
formerly in some part of 
India makara, which ordinarily 
means 'a crocodile,' had been 
used to designate this pheno- 

k< Yule, however, throws 
doubt on this explanation 
because French has macree 
and mascaret , in addition to 
barre, evidently the same as 
the English * bore '. But there 
is no evidence to show that 
these words have existed prior 
to the Portuguese discoveries 
in the East, because no au- 
thorities earlier than the six- 
teenth century are quoted. 
The etymology of these words 
is unknown. Littre does not 
suggest any which appears 
plausible. He does not give 
reasons for the diversity of 
forms or for their existence 
side by side with barre, which 
is supposed to be older. Nor 
is there any explanation to 
show how it is that the French 
word crossed over to India, 
if, to judge from the accounts 




of the Portuguese chroniclers, 
the phenomenon and its name 
were unknown in Portugal. 

" Gongalves Viana (in 
Paleatras Filologicas) has 
pointed out most clearly that, 
phonetically or morphologi- 
cally, neither macree nor 
mascaret could be converted 
into macareu, and he came to 
the conclusion that " the three 
vocables, mascaret, macree, and 
macareu are independent of 
each other, and that their 
formal and phonic coinci- 
dences are merely fortuitous." 

"I am almost convinced, 
however, that the French 
changed the Port, macareu, 
first, into the form macree, 
and, afterwards, into the more 
cultured mascaret, in the same 
way as they changed the 
Portuguese pateca (q.v.) into 
pasteque ; mordexim (#.#.) 
into mort-de-chien ; bicho do 
mar (q.v.) into biche-de-mer ; 
pan de dguila (see aguila) into 
bois d'aigle. Jancigny * would 

1 ["The mouth (of the Setang, in 
Bvuma) is obstructed by banks of 
sand, and the maquerie (bore) is so 
terrible, that the navigation of this 
river is wholly impossible for large 
ships and difficult for smaller ones." 

not have used in 1854 

rie, if the other forms had 

been well-known in his time. 

" . . . . The explanation that I 
would offer with regard to this 
term is that the people of 
Cambay might have told the 
Portuguese, eager to know 
the cause of this strange 
happening, that it was due to 
the makaro (the vulgar form 
in Gujarat) who came to 
devour ships and men, for 
in popular tales similar per- 
formances are ascribed to the 

Though the name, in the 
vernacular form magar, is 
given to the crocodile, the 
Makara, the fabulous sea- 
serpent, the vehicle of Varuna, 
the god of the ocean, is 
represented in sculpture with 
the head and forelegs of an 
antelope, and the body and 
tail of a fish. If the forelegs 
of the antelope are intended 
to connote speed, and the tail 
of the fish the marine charac- 
ter of the monster, might not 
the bore, the special feature 
of which is the rapidity of its 
approach, have appropriately 

Jancigny, lndo-Chine, p. 295, in 




suggested to the popular 
imagination the picture of this 
monster ? Longworth Dames 
(in Duarte Barbosa, Vol. I, 
p. 138) has collected the more 
important references to the 
bore or macareu in the Gulf of 
Cambay from as early as the 
Periplus down to Forbes in 
his Has Mala. Heber (in his 
Journal of a Narrative, 1828, 
Vol. I, p. 81) describes a bore 
on the Ganges.] 

Machila (' a sort of a 
hammock-litter used as a 
substitute for palanquin'). 
Konk. machil, manchil. Tul. 
manchilii. Anglo-Ind. mun- 
cheel, manjeel (us. on the Mala- 
bar coast). Tet. machila. 1 

The original word is the 
Malayal. manjil, from the 
Sansk. mancha. The word 
has been introduced into 
Portuguese Africa. c- v 

1 " Because of the Caffres (of Mana- 
motapa) having run away from him, 
for these used to carry him on their 
shoulders in an andor (g.v.), which 
they call manchira." Bocarro, Dec. 
xiii, p. 552. 

" The only species of conveyance 
used by the rich are the palanquins, 
or rather covered machllas." Cot- 
tineau de Kloguen, Boaquejo hist, de 
Goa, p. 163. 

[The author's subsequent 
investigations appear to have 
led him to quite the opposite 
view, viz., that the word was 
an importation into India from 
Africa. This is what he says in 
the Olossario : " As regards its 
etymology, Konkani has 
machll or mdnchil, which 
passed into Tulu in the form 
manchilu ; but it is not a 
vernacular word. Yule and 
Burnell derive the Anglo- 
Indian munched or manjeel 
from the Malayalam manjll, 
which in its turn is from the 
Sansk. mancha, i bed, plat- 
form '. Manjll is not to be 
met with in all dictionaries 
which, however, mention 
mancham and manchakam. 
Wilson does not insert it in 
his Glossary of Indian Terms 
by the side of doli and 
palki. Of the authorities cited 
in Hobson-Jdbson only one 
refers to Malabar, and is 
dated 1819. Moreover, it is 
not clear how the Sansk. 
mancha, which passed into 
almost all the Neo-Aryan 
languages ipsis literis, assumed 
only in Malayalam the form 
manjll and a very peculiar 
meaning, synonymous with 




andor (q.v.) and * palanquin,' 
which terms are also to be 
found in the same language, 
in addition to another, viz., 

" If Portuguese colonial 
history were to be examined, 
it will be found that machira, as 
the name of a textile and of a 
species of litter, is very old in 
West Africa, where it is still 
in vogue in the vernacular 
languages in both these senses. 
It is, therefore, logical to 
conclude from this that the 
term was brought into India 
from Africa where it was 
applied to a litter different 
from the andor ". 

Machira in West Africa is 
used in the sense of (1) 'a 
litter,' and (2) of a thick 
cotton-sheet woven in the 
country 9 . 1 The latter, which 

* [1569. "All of them generally go 
about clothed in cloths of cotton, not 
closely woven, which I have seen 
made near Sena and which are called 
machiras." P. Monclaio, in Jour. Geo. 
Soc. Liab., 2nd sen, p. 543, cit. in 
Gontribuifdea etc., p. 71.] 

[1609. "The dress of the King 
(Quiteve) and of the other men is a 
thin piece of cotton or silk cloth . . and 
another much larger of cotton which 
the Kaffirs weave and which they call 
ma.chiro8." Fr. JoSo dos Santos, 

is the earlier acceptation, 
gradually developed into the 
former, as the earliest means 
of transport was a piece of 
canvas, the two ends of which 
were tied to a pole. In course 
of time, this crude kind of 
hammock-litter developed into 
the more comfortable macMlla 
or Anglo-Indian ' muncheel *. 
Vieyra mentions machira and 
gives it the meaning of ' a 
sort of cloke or upper garment 
worn by the Caffres,' presum- 
ably the same as the hand-spun 
textile mentioned above. 

Whitworth says that 
'manchial' is a Portuguese 
corruption of Hindust. manzil, 
which he describes thus : 
" A stage, a station ; thence 
the Goanese word manchial, 
a litter. Also a house, a 
palace." This is an instance 
of the perils attendant on 
discovering etymologies by 
paying more regard to the 
sound or form of words rather 
than to what is known to-day 
as ' semantics,' the study of the 
meanings of words.] 

Madeira (wood, timber). 
Konk. madir ; vern. terms 

Ethiopia Oriental, I, p. 82, in Contribui- 




ahkud; rukhdd, mop (us. in 
Kanara). Tel. mddiri, teak 
wood; t vorn. term mdsu, 

Madre (mother; nun). 
Konk. mddr, nun. Tel. madd ; 
the term is used of the Virgin 
Mary : madd-kavilu, the ohurch 
of the ' Mother '. Tul. mdtri, 
nun. Mdtri-mafha, convent of 
nuns. Ma(ha is Sanskrit for 
* convent.' 

Madrinha (god-mother) . 
Konk. madan, madin. Beng. 
madi. Mai. matiri. 

Mae (mother). Konk. may 
(us. among the Christians). 
Mai. mai\ vern. terms ibu, 
ma or maq. 

In Konkani : mav$i-may (lit. 
' aunt-mother ') , may-ti (lit. 
* mother-aunt ') , maternal 
aunt. Vhadli may (lit. 
'great mother'), the wife of 
the uncle who is older than 
the father. Dhatyi-mdy (lit. 
'small mother'), the wife of the 
youngest uncle. Some of the 
Portuguese dialects of India 
have mae-tia, in the sense of 
' paternal aunt. ' See pai . 
The Konkani may is from 

the Sansk. mdtd : it is, used 

in ecclesiastical idiom. May 

(or marhy) for c mother-in-law ' 
is not from Portuguese ; it is 

the feminine of mdmv. ' father- 

Mainato ("one who is a 
washer of clothes" (da Orta). 
[Indo-Fr. mainate. Mai. mt- 
ndtu. ] Ach , mendtu. Sund. 
mindtu. Jav. mandtu, nendtu. 
Mol. mainato. 1 

1 There is (in Malabar) another 
Heathen caste which they call 
Mainatos, whose occupation is to 
wash clothes for the Kings, Bramenes, 
and Nayrea." Duarte Barbosa, p. 334 
[Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 58. Longworth 
Dames thinks that the sect or caste 
referred to is the Vannathan, the 
fullest account of which is found in 
Thurston's Castes and Tribes oj 
Southern India, VII, p. 389 ; also in 
Cochin Tribes and Castes, II, p. 115, 
and in the Malabar Gazetteer, p. 121]. 

" Men who wash clothes whom they 
call Mainatos." Joo de Barros, Dec. 
Ill, iv, 4. 

" And the revenue from the maina- 
tos, which arises from the fact that no 
one can take washing, that is, work as 
a mainato, except by arrangement 
with the revenue farmer." Simao 
Botelho, Totnbo, p. 53. 

" In this enclosed ground live all the 
maynatos who do the washing for 
the whole city (of Pequim)." Fernao 
Pinto, ch. cv. 

["The Portuguese have had it 
(the water spring called Banguenin) 
enclosed with walls....; while lower 
down are large reservoirs, where most 
of the men and women come to bleach 
the linen; these folks are called 
Menates." Pyrard, Hak. 800., Vol. 
II, p. 71.] 




The word is derived from 
the Malayal. ma^a^dn, fern. 
mannatti. It is used in Asio- 
Portuguese. There is a place 
in Macau which is called 
Tanque dos Mainatos (' The 
Washermen's Tank.') 

[The Portuguese carried 
the name mainato to Ceylon 
and applied it to the washer- 
men there, so that Pieris 
(Ceylon, I, p. 5 13) says : " The 
word mainato is used among 
the Washer caste even in 
remote villages of the seven 
Korales, as a proper name." 

Mainel (hand rail of stairs). 
Konk. maynel. ? Sund. panel. 

Rigg believes that panel is 
the Dutch paneel, ' panel,' 
but the meaning of the word 
is very different. 

Major (major ; an army 
officer). Konk. major, man- 
jor. Tel. mayoru. Brown 
derives it from French. 

Mala (in the sense of ' a 
bag'). Konk. mdl (1. us.); 

[ The Menates will bring you your 
shirt and a pair of drawers, very white 
and cleaned with soap, for two bousu- 
ruques." Id. p. 72, Gray derives 
menates -from the Malayal. mainattu, 
a washerman.] 

Gundert mentions the form mandtti 
with the meaning 'foreign washerman.' 

vern. terms pottih, bokstrh. ? 
Sinh. malla; vern. terms pas- 
umbiya, kurapasiya, r&adis- 
salaya. Tet. mala. 

Malcriado (uncivil, badly 
educated). Konk. malkrydd ; 
vern. term amaryadi, vdy- 
jolo. Tet., Gal. malkriddu ; 
vern. term din kabdbil. 

Maldigao (curse, maledic- 
tion). Konk. maldisdrtiv ; 
vern. terms &ap, Sirdp. Beng. 
mdldisdn . Mai . maldi$aon 
(Haex). Tot. Gal. maldisa, 

Mal-ensinado (rude, badly 
brought up). Mai. mal ensina- 
do (Haex). 1 

| Malhado or Molhado 
('an article in the Anglo- 
Indian menu'). Anglo-Ind. 
maladoo or manadoo, " cold 
meat such as chicken or 
mutton, cut into slices or 
pounded up and re-cooked in 
batter." See Hobson-Jobson, 
s.v. maladoo. | 

[Prof. S. H. Hodivala (Notes 
on Hobson-Jobson) suggests 
that it is not necessary to go 

1 ** He became so everbearing, mal- 
ensinado, and free, that there were 
few persons with whom he had no 
quarrels." Francisco Vaz de Almada, 
in Hist. tragico-marit. t ix, p. 14. 




to the Portuguese malhado, 
'beaten up,' to explain the 
origin of the Anglo-Indian 
maladoo, for "jnalida is a very 
well known preparation in 
Musalman cookery, and is 
made of flower, sugar, almonds, 
pistachios, etc., thoroughly 
kneaded or pounded, beaten up 
and baked and fried in ghi. 
The word is derived from the 
Pers. mdlidan, to rub, grind, 
crush or pound." This sug- 
gestion seems to be perfectly 
sound, for the meanings that 
Portuguese dictionaries give to 
malhado cannot by any stretch 
of imagination be made to 
include a culinary prepara- 

Malicia (malice). Konk. 
mails ; vern. terms kusddy, 
kapat. Tet. malisi\ vern. 
terms Idran dti. 

Mama (breast, pap). Konk. 
mdm (in the language of young 
children). Mar. mama. 

Molesworth says that it is 
an onomatopoeic term. 

Mama (mamma). Konk. 
mdmdm (us. by some of the 
Christians of Goa). Mol. 
maman. | Chin, md-md. \ 

Mana (sister). Konk. wana, 
eldest sister (us. among the 

Christians of Goa) ; vern. terms 
bai, bdi (1. us. in Goa in this 
sense). Beng. maud (us. in 
Hoshnabad among the Chris- 

The term used of a male, 
corresponding to mand, in 
Konkani is irmamv, ' eldest 
brother '. It was believed that 
the Portuguese terms, besides 
being simple, carried more 
distinction about them, and 
hence their adoption. 

Mana (manna, the heaven- 
ly food ; also a medicine). 
Konk. mand. Hindust. man. 
Beng. mand. Tel. manna. 
Kan. manu. r fuT. manna. 
Mac., Malag., Jap. mana. 1 

The Portuguese origin of 
the word is not incontestable, 
except in the case of Konkani. 

[Manchua (a single masted 
vessel employed in the coast- 
ing trade of Malabar) . Anglo- 
Ind. manchua. 2 

1 "The first taste of that celestial 
mand used to make one feel very 
much superior to everything." Lucena, 
Bk. VT, 12. 

2 [ A very great fleet of junks, 
lancharas, balloons, manchuas, 
which are rowing boats, big and small.'* 
Castanheda, Hiatoria, II, ch. 114.] 

["When the viceroy or the arch- 
bishop goes anywhither by water, 
they are accompanied by an infinite 




The original of the Port, 
word is the Tarn. -Malay al. 

number of manchoues of lords. On 
board of these is excellent music of 
cornets-a-bouquin, hautbois, and 
other instruments ; all the great lords 
have the same.*' Pyrard de Laval, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 90.] 

[*' Manchooas or small vessells of 
recreation, used by the Portugalls 
here (Macao), as allsoe att Goa, pretty 
handsome things resembling little 
Frigatts, Many curiously carved, 
guilded and painted, with little beake 
heads". Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. Ill, pt. i, p. 205. There is an 
illustration of the ' manchoa ' on PL 
XII in the book.] 

[1686. "We sent out y?. R* Hon. 
ourable Companys Munchua to cruise 
after those shipps." Forrest, Selec- 
tions, Home Series, Vol. I, p. 164.] 

["Entring with us into one of those 
boats which they called Maneive, 
going with twenty, or four and 
twenty, Oars, onely, differing from 
the Almadies in that the Maneive 
have a large cover' d room in the poop, 
sever* d from the banks of rowers, and 
are greater than the Alraadies, which 
have no such room, we pass'd out of 
the Port ". Pietro della Valle, Travels, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 211. Maneive 
appears to be a misprint for manceive. 
On p. 217, the same vessel is called 
mancina, and both forms are used 
for ' manchua '.] 

['I commanded the Shibbars and 
Manchuas to keepe a little a head 
of me." Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. II, olxxxiv. in Hobson-Jobson.] 

[" Boat (machwas) hire per day, 
from 10*. to 165." (in Bombay), 

manji. The Portuguese car- 
ried the word with them to 
different parts of Asia, and 
also used it of vessels other 
than those used in the Malabar 
trade. At Goa, for instance, 
it was used to designate a 
gondola, rowed however, and 
not pushed. 

Sir Richard Temple in a 
note on the passage from 
Mundy quoted below says : 
" The term manchua has ap- 
parently been transferred to 

a ' 

the Far East by the Portu- 
guese to represent the Canto- 
nese term, man-shun, a sea- 
going trading vessel." 

Yule also lists muchwa in 
Hobson-Jobson, and assigns it 
to Marathi machwa, Hindust. 
machua, machwa, and gives 
it the meaning of * a kind of 
boat or barge in use about 
Bombay.' There can scarcely 
be any doubt that etymolo- 
gically manchua and muchwa 
are the same words and have 
a common origin.] 

M and ado r (one who com- 
mands). Mai., Jav., Mad. 
manddr, mandur, head of a 
body of artizans, overseer, 

Hunter, The Imperial Gazetteer, VIII, 
p. 268.] 




inspector. Batt., Day. man- 
(Mr. Sund, mandor. Anglo- 
Ind. mandadore. 1 

Mandar (to order). Konk. 
manddr-karuhk (1. us.). L.- 
Hindust. maddr, command, 

Mandarim (a Chinese 
official) . Anglo-Ind. , Tndo-Fr. 
mandarin. 2 

Etymologically, mandarim 
has nothing to do with mandar 
('to command'); it is a 
corruption of the Neo-Aryan 
(from Sansk.) mantri, ' a coun- 
sellor, a minister of state,' 
[mantari, in Malay]. The 
change of t into d and the 
dissolution of the compound 
consonant tr may be due to 
the influence of mandar or, 

1 " Each of which Tribes have a 
Mandadore, or Superintendent." 
Fryer, in Hobson-Jobaon [Hak. Soc., 
Vol. I, p. 175]. 

2** Three hundred Mandarijs, 
who are what the hidalgos are among 
us." Jofto de Barros, Dec. Ill, iii, 2. 

" He had met (in Siam) a Mandarim 
(they there call their Civil Magistrates 
by this name, which they have derived 
from the Chins)." Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. V, vi, 1. * Being in China as 
Ambassador, he whipped a Mandarim 
(they are those who administer justice, 
which among those heathens is treated 
with great reverence)'*. Id., Dec. V, 
viii, 12. 


preferably, to that of some 
language of Insulindia. Cf. 
Bug. mancitari=mantri. Gas- 
par Correia says: "He who 
brought in seven heads of 
enemies was made a knight 
and they called him mande- 
rym, which is their name 
for Knight ". Lendas, II, p. 
808. And in another passage : 
" Soon after the Queen (of 
Ternate) and her Mandarijs 
were sent to complain to the 
new captain." Ill, p. 37 1. 1 

[In Hobson-Jobson will be 
found a number of quotations 
in support of the * old and 
persistent mistake ' made 
by otherwise unimpeachable 
authorities that mandarim is 
formed from the Port, man- 
dar, l to command '. Even 
Wedgwood (A Diet, of Eng. 
Etym.), in the first edition, 
explains and derives the word 
thus : " A Chinese officer, a 
name first made known to us 

1 The nasalization of the final i is the 
rule in the case of words which have 
passed from oriental languages into 
Portuguese. Cf. lascarim, mordexim, 
palanquim. But Jo&o de Barros and 
some others write mandarijs, as well 
as Qomorij, CoMj, Comorij, chatijs, 
for mandar i t f amort, Cochi t Comori, 




by the Portuguese, and like 
the Indian caste, erroneously 
supposed to be a native term. 
From Portuguese, mandar, 
to hold authority, command, 
govern, etc." Wedgwood is 
right in saying that the word 
was first made known by the 
Portuguese, but wrong in his 
etymology which he corrected 
in later editions. The Portu- 
guese chroniclers do not em- 
ploy the word with reference 
to ministers of state in India, 
but to official dignitaries in 
China, Malasia, and Annam.] 

? Mandil (coarse cloth, 
apron). Mai. mandil (1. us.). 1 

Perhaps received directly 
from Arabic. 

[Mandil in Arabic is the 
Arab's head-dress ; from this 
it came to acquire the mean- 
ing of * a cap'.] 

Manga (Mangifera indica). 
Anglo-Ind. mango. Indo-Fr. 
mangue, manguier. Malag. 
manga. | Chin, mdng-koo* \ 

1 "A mandil very finely woven, a 
quilted coat of silk with breeches to 
match." Castanheda, II, ch. 13. 

2 "Some are called jacas (jack- 
fruit), others man gas, and others 
again figs." Castanheda, I, ch. 16. 

"Betel, areca, jack-fruit, green 
ginger, oranges, limes, figs, coir, 

The etymon of the word 
is the Tamil mankdy, which is, 
properly speaking, the name 
of the fruit when green, which 
when ripe is called mam- 
palam. Both the words have 
been introduced into Malay : 
manga in Malacca, Singapore, 
and Sunda, and memplam in 
Penang, Achem, and Batta. 

In Konkani, mangdd is * a 
conserve made from man- 
goes '. 

[Crooke in Hobson-Jobson 
quotes W. W. Skeat's opi- 
nion: "The modern stand- 
ard Malay word is mang- 
ga, from which the Port, form 
was probably taken." But 
Malayal. has manga , and it is 
more probable that the 
Portuguese who borrowed so 
many words from the Malabar 
country, with which they first 
came into contact, carried the 
word to Malacca and gave it to 
Malay. Yule very properly 
says: " The word has some- 
times been supposed to be 

manguas, citrons," SimSo Botelho, 
p. 48. 

"The clove-trees always take a 
year's rest just as the olive-trees do in 
our Europe, and the mangueiras 
('mango-trees') do in India." Diogo 
do Couto, Dec. IV, vii, 9. 




Malay ; but it was in fact 
introduced into the Archi- 
pelago, along with the fruit 

itself, from S. India The 

close approximation of the 
Malay mangka to the Portu- 
guese form might suggest that 
the latter name was derived 
from Malacca. But we see 
manga already used by 
Varthema, who, according to 
Garcia, never really went 
beyond Malabar." 

The cultivation of the 
mango, especially in the 
western parts of India, owes 
a great deal to the Portuguese 
and to the religious orders in 
Goa, particularly the Jesuits, 
who had, as a rule, exten- 
sive orchards around their 
monasteries. Owing to their 
efforts, the Goa mango acquir- 
ed a great reputation which is 
attested to by Bernier (1663), 
Fryer (1673), Hamilton (1727), 
and other travellers (see be- 
low). 1 But da Orta tells us in 

1 [" The mangoes of Goa are reputed 
to be the best in the world, due to the 
care which the Jesuits took in 
grafting, for the very best mango-tree 
which has not been grafted will 
produce a fruit ill -flavoured and 
ordinary." Annae* Maritimos ( 1 842), 
p. 270.] 

his Colloquies (1563) that in his 
time the mangoes of Ormuz 

[" Ambas, or Mangues, are in 
season during two months in summer, 
and are plentiful and cheap (at 
Delhi) ; but those grown at Delhi 
are indifferent. The best come 
from Bengale, Oolkonda, and Goa, 
and these are indeed excellent. I do 
not know any sweetmeat more 
agreeable." Bernier, Travels, ed. 
Constable and Smith (1916), p. 249.] 

[" I may mention that the best 
mangoes grow in the island of Qoa. 
They have special names, which are as 
follows : mangoes of Niculao Affoneo, 
Malaiasses (? of Malacca) Carreira 
branca (white Carreira), of Carreira 
vertnelha (red Carreira), of Conde, of 
Joani Parreira, Babia (large and 
round), of Araup, of Porte, of Secreta, 
of Mainato, of Our Lady, of Agua de 
Lupe. These are again divided into 
varieties, with special colour, scent 
and flavour. I have eaten many that 
had the taste of the peaches, plums, 
pears, and apples of Europe." Nic- 
colao Manucci, Storia do Mogor, ed. 
Irvine, Vol. Ill, p. 180.] 

[** In Goa the gentlemen are very 
particular about having good kinds of 
this fruit (mango). They give them 
special names, taken from the first 
person to have good mangoes of that 
kind. 1 ' Idem, Vol. II, p. 169.] 

[" The Mango (of Goa) which they 
have improved in all its kinds to 
the utmost Perfection. .. are the best 
and largest in India, most like a 
Pear-Plum, but three times as big, 
grow on a Tree nearest a Plum- 
Tree; the Fruit when Green scents 
like Turpentine, and pickled are the 




were the most celebrated ; that 
those of Gujarat were also very 
good, especially some called 
' Gujaratas ', which, though not 
large, had very fine fragrance 
and taste and a very small 
stone; that those of Balaghat 
were both large and tooth- 
some, the author having seen 
two that weighed four pounds 
and a half (Markham, p. 286. 
incorrectly says ' two pounds 
and a half ') ; and that those 
of Bengal, Pegu, and Malacca 
were also good. From this it 
would follow that the mango 
in Goa must have been 
brought to a state of perfec- 
tion during the hundred years 
which followed the publication 
of the Colloquies. Da Orta 
himself had a celebrated 
mango-tree in bis island of 
Bombay which used to yield 

best Achara to provoke an Appetite ; 
when Ripe, the Apples of Hiaperides 
are but Fables to them; for Taste, 
the Nectarine i Peach, and Apricot 
fall short.'* Fryer, East India, Hak. 
Soo., Vol. II, p. 84.] 

[" The Goa mango is reckoned the 
largest and most delicious to the 
Ta8i of any in the world, and, I may 
add, tjie wholesomest and best 
tasted of any Fruit in the World/ 1 
A. Hamilton, A New Account etc., 
(1727), Vol. I, p. 255.] 

two crops, one in December, 
and the other at the end of 
May. He admits that though 
the second crop surpassed the 
earlier in fragrance and taste, 
the later was just as remark- 
able for coming out of season 
(Coll. XXXIV). Sir George 
Birdwood, writing to the 
Bombay Saturday Review, 
28th July, 1886, refers to a 
similar phenomenon in the 
case of a mango-tree which 
belonged to one Mr. Hough, 
in Colaba, Bombay.] 

Manga^ao (mockery 

scoffing). Konk. mangasdrtiv 
vern. terms khebaddrti, mas- 
karyd. Tet. mangasa. 

[Mangas de veludo (lit. 
' velvet-sleeves ' ; the name 
given to a kind of sea-mews 
found near the Cape of Good 
Hope). Anglo-Tnd. Mangas 
de velludo, Manga Voluchoes, 
Mangafaleudos (obs.). 1 

* ["Mangas de valeudo, a kind 
of sea-mews, being white all over the 
bodies and having black wings." 
Mandelao, Voyages and Travels, E.T., 
(1669), p. 248.] 

["The Manga Voluchoes, another 
Sea Fowl that keeps thereabouts.** 
Ovington, A Voyage to Surat, O.U.P., 
p. 279.] 

[" Gaining upon the East with a slow 




The birds were called 
' velvet-sleeves ' by the Portu- 
guese because " they have 
wings of the coulor of velvet 
and boweth them as a man 
boweth his elbow." Various 
references to this bird are col- 
lected in Pyrard de Laval, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 21, n.] 

Mangelitn (a small weight 
used in the S. of India and in 
Ceylon for weighing precious 
stones, equivalent more or less 
to a carat). Anglo-Ind., Indo- 
Fr. mangelin. 1 

It is the Tamil manjddi, 
Telugu, manjdli. See Hobson- 

\Mangelim in Portuguese is 
also the name of the seed of 
the Adenanthera pavonina, 
because it was used as the 
measure for the weight referred 
to above. In the Olossario 
there are many quotations 
illustrating the use of this 

pace, we met. . . . Mangofaleudos ." 
Fryer, East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 51.] 

i "Each mangelim weighs 8 
grains of rice." Ant6nio Nunes, 
Livr o doa Pesos, p. 35. 

" One of these mangelins is equal 
to two carats of ours". Damifto de 
G6is, Ohronica de D. Manuel, II, 6. 

Mangostao (mangos teen, 
the fruit of the Oarcinia 
mangostana) . Konk. mahgus- 
taifov. Anglo-Ind . mango- 
steen. Indo-Fr. mangostan, 
mangonstan. 1 

The source-word is the 
Malayo- Javanese manggistan, 

[The Oarcinia purpurea, 
Roxb,, is called in Konk. 
bhirdnd, which the Portu- 
guese converted into brindao. 
Brindao is not a Port, word, 
nor one invented by the Portu- 
guese, as is believed by Ficalho 
and other writers.] 

Mangual (a flail). Konk. 
mahgil. Tul. mungdry,, mun- 

i " What I have learnt about the 
mangostaes is that it is one of the 
most delicious fruits in this land." 
Garcia da Orta, Col. xxxviii [ed. Mark- 
ham, p. 322]. 

" The whole of Siam abounds with 
rice and fruits, the principal of which 
are called mangues, durions, and 
mangoustans." Ta vernier, Voyages, 
IV, p. 197 [ed. Ball, O.U.P., Vol. II, 
p. 225]. 

["The peerless Man&osteen of 
Malacca, the delicacy of which we 
can imagine to resemble that of per- 
fumed snow, has been successfully 
cultivated in the gardens of Caltura 
and Colombo." Tennent, Ceylon, I, 
p. 120.] 

214 MANGUgO 

Mangufo, mangusto (Her- 
pestes mungos, Blanford ; 
* ichneumon '). Anglo-Ind. 
mungoose. Indo-Fr. man- 
gouste. 1 

From the Marathi-Konkani 
muygus or mungas, Sansk. 
crfigusha. [Yule derives it from 
?l3Sfl* mangisu, or mungisa ; 
Crooke says that Platts very 
doubtfully derives it from 
San&k. ywffahu, ' moving quick- 
ly'. In Ar. it is bint 9 'arm, 
' daughter of the bridegroom, 5 
in Egypt kitt or katt Faraun, 
' Pharaoh's cat ' (Burton, 
Ar. Nights, II, 369).] 

[Da Orta (Col. XLII, ed. 
Markham, p. 336) describes 
unmistakably the Indian mun- 
goose, but does not give it 
that name, but calls it quil or 
quirpele. From this it must 
be concluded either that 
manguso or mongus had not 

1 " There is a kind of vermin which 
they call mongus, creatures some- 
what different from the ferrets." 
Jofio Ribeiro, Fat alidade hist., Bk. 
I, ch. xx. 

" Ita Telugu name is mangteu, from 
which is derived mongus (as Joffo 
Ribeiro writes it), and the mungoose 
of Anglo -India, the mangouste of the 
French, and other forms." Conde de 
Ficalho, Col. xlii,[p. 188.] 


then acquired much currency 
in the Konkan, or that the 
creature had been first 
described or pointed out to 
the naturalist by one who had 
known it in the Tamil country, 
and who, therefore, gave it 
the names it has in that 
language. " Klri, kiripillei, 
the Tamil name of the 
mongoose," says Prof. H. 
Kern (Linschoten, Hak. Soo., 
Vol. II, p. 104, n.). Da Orta 
refers to the mungoose in con- 
nection with his interesting dis- 
sertation on Pao de Cobra, or 
* Snakewood '. This is what he 
says : " In the island of Ceylon, 
where there are many good 
fruits, forests, and beasts for 
the chase, there are yet many 
of those serpents vulgarly 
called cobras de capello .... 
Against these God has given 
this Pao de Cobra. It is found 
to be good against snake bites 
because in that island there 
are small beasts like ferrets 
which they call quil. Others 
call them quirpele. They often 
fight with these serpents. 
When one of them knows that 
it must fight with them, or 
fears that it may have to, it 
bites off a piece of this root 


and rubs its paws over it, or 
rather rubs its paws which are 
wet with the juice over its 
head and body and over those 
parts which he knows the cobra 
is likely to bite when it springs. 
It then fights with the cobra, 
biting and scratching it until it 
is dead. If it does not succeed 
in killing the cobra, or if the 
snake should prove more 
powerful than its antagonist, 
the quil or quirpele again 
rubs itself against the root 
and returns to the combat, and 
at last conquers and kills its 
enemy. From this the Chinga- 
las took an example, and saw 
that this root would be good 
against the bites of cobras. 
The Portuguese believed the 
good things that the people of 
the country said about the 
root and in time they gained 
some experience about it 
founded on reason .... Many 
Portuguese keep these mun- 
goose in their houses, tamed 
and domesticated, to kill the 
rats, and to fight the cobras de 
capello, which the Yogis bring 
who seek for charity. ... Of 
this snakewood there are 
three kinds in Ceylon. , . " 
Deadly combats between the 


cobra and the mungoose, like 
those between the Egyptian 
* ichneumon,' who also belongs 
to the Herpestes family, and 
the asp, go back to a very 
remote antiquity. They are 
mentioned in theAtharva Veda, 
in Panchatantra, and Hito- 
padeSa. But is there any 
warrant for the belief that the 
mungoose secures immunity 
from the snake's poison by 
means of certain roots or 
herbs ? In the opinion of a 
competent investigator and 
observer like Blandford, the 
naturalist, the frequent 
triumphs of the mungoose 
over the cobra are the result 
of the former's bristly coat 
into which the fangs of the 
snake can only penetrate with 
difficulty, the hardness of its 
skin, and, above all, its cun- 
ning and dexterity in warding 
off the attack of the cobra and 
its patience in waiting for an 
opportunity to seize the cobra 
by its occiput, thereby render- 
ing its poisonous fangs harm- 
less. The claims of snake 
charmers to immunity, be- 
cause of this very snake- 
wood or root which they allege 
they carry about their person, 

216 MANGUgO 


are equally unfounded. Their 
secret of success, even when 
they handle cobras whose 
fangs have not been removed, 
appears to consist in their 
energetic decisiveness of 
manner and in the rapidity 
of their movements which 
completely dominate the 
reptile. That their pretences 
to immunity are hollow is 
proved by numerous reported 
instances of snake charmers 
succumbing very quickly to 
the bite of a cobra, especially 
when, trusting to their own 
devices, they will not avail 
themselves of scientific re- 

What are the * snakewoods ' 
to which da Orta refers ? One 
of these, which he says is 
called in Ceylon rannetul, has 
been definitely identified with 
the Ran wolfia serpentina , 
Benth., and Picalho believes 
that it is the chatrdki men- 
tioned in AmarakoSa as one of 
the herbs used as an antidote 
by the nakula or the mungoose. 
The others are supposed to be 
the Strychnoscolubrina, Linn., 
and the Hemidesmus indicus, 
R. Brown, or Asclepias pseu- 
dosarsa, Roxb. .] 

Manha (bad habit, distem- 
per). Konk. mdnz\ vern. terms 
kh6d, avguq. Tet. mariha ; 
vern. term kaba-kaba. 

Manilha (a term used in a 
game of cards ; seven points of 
a suit). Konk. manilh Mac., 
Bug. manila. 

Manilha (bracelet) . Anglo- 
Ind. [moneloes, bracelets,] 
manilla-man, ' an itinerant 
dealer in gems '. 

Yule and Burnell say that 
manilla-man, in this sense, is a 
hybrid from Telugu manela 
vadu and the English ' man ' 
with a mixture of the Portu- 
guese manilha. 1 But Brown 
derives mantta-vandlu from 
the geographical name 

1 " And Diogo d' Azambuja sent the 
grain which had been seized to the 
factor that he might fetch lambeis 
('coarse stripped woollen cloths'), 
manilhas, basins and other things." 
JoSo de Barros, Dec. I. iii, 2, 

[" The Women (in Goa), both White 
and Black, are kept recluse, vailed 
abroad; within doors, the Richer of 
any Quality are hung with Jewels, 
and Rosaries of Gold and Silver many 
times double; Moneloes of Gold 
about their Arms..." Fryer, East 
India, Hak. Soc., Vol. IT, p. 27.] 

[Moneiloea is used by Ovington 
(O.U.P., p. 294) and Moneela by 
Bowrey (Hak. Soo., p. 6) for the city 
of Manila.] 




Manila. The man who sells 
glass bangles or bracelets is 
called ' manilheiro* in Goa, 
and he goes from door to door 
orying his wares. It is, how- 
ever, possible that manilla 
derives its origin from maqeri, 
which in Marathi and Konkani 
is the name of 'a vendor of 
jewels,' Sansk. maqikara. 
[See cobra manila.] 

Mano (brother). Konk. 
man ; it is prefixed to the first 
name in certain families : [man 
Antonio, man Joao, and corres- 
ponds to the Gujarati bhai, 
which however is used as a 
suffix : Vithalbhai, Jashbhai.] 
Beng. manu (us. among the 
Christians in Dacca). 

Manteiga (butter). Mai. 
Sund., Mac., Bug. mantega. 
Ach. mentiga. Jav. manttgo. 
Mad. mentegd. Tet., Gal. 
mant6ga ; vern. term bokur. 
, Ja. manteka, which, accord- 
ing to Gon$alves Viana, is 
from Spanish. 1 ; : ,? 

Manto (mantle). Konk. 
mdnt (us. among the Christi- 
ans). Jap. manto. 

1 " The natives of the Malay Islands 
neither drink milk nor make butter. 
The same is said of Chinese." Mars- 
den, Memoirs of a Malay Family, 
p. 10. 

Mao (' a measure of content 
and of weight'). Anglo-Ind. 
maune (arch.), maund 
(modern). 1 

The origin of the Portuguese 
word is Neo-Aryan : Hindus- 
tani-Bengali man, which 
Shakespear derives from the 
Arabic mann ; Marathi-Konka- 
ni man, which Molesworth 
derives from the Sansk. mana, 
the root of which is ma, ' to 
measure,' or from Arabic. 

Professor Sayce (Principles 

1 "Maos, of which twenty go to 
the candil, which, as I have said, 
weighs a bahar, that is four quintals." 
Duarte Barbosa [Hak. Soc., ed. 
Dames, Vol. I, p. 157. At the end of 
the Appendix to his book, Barbosa 
has provided a comparative table of 
weights and measures of Portugal 
and India in his time (the beginning 
of the 16th century), from which and 
from other information interspersed 
in his book Dames arrives at the 
following table : 
14 ounces =1 (old) arratel. 

128 old arratels=l (old) quintal. 

4 (old) quintals=l bahar. 
20 mftos =1 candil, 

The new arratel contains 16 ounces.] 

" The m&o of oil is equal to twelve 
canadas (in Qoa)." Ant6nio Nunes, 
p. 31. [A canada is a Portuguese 
measure = three English pints.] 

" Forty seers one m&o, and twenty 
maos one bahar" Lembran^as das 
COUSOA da India > [p. 39]. 




of Comparative Philology) and 
Dr. Haupt (Die Sumerisch- 
akkadische Sprache) attribute 
to the word mana an Accadian 
origin. Yule and Burn ell 
observe that in any case it was 
the Babylonian name for the 
eightieth part of a talent, 
whence it passed, with other 
Babylonian weights and 
measures, almost all over the 
ancient world: Egyptian men 
or mna, Coptic emna or amna, 
Hebrew maneh, Greek mna, 
Roman mina ; and through 
the medium of the Arabs, 
Spanish-Portuguese almena, 
old French alm&ne, 1 [for a 
weight of about 20 Ibs. (Marcel 

The authors of Hobson- 
Jobson also say: "The intro- 
duction of the word into India 
may have occurred during the 
extensive commerce of the 
Arabs with that country during 
the 8th and 9th centuries ; 
possibly at an earlier date ". 

In the Rigveda (VIII, 67, 2) 
there appears the word man&, 

1 Candido de Figueiredo defines 
almena as " Indian weight equivalent 
approximately to one kilogramme," 
and gives as its source-word bhe 
Arabic al-mena. 

which has given rise to heated 
discuss! on among orientalists. 
Is it a genuine Aryan word or 
of Semitic origin ? What is 
its true meaning ? l 

Franois Lenormant and 
some other writers regard the 
terms as identical, and adduce 
this fact, among other argu- 
ments, in proof of the very 
ancient relations that must 
have existed between India 
and Babylon, and also to point 
out traces of Babylonian in- 
fluence on the Vedic poems. 2 

Max Muller (India, What 
can it teach us ?) and other 
Sanskritists deny the Baby- 
lonian origin and the influence 
of the Semitic civilization 
upon ancient India; but there 
is no unanimity in their 
interpretation of the word. 

[The recent excavations at 
Harappa in the Punjab and 
Mohenjo-Daro in Sindh have 
revealed the existence of an 
Indus Valley civilisation and 
culture which shows close 

1 Mana is neither to be confounded 
with mana quoted above, nor with its 
homonym in the Rigveda, which 
signifies ' zeal, ardour, anger, envy/ 

2 See Crist6vo Pinto, India 



resemblance with those of 
early Sumer and Babylonia 
These discoveries indicate the 
existence of great cities with 
traces of luxury and refine- 
ment which suggest affinities 
with the Sumerian, or even 
an earlier, culture, Sir John 
Marshall going so far as to 
put their standard of life 
higher than anything contem- 
porary in Mesopotamia or 

The strophe is addressed to 
the god Indra, and is as 
follows : A nah bhara vydft- 
janam gam d$vam abhydft- 

Sdchd maud hiranydyd. 

The first part is translated : 
" Bring us a jewel, a cow, a 
horse, an ornament." The 
difficulty hinges on the second 
part which has been variously 
rendered. Grassman : Zug- 
leich mit goldenen Gerdth 
( = jointly with a vessel of 
gold). Ludwig : Zusammt 
mit goldenen Zierrath (=to- 
gether with an ornament of 
gold). Zimmer: Und eine 
Mand gold ( = and a mand 
of gold). 1 

1 Langlois translates the stanza as 
follows : 

Max Miiller impugnes the 
rendering with the instru- 
mental case, because the pre- 
position sachd never governs 
such a case, and referring 
mand to the Sansk. marii, Lat. 
monile, translates the verse : 
" Give us also two golden arm- 
lets ". " To suppose," says he, 
" that the Vedic poets should 
have adopted only this word 
and only this measure from the 
Babylonians would be opposed 
to all the rules of historical 
criterion. The word mand 
never more appears again in 
all Sanskrit literature, no other 
Babylonian weight is ever 
mentioned in all Sanskrit 
literature and it is not proba- 
ble that a poet who asks for a 
cow and a horse, should ask at 
the same time for a foreign 
measure of weight, that is, 
about 60 guineas." 

Griffith follows this mode of 
rendering, but in place of the 
' bracelets ' he has * rings.') 1 

[The Portuguese converted 
man into mao y of which the 

" Give ua some cows, horses, 
perfumes, and ornaments of gold ". 

l The St. Petersburgh Dictionary 
defines mana : " Ein bestimmtes 
Gerath oder Qewicht." And 
Capeller : " A certain vessel or weight 
of gold.'* 



English made maune, and so 
probably by the influence of 
the old English word maund, 
" a kind of great Basket or 
Hamper, containing eight 
Bales, or two Fats," the 
modern word was derived. 
M&o in Portuguese means 
' hand ' and some of the older 
travellers like Linsctyoten, 
misled by this meaning of mao, 
rendered it as equivalent to 
' hand '. The values of the 
' maund ' as weight vary great- 
ly in different parts of the 
country. The standard maund 
in British India is 40 sera, 
each ser being equal to 80 
tolas or rupee-weights. See 
Hobson-Jobson . ] 

| Maquina (machine). 

Konk. mdkn\ vern. term 
yantr. Turk, mdkina. \ 

l\Iarca (mark, stamp). 
Konk. mark (1. us.); vern. 
terms khun, kuru, chihnetii, 
ni&iQejfa, sopo. L.-Hindust. 
mvrkd. Mai., Tet. mdrka. 

? Malag. marika. 

*-* ^*^y*v. . >*'"* 

Marchar (to march). 
Konk. marchdr-zavuhk. Tet., 
Gal. mdrcha. 

Mar90 (month of March). 
Konk. Mars. Mai., Tet., Gal. 
Mdrsu. See Agosto. 

PMarear (to work a ship). 
Sinh. mariyd (subst.), sailor, 
mariner ; vern. terms navi- 
kayd t ngvkarayd, nevlyd. 

In Konkani, mareafao signi- 
fies ' sagacity, astuteness.' 

Marfltn (ivory). Konk. 
marphifo ; vern. term hattya- 
cho ddnt (lit. 'elephant's 
tooth'). Tet., Gal. marfim. 

Maria (Mary). Tel. 
Mariycinsu-dt (lit. ' Mary's 
game'). Brown is of the 
opinion that the word is of 
Portuguese origin. 

Marmelo (quince).] Jap. 
marumeru. ^ A > iL^ , > < *<< '^ 

? Marmore (marble) . 

Konk. marmar. Guj., Hindi, 
Hindust., Beng., Punj., Mai. 
marmar. Marmar i (in the 
Aryan languages), marbly. 
Pers. marmar. Ar. marmar, 

The Portuguese origin can 
be contested. The original 
word is the Greek marmoros. 
From Persian sangmarmar 
(sang = stone) are derived 
directly: Konk., Mar. sang- 
marmar; Hindi, Punj. sang- 
marmar] Sindh. sangimar- 
maru ; Kan. sangamaravari, 

Marquesota (a sort of 




mantle), Mai. marcadjota 
(=zmarkaj6ta), "a gown, a 
woman's dress " (Haex). 

Candido de Figueiredo men- 
tions the word thus : " Mar- 
quesota, f ., a species of Indian 
root ; (arch.) mantle, which 
was worn round the neck. 
(From marques'*)". 1 $**''** 

Marrafa (curled hair on the 
brow). Konk. mdrrdph ; the 
vern. term is pakhadi. Gal. 
marra/a; the vern. term is 

Martelo (hammer, mallet). 
Konk. martel (us. in Salsete 
(Goa) and in Kanara) ; vern. 
terms kudti, kudfo (mallet) ; 
tuty6 t hatalo (iron hammer). 
Hindi martaul; vern. terms 
hathandd, ghan, mongri. 
Hindust. martil, martol, mar- 
tol, martauL Nep. martaul. 
Beng. martel. Anglo-Ind. 
martil, martol. Mai. martello 
(Haex), mdrtel mdrtil. Mol. 
martelo, martelu. Tet., Gal. 

MSrtir (a martyr). ^ Konk. 

1 "The gay fashioned breeches (tm- 
periaea) of silk, mercasotas, and 
scarlet cloaks, were no longer met with 
at feasts, and in royal progresses." 
Diogo do Couto, Dialogo do Soldado 
Pratico, p. 38. 

martir. Karab., Tet., Gal. 
mdrtir. Japanese maruchiru 
(arch.). 1 

Martirio (martyrdom ) . 
Jap. maruchiriyo (arch.). 

Mas (conj., but). Sund. 
mdsa. Tet., Gal. mas. 

Mascara (a mask). Mai. 
maskdra* rfu ^J *~" 

Mas que (conj., but, that). 
Mai. mdski, miski. Jav. 
mdski, meski. Tet. mask&. 
Pid-Engl. maskee. mashkee, 
ma-sze-ki, bo it so, all the 
same, it does not matter ; 
never mind ; it is alright, 
perfectly ; just, correct. 
" This word is used in a very 
irregular manner. It is not 
Chinese, its equivalent in 
Mandarin being pvo-yow- 
cheen." Leland. 

Masqui (Port, dialect of 
Macau), masque (Port, dialect 
of Ceylon), ' but, for all that, 
even'. In these meanings it 
is met with in the Portuguese 
classics. " Contae, mas que 
me deixem congelado ". 

1 T intervocalic sounds like ch in 
Japanese (marutiru=maruc/ii>w). 

2 " The most dignified styles are not 
entirely free from these kinds of words 
such as tempo (' time '), senhor (' sir '), 
mascara." W. Marsden, A Grammar 
of Malay Language. 




" For Deos, mas que me 
fundam, mas que me con- 
fundam, eu hei de tanger 
sempre a verdade." D. Fran- 
cisco de Melo, Dialogos 
Apologaes. 1 

Mastro (ship's mast). 
Hindi, Hindust., Punj., Ass. 
mastuL -Or., Beng, mdstul. 
Khas. mastul* ~j\ -v i 

Matador (a term used in a 
game of cards). Bug. mata- 

PMatar (to kill). Mai., Jav. 
mdti, to die. mateni, to kill. 
Batt., Mac., Bug. mate, 
death. Day. matei. Malag. 

Dr. Heyligers thinks that the 
derivation from Portuguese is 
probable. On the contrary, it 
is very probable, if not quite 
certain, that the word is a 
vernacular one, perhaps de- 
rived, as Crawfurd believes, 

1 "It is supposed that it may be 
the corruption or ellipsis of a Portu- 
guese expression, but nothing satis- 
factory has been suggested." Hob son 
Jobson. [See Crooke's quotation from 
Mr. Skeat in Hobaon-Jobson, s.v. 

2 It would appear as though the I 
stands for r which is transposed, 
mastur ; but the old Port, form is 

from the Sanskrit mjti, 
' death '. Favre suggests that 
it may be of Semitic origin, 
mant, * death,' in Arabic. 
Malagassy must have received 
the word directly from the 
Malayan languages, much 
before Portuguese, or perhaps 
even Arabic, influence was felt 
in Malaysia. The term was 
current in the time of Fernao 
Pinto who writes (ch. 177: 
"Cahio morto, sem dizer mais 
que somente : Quita mate, ay 
que me matou" (" He fell 
dead, without saying anything 
but this : Quita mate, i.e., 
who is it that has killed me "). 

Matalote (sailor, seaman). 
Mai. matelote (Haex). 

Matraca (a wooden rattle). 
Konk. matrdk; vern. terms 
phatyhatefo, khatkatevh. Tet. 
matraka ; vern. term di 

Medalha (medal). Konk. 
meddlh\ vern. term arluk. 
Tet. medalha. 

[Medida (a measure) . 
Anglo-Ind. medeeda (obs.) ; 
also memeeda (meia, ' half,' 
and medida). 1 ] 

1 ["Dry measures are these, viz., 
Teman is 40 Memeeda 's. Medeeda 
is 3 Pints English. By this Medeeda 




Medula (bone marrow). 
Sinh. midulu\ vern. term 

Meia, meias (sook, hose). 
Konk. mey. Sinh. m&s. Kofa- 
<m&x, socks. A(-m&s (lit.: ' hand 
socks'), gloves. Tarn, mey- 
jodu (lit.: 'a pair of socks'), 
kal-m&$ (lit.: 'feet socks'). 
Kai-mes (lit.: * hand socks'), 
gloves. Tel. mljodu, mejollu. 
Kan., 'Tul. m&jodu.Tet. 
meias. Gal. meia. 

Meirinho (in the sense of 
* a sacristan, a sacristan's 
assistant'). Konk. mirni] 
miraq, (us. in Kanara). Tarn. 
mirin. Tul, mirne, | Indo- 
Fr. merigne.\ Mai. meriniyu. 
Sund., Mac., Bug. marinio. 
Mol. marinjo, harbour-master. 
Dr. Heyligers derives it from 
marinho (adj. * marine '). 
Tet., Gal. mirinhu. 

Meirinho was formerly, in 
Portugal, a judicial official 
corresponding to the present 
day bailiff. In the colonies 
every fortress and every city 
had its ' meirinho '. See 
Tombo do Esiado da India, 

passim. 1 In India, the parish 
priests had, besides the sacris- 
tan, an official whose business 
was to look after the spiritual 
interests of the parish, to 
whom they naturally gave the 
title of meirinho. 2 At the 
present day the ' meirinhos ' 
of Goa correspond, in their 
duties, to the summoners in 
Europe ; they have also, be- 
cause they have not enough 

they sell Oil, Butter, and Liquids.'* 
Ovington, Voyage to Surat, O.U.P., 
p. 269.] 

i " The Cap tain -in -Chief ordered the 
sailors to land and also his meirinho 
of the fleet with an Ouvidor (* magis- 
trate') whom he had on board, that 
they might keep an eye on the people 
and prevent mischief.' Gaspar Cor- 
reia, I, p. 165. 

["We were then landed, and a 
miserable sight we were, all naked, 
save only for the covering of a mere 
rag of cotton. We were forthwith 
taken in charge by a Portuguese 
sergeant, whom they call a Merigne, 
who was accompanied by seven or 
eight slaves, Christian Caffres of 
Mozambique, each with his halbert 
or partisan ". Pyrard, Hak. Soc., Vol. 
I, p. 427.] 

2 "The meirinhos, and the very 
parents are very careless, and will 
continue to be so, in the matter of 
reporting to you births." Instructions 
oj S. Francis Xavier, in Luoena, Bk. 
V, oh. 25. 

" In each of these villages (of Qoa) 
there is a meirinho whose duty it ia 
to give religious instruction." Jofto 
de Santos, Ethiop. Or., II, p. 97. 




to do, to assist the sacristans. 
Outside Goa, meirinho is sy- 
nonymous with saoristan. In 
the Archipelago, however, it 
retains its original meaning, 
more or less modified. In 
Madagascar, for example, 
according to Matthes, the 
term is used of the European 
Civil Magistrate ' Europesche 
schout \ l 

Melao (melon) ) Tel. meld- 
ma. ~~ 

MercS (favour, benefit). 
Konk. merslly land held as a 
grant for service rendered. 
Tet. merse ; vern. term diak. 

Merecer (to merit). Mai. 
merecer (Haex). Tet. mereci 
(also used in the sense of 

Mes (month). Hindust. 
majkabdr, " (corruption of the 
Port, mis [month] and acabar 
[to end]) the last day of the 
month ". Shakespear. Wil- 
son mentions kabar, in 
Bengali, as the name of the 
last day of the month and 

* " Meirinho. A superintendent 
of police under the Portuguese 
government of Bassein in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries'*. 

kab&rl (adj.), "relating to the 
last day of the month, due 
or payable on this day (salary, 
rent, etc.)." 

In Konkani, kabdr is very 
much used as equivalent to 
the Portuguese acabar ('to 

[Brown suggests, as the 
etymon of majkabar, the 
HmcTust. mas-ke-ba'ad, * after 
a month '. Crooke, on the 
other hand, observes that, 
according to Platts, it is more 
probably a corruption of 
Hindust. masik-war or mas-ka- 
w&r. But Prof. S. H. Hodi- 
vala (Notes on Hobson-Jobson) 
suggests that, "if * Mascabar ' 
is an Indo- Portuguese word 
for the last day of the 
month, it must be a corrup- 
tion, not of mds-kd-bdr, .... 
but of amds-ka-bdr. ' Amas,' 
from Sans, am&vasya, is com- 
monly used for the last day 
of the month. If ' Mascabar ' 
means * monthly statement or 
account ', it must stand for 
mdsik-vdr, as Platts says ".] 

Mesa (table). Konk. n^^ 
Mar., Guj., Nep,, Or., Beng., 
Ass. mej. Hindi mez, menz, 
mench. Dhalvan-mez, writing- 
desk. Hindust. mej> mez. 




Sindh. meza, mezu. Punj. 
mez (also us. of ' a bench '). 
Kash. mez. Sinh. mesaya, 
mese. Lihina-mesaya, writing- 
table, a case for pen and ink. 
Sayilod-mesaya, side-board. 
Say Hod is corruption of the 
English * side-board/ Tarn. 
mesei. Malay al. mesa, mes. 
Tel. meja. Mejar, a big 
table. Kan. meju (also us. in 
the sense of ' ration ', owing to 
confusion with the English 
* mess '). Tul. meji. Mai. 
meja, meza, ?nesa. Ach., 
Batt., Sund. meja. Jav., 
Mad. me jo. Mejah tulis (Mai.), 
meja surat (Ach.), writing- 
desk. Day. meja. Mac., 
Bug. mejan. Tet., Gal. 
meza. Nic. men&a. Pers. 
mez, miz. Ar. mez. | Turk. 
massa. \ 

Molesworth derives the 
Marathi word from Persian 
and gives the following com- 
pounds as Persian words : mej- 
bdn, mej-vdn, mej-mdn, a 
guest, also a host. Mej-banki 
or mej-vanki, mej-mdnki or 
mej-mani, hospitality. 

Guj. mej-bdn, mej-mdn, 
guest ; host. Mej-bani, feast- 
ing, banquet ; hospitality. 

Hindust. mej-bdn, guest ; 

host. Mej-bdni, feasting, 
hospitality. 1 

Sindh. mizimdnu, mizmdnu, 
mihmdnu, guest. Mizimani, 

Punj. majmdn, mahmdn, 
mamdn, guest ; son-in-law. 
Mamani, feast. Mijmdn, 
guest. Mijmanani, a female 
guest. Mijmani, feast. 

? Mesquinho (' poor, miser- 
able '). Mar. miskin, miskil. 
Hindust. miskin. Punj. mas- 
kin. Maskini, humility. 
Malayal. miskin, maskin. 
Mai. meskin, miskin. Sund., 
Jav., Bal. mtskin. Mac., Bug. 

The term appears to have 
been directly imported from 

? Mesquita (a mosque). 
Anglo-Ind. mosque, [muskeett, 
musqueet (obs.).] Mai. Ach., 

1 Shakespear also attributes the 
Hindustani words to Persian. 

2 ''Those inhabitants are fishermen, 
a mezquinha folk, for this is how they 
speak in India of people who are of 
low descent and poor." Castanheda, 
I, ch. 13. 

* Robbers who were Moors used to 
rove on the seas plundering the 
mesquinhos. " Gaspar Correia, IV, 
p. 83. 




Jav., Mad. misigit, mesigit, 
masigit. Mac., Bug. masigi. 1 

Dr. Sohuchardt derives 
misigit from Portuguese, al- 
though the word in its origin 
is the Arabic masjid. 

[Yule believes that the 
probable course which masjid 
took in getting evolved into 
the Anglo-Indian mosque is as 
follows: (1) in Span, mezquita, 
Port. mesquita ; (2) Ital. 
meschita, moschea ; French 
(old) mosquete, mosquee ; (3) 
Eng. mosque. This is more or 
less also the view of the 

Sir George Oxinden, in a 
letter from Surat, dated 28th 
January, 1663, addressed to 
the Directors of the East 
India Company, says : " Hear- 
ing they (* Sevagy's men ') 
had taken their randavous in 
a Muskeett or Moore 
Church " (Forrest, Selec- 
tions, Home Series, Vol. I, 
p. 25). The influence of the 
Portuguese word on muskeelt 
appears to be unmistakable. 

1 ' There is a big misqulta with 
many columns and verandas, in 
every respect very beautiful." Gaspar 
Correia, IV, p. 173. 

Duarte Barbosa uses 
quita of a Hindu shrine l ; and 
owing to a similar confusion 
Faria-y-Sousa speaks of a 
1 Pagoda of Mecca.'] 

MestifO (a half-caste). 
Konk. mAstis. It is also used 
as an adjective : mistis bonchur- 
di, the bulbul, or the eastern 
song- thrush, Ixos jocosus. 
Hindust. mastisa. Anglo-Ind. 
mustees, mestiz, mastisa, 
[mustechees.] Indo-Fr. metis. z 

1 [/'The Bramenes and also the 
Baneanes marry one wife only. . . At 
their weddings they have great festi- 
vities which continue for many days. 

. .On the day appointed for their re- 
ception the bride and bridegroom are 
seated on a dais ; they are covered 
with gold and gems and jewels, and in 
front of them they have a mesquita 
with an idol covered with flowers with 
many oil-lamps burning around it." 
Hak. Soc., ed. D.imes, Vol. I, p. 116.] 

2 After this victory (at Diu) the 
Governor gave orders that all the 
mestizos who were there should be 
inscribed in the Book, and that pay 
and subsistence should be assigned to 
them." Gaspar Correia, IV, p. 574. 

"The least esteemed are the off- 
spring of a Portuguese father and an 
Indian mother, or vice versa, and 
these are called Metices, that is, 
Met If 8, or mixed/* Pyrard, Viagem, 
Vol. IT, p. 32 [Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
p. 38.] 

["It's alsoe of very ill consequence 
that your Covenant Servants should 




[Tavernier uses the forms 
meatift meative, and mestice.] 
See casti$o and topaz. 

[Fryer speaks of this class 
also as Misteradoes *.] 

intermarry with any of the people of 
the Country or those of mixed Race 
or Mustechees." Hedges, Diary, 
Hak. Soo., Vol. II, p. ccix.] 

44 The Metissos (at (Joa) are of 
several sorts, but very much despised 
by the reinols and the castiaaoa, be- 
cause they have inherited a little 
black blood from their ancestors." 
Le Gouz de la Boullaye, Voyage*, ed. 
10.57, p. 22H. [Reinol, pi. reinoes, 
from Port, reino, the kingdom of 
Portugal, was the name by which the 
European Portuguese were distinguish- 
ed from those born in India of 
Portuguese parents and who were 
called caatiasoA (7. v.). In the early 
seventeenth century, reinol was used in 
much the same sense as * griffin ' was 
in Anglo-Indian vocabulary. * When 
they are newly arrived in the Indies, 
they are called Raignolles, that is to 
say, '* men of the kingdom," and the 
older hands mock them until they 
havo made one or two voyages with 
them, and have learned the manners 
and customs of the Indies : this name 
sticks to them until the fleet arrives 
the year following ". Pyrard, Voyage, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 123. A. Hamil- 
ton (New Acct. oj the East Indies (1727), 
1, 248) speaks of this class as "the 
Reynolds or European. Fidalgoes."] 

1 [' Beyond the Outworks live a 
few Portugal* Mustezoes or Mistera- 
does." East India, Hak Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 148.] 

Mestre (master). Konk. 
mestir, a teacher ; mestirn, a 
lady teacher ; vern. terms 
Senay, panto ji y pandit. 
Mestirpan, teachership, the 
teaching profession. Meat, 
master of some craft ; artist ; 
an honorific appellation given 
to artisans. 

The phonetic difference be- 
tween mestir and mest arises 
from the fact that the former 
is employed by itself, whereas 
the latter is generally prefixed 
to the name of some person. 

Mar. meatari, mest, < honori- 
fic distinction of goldsmiths or 
carpenters, or masons, or the 
chief armourer : also of the 
man, if a Portuguese, who 
makes bread in a bakery. 
Applied frequently to a 
superintendent in general. 
Used more, by an excess of 
courtesy, of Portuguese 
servants, especially cooks." 
Moles worth., 1 

Guj. mlstri, mistari, mason. 
Vad6 mistari (lit. * the great- 
mason '), an architect. 
Hindust. mistri, a skilled arti- 
san, foreman. L.-Hindust. 

1 By 'Portuguese* the author 
means the inhabitants of Goa. 




mistri, a carpenter. Beng. 
rdj-mistri (raj is Persian for 
' mason '), a mason or brick- 
layer. Lohdr mistri (lit. * iron- 
master '), a blacksmith. Ass. 
mistri, carpenter. Punj. mas- 
tari, the official head. Mistari- 
khand, workshop. Malay al. 

tri, mestari, a foreman. Kan., 
Tul. mestre, carpenter, stone- 
cutter, mason. Anglo-Ind. 
maistry, mistry, mistery, a 
master-workman, a foreman, 
and in W. and S. India also * a 
cook, a tailor.' Gar. mistri, 
mason, Khas. raj-misteri, 
mason. ?Mal. \mMM\ , mester 
(perhaps from the Dutch 
meester). Tet., Gal. mestri. 

Some dictionary- writers 
give as the etymon the English 
mister or the French maistre. 

Milagre (miracle). Konk. 
mildgr\ vern/ terms acharyefa, 
naval, vismit, adbhut. Mai. 
milagro (Haex) . Tet. , Gal. 

In the Marathi of the 
Konkan and in the Hindustani 
of the south, milagri, by exten- 
sion of meaning, sometimes 
stands for an image of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, at other 
times for any Roman Catholic 

church, because in India 
there are many churches 
dedicated to ' Our Lady of 

M ilho (maize ; Indian 
corn). Mol. milo, mllu. 

Militar (subst., soldier). 
Konk. militdr ; vern. term 
Sipdy, laSkari. Tet. militdr. 

Ministro (minister). Konk. 
ministr ; vern. terms munyari, 
mantri, pradhdn. Tet. minis- 
try ' * 

Minuto (a minute). Konk. 
minut ; vern. term ghadi (not 
exactly corresponding). ?Guj. 
minit (as in English). Kamb. 
minut. Tet., Gal. minutu. 

Missa (eccles., mass). 
Konk. mis. Misacho padri 
(lit. ' priest of the mass '), 
priest. 1 Kan. mlsaydgavu (lit. 
* sacrifice of the mass '). Tul. 
mlsyydga. Kam^. missa. 
Siam. mi$d. Ann. 1% missa ; 
vern. term le. Mai. misa. 
Tet., Gal. misa. \ Chin. 
misdh ; vern. term td-tsidn. \ 

Missal (eccles.^ a missal). 
Konk., Tam.7Tet., Gal. misdl. 

1 Cf. Glerigo de missa ('clergy of the 
mass'). Jo&o de Barros, Dec. I, iii, 
5. [It is almost the exact equivalent 
of the Konkan i expression ' priest of 
the mass '.] 




Missao (mission). Konk. 
misdmv. Beng., Tarn, misdn. 
Tet., Gal. misa. 

Missionrio (missionary). 
Konk., Beng., Tarn., Kan. 

Mister (arch, form mester ; 
need, function). Mai. mester, 
misti, necessity. | Mol., | 
Ach. miski na, indispensable. 
Miski teka, to be compelled. 
Sund. misti. Jav. pfati or 
pasti, | certain, doubtless. | 

In the Portuguese dialects, j 
miste signifies : ' it is necessary, \ 
it is proper, it ought to be.' ; 

Mist^rio (mystery). Konk. 1 
mister ; vern. term gud-h. j 
Tet. mister i. 

| Moda (fashion). Konk. 
mod: vern. term chdl. Turk. 
moda. \ 

\ Modelo (model). Konk. 
model ; vern. term namuno. 
Turk, model. \ 

M61ho (sauce, gravy). 
Kon. mol, pickled fish. 
?Tam. molei, a kind of curry. 
[Anglo-Ind. moley]. 

Yule says that the Tamil 
word is a corruption of 
' Malay ' ; the dish being simply 
a bad imitation of one used 
by the Malays. [There is a 
recipe for preparing * moley ' 

in the Indian Cookery (The 
Army and Navy Co-operative 
Society Ltd., Bombay). 

Monfao (monsoon). Konk. 
monsdmv. Anglo-Ind. mon- 
soon. Indo-Fr. mousson. 
Si am. monsum. 1 

The source-word is the 
Arabic mausim, ' season of the 

[Yule nays : ' ' Dictionaries 
(except Dr. Badger's) do not 
apparently give the Arabic 

word mausim the technical 
sense of monsoon. But there 

can be no doubt that it had 
that sense among the Arab 
pilots from whom the Portu- 
guese adopted the word 

Though monfao is general 
with the Portuguese writers of 
the 16th century, the historian 
Diogo de Couto always writes 
rnou^ao, and it is possible 
that the n came in, as in some 

1 " Every mo n 9am ten or fifteen 
of these ships used to sail for the Red 
Sea.'* Duarte Barbosa, p. 341 [Hak. 
Soc., ed. Dames, Vol. II, p. 77]. 

"We also speak of memoes, which 
are the seasons there for making sea 
voyages '* JoSo de Barros, Dec. Ill, 

"There they had to remain for a 
long time because of the absence of the 
mou&o " (throughout spelt thus). 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. V, x, 6. 




other cases, by a habitual 
misreading of the written u 
for n. Linsohoten in Dutch 
(1596) has monssoyn and 
monssoen. It thus appears 
probable that we get our 
monsoon from the Dutch." 
Skeat traces ' monsoon ' from 
Ital. monsone. But the 
O.E.D., with more reason, 
states that it is adopted from 
Dutch, monsooen soyn, which, 
in its turn, was adopted from 
the Port. mon$do in the 16th 
century. At the present time, 
both according to Anglo- 
Indian and Indo-Portuguese 
usage, 'monsoon,' or monqao 
means ' the season of the rains,' 
which, as a rule, lasts for four 
months and is a period during 
which sailing vessels do not 
put out to sea. We also 
speak of ' the monsoon 
having burst,' which is another 
way of saying that the rains 
have begun. The ' rainy 
season ' was also called inverno 
( ( winter ') by the Portuguese, 
and this practice was followed 
by the other European nations 
and , lasted right up to the 
eighteenth century. ' Inverno ' 
is even to-day used of the 
* rainy season ' in the Portu- 

guese possessions in India. 
See quotation from Correia 
under mordexim ; also Hobson- 
Jobson, 5.v. winter.] 

| Morcego (bat or flying 
fox). Mai. morsego, according 
to Rhumpius. " The fruit is 
eagerly eaten by bats. In 
Malay the tree is called Caju 
Morsego ; in Latin Arbor 
Vespertilionum " (' Flying fox 
tree'). | 

Mordexim (' a name for 
cholera up to the end of the 
1 8th century ') . Indo-Fr . , 
Anglo-Ind. morte-de-chien 

(obs.) 1 

1 "This 'winter* (of 15 43) they had 
in Goa a fatal illness which the inhabi- 
tants call moryxy." Gaspar Correia, 
IV. p. 288. [For * winter ' see mon$do 

" Our name for the disease is 
colerica passio, the Indians call it 
morxi ; and we corrupt the word into 
mordexi " . Garcia da Orta, Col. x vii 
(ed. Markham, p. 104). " In our 
century the old names mordexim 
and mort-de-chien have gone' out of 
use, having been, as a rule, replaced 
by the word cholera" Conde de 

["The ordinary diseases of this 
country (Goa) are mort-de-chien 
(cholera) that Is, colic of the bowels 
with vomiting and laxity and this 
complaint is the death of many. The 
best remedy is to burn with a red-hot 
iron the middle of the heel until the 



The Portuguese word re- 
presents the Marathi-Konkani 
mod&i, which, even at the 
present time, is the term used 
of indigestion, especially in the 
case of children. [See colera.] 

[The Marathi-Konkani word 
is from modnefo or modonk, ' to 
break up, to sink, to collapse '. 
Dalgado (Glossario) thinks it 
very probable that in former 
times this term, which is used 
of indigestion, was employed, 
by a kind of euphemism, to 
denote cholera, it being regard- 
ed as inauspicious in India to 
mention the fell disease by its 
proper name. There is a 
great deal to be said in favour 
of this view as, even at the 
present day among the com- 
mon people, it is regarded as 
unlucky to speak of a man as 
having been * bitten by a 
snake,' but it is believed to be 
more favourable to his recovery 
if he is described as having 
been * scratched by a thorn.' 
Yule observes that the Gujarati 
forms of modSi appear to be 
morchi or mora6hi. To this 

heat is felt, and by this the pain is 
allayed and the discharge and vomit- 
ing stopped. 1 ' Manucci, Storia do 
Mogor, ed. Irvine, Vol. IT, p. 169.] 

Dalgado says that Gujarati 
has no r, and morchi cannot 
be traced back to mdd&i. 
Portuguese has no d cerebral, 
and the sound which comes 
nearest to it is r, as is seen in 
the case of areca from adekka. 
The Portuguese writers of the 
16th century had very fine 
ears and they noticed that 
their morxi did not represent 
the exact transcription of 
mod6i which is trisyllabic, the 
a of the second syllable (da) 
being very silent or almost 
mute, and, therefore, very 
naturally added de to r, and in 
this way evolved the transcrip- 
tion mordexi, which after 
prolonged use became wor- 
dexim and existed side by side 
with the correct transcription 
morxi. During two centuries 
and more this word (mordexim) 
was employed by the Portu- 
guese and by all the Euro- 
peans who travelled to India 
to designate cholera : at times 
written mordicin by the 
Italians, as by Carletti ; other 
times mordisin by the French, 
as by Pyrard : sometimes wor- 
dexi by those who wrote in 
Latin, as by Bontius. Subse- 
quently, the French thought of 



giving the word a meaning, 
and, combining the sound of 
the word with the horrors of 
death from the disease, called 
the malady mort-de-chien. In 
the Lettres Edifiantes for the 
year 1702 there occurs the 
following phrase, which helps 
to fix the time of the adoption 
of the new name : ** This great 
indigestion which is called in 
India Mordechin, and which 
some of us French have called 
Mort-de-Chien " ( * Dog's 
Death 5 ). Although ridiculed, 
this name was adopted, not 
only in French works, but 
also in books written in other 
languages, and there was even 
an Englishman who literally 
translated the name thus : 
"The extraordinary distempers 
of this country are the Cholick, 
and what they call Dog's 
Disease, which is cured by 
burning the heel of the patient 
with a hot iron." See Ficalho, 
Colloquies da Orta, Vol. I, 
p. 275. The opinion of the 
' Englishman ' quoted above 
in taken from Acct. of the I. of 
Bowbon, in La Roque's Voy- 
age to Arabia the Happy, etc., 
E.T. London, 1726, p. 155, 
cit. in Hobson-Jobson. The 

history of the various trans- 
formations through which this 
interesting word has passed 
would be incomplete if we did 
not refer to Anderson (English 
in Western India, etc., p. 62) 
who by a curious metathesis 
having changed chien into 
Chine and, therefore, mort de 
chien into mort de Chine 
(' Chinese death ') says : " The 
disease which was prevalent 
in the country, and especially 
fatal in Bombay, was called by 
the Portuguese practitioners 
of medicine ' the Chinese 
death,' or colic.''] 

| Moreia (a fish). Mai. 
morea ; according to Rhum- 
pius, the word is used by the 
Malays to denote various 
plants by a kind of analogy. 
See Herbarium Amboinense 
VII, ch. 35. | 

Morrao (a match used by 
gunners ; piece of cord 
designed to burn at uniform 
rate for firing cannon). Konk. 
muram. Mai. muran. 1 

Mosquito >- (mosquito). 
Anglo-Ind. mosquito, moskito. 
[Fryer uses the forms muskeeto, 

1 " All the provisions, fuel, timber, 
murroes." Diogo do Couto, Dec., 
VI, i, 6. 




mosquito, and musquito}. 1 
Pid-Eng. muakito, skeeta. 

[Mosquito is the diminutive 
of the Port, mosca, 'a fly', 
and its earliest use, connected 
with South America, more 
especially Brazil, was to denote 
not the gnat so much dreaded 
to-day, but a very common 
and troublesome insect in 
those parts, described at some 
length by Moraes Silva in his 
Dictionary. Barbosa (1516) 
uses the word in this latter 
acceptation. "And in their 
houses they (the Baneanes) 
sup by daylight, for neither 
by night nor by day will they 
light a lamp, by reason of 
certain mosquitos which 
perish in the flame thereof " 
(Hak. Soc., ed. Dames, Vol. I, 
p. 112). The restricted use of 
the word to denote the species 
of gnat we now know by that 
name is of a later date.] 

Mostarda (mustard) . 

Konk. mustard. Mai. mos- 
tdrdi, mustdrdi, \ master \ (per- 
haps from the Dutch mostard) ; 

1 ["Swarms of Ants, Muskeetoes, 
Flies, and stinking Chinte." Fryer, 
East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 100. 
See also Vol. I, p. 231, and Vol. II, pp. 
99 and 191.] 

vern. term sasdvi. Tet., Gal. 
mustarda ; vern. term sasdbi. 

In Konkani, the use of the 
term is limited to mustard 
prepared for use at table ; 
otherwise the word sansvdth is 

[Mosteiro (? a big gun). 
Anglo-Ind. mustira. 1 

" Mustira is probably a cor- 
ruption of the Portuguese word 
Mosteiro, which means a big 
gun." Forrest Selections, 
(Home Series), Vol. I, p. 27, n. 
In the Portuguese dictionaries 
which I have consulted I do not 
find this meaning of the word ; 
it means a ' monastery or con- 

Mostra (sample, pattern) K . 
Konk. mostr ; vern. term 
namuno. Sinh. mostraya, 

mostaraya, mostr a, mastare ; 
vern. terms adr$aya, nidar- 
Sanaya. Tel. yiustaru, mus- 
taru. Anglo-Ind. muster. 3 ' See 

1 ["They (the Dutch) having now 
lately sent a sloupe fro' Mallacca with 
a Mustira Portugail in her." Forrest, 
Selections. Might mustira perhaps 
not be a misreading of mustiza 
(mestizo, g. v.) ?] 

2 ["Even amongst the English (in 
Ceylon), the number of Portuguese 




[Yule says that muster is 
current in Qhina, as well as in 
India. For citations see 
Hobson- Jobson.] 

JMouro (used of ' a Moham- 
medan'). 1 Konk. Moir. 
Anglo-Ind. Moor, Moorman. 
Sund. Mori. Kdpas mori 
(lit. 'Moorish cotton'), a 
species of cotton. Pid-Engl. 

terms in daily use is remarkable. The 
grounds attached to a house are its 
" compound," campinho ;. ... a trades- 
man is shown a '* muster,*' moatra or 
pattern." Tennent, Ceylon, Vol. II, 
p. 70, n. 2 ] 

"Wee were lodged in an upper 
Chamber and not permitted soe much 
as to looke out of our doores, much 
lesse either to see anie goods (saveinge 
the musters or the waight of them)." 
In Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, 
pt. ii, p. 480.] 

1 " He had in his company six hun- 
dred Mouros Guzarates, and Malava- 
res." FernSo Pinto, ch. xxvii. 

" In token of disparagement they 
call the Christians of these parts 
Frangues, just as we incorrectly call 
them Mouros." Jo&o de Barros, 
Dec. IV, iv, 16. 

" I regard this word mouro in the 
acceptation in which the Portuguese 
of old regarded it, viz. , as a synonym 
of Mohammedan, as denoting beliei 
but not race." Conde de Ficalho 
Garcia da Orta e o seu tempo, p. 112. 

2 The change of r into I in Pidgin 
English is normal. 

[All Mohammedans without 
exception were called by the 
Portuguese Mouros or Moors : 
this name of their nearest 
Moslem neighbours and one 
ime conquerors was extended 
by them to all the followers of 
[slam, and from the Portu- 
guese the use of this term, as 
synonymous with Moham- 
medan, passed to the Dutch 
and the English. The use of 
the term in its comprehensive 
sense is well brought out by 
Barbosa (ed. Dames, Vol. I, 
p. 1 19) : " The Mouros of this 
kingdom (Cambaya) are fair 
in complexion, and the more 
part of them are foreigners 
from many lands, scilicet 
Turks, Mamalukes, Arabs, Per- 
sians, Cora9ones, and Tar- 
gimoes (Turcomans) ; others 
come from the gieat kingdom 
of Dely, and others of the 
land itself." 

Yule says that the* use of 
the word Moor for Moham- 
medan died out pretty well 
among educated Europeans 
in the Bengal Presidency in 
the beginning of the last 
century, or even earlier, but 
probably held its ground 
longer among the British 


MUNiglO 235 

soldiery, whilst Moorish, as an 
adjective, continued to be used 
up to a later date. In Ceylon, 
the Straits, and the Dutch 
colonies, the term Moorman for 
a Musalman is still in common 
use, and the word is still 
employed by the servants of 
Madras officers in speaking of a 
certain class of Mohammedans. 
Moro is still applied at Manila 
to the Mussulman Malays. 
Not only in Portuguese India, 
but wherever Portuguese is 
spoken in Asia to-day, the 
Mohammedan is called Mouro. 
The French in India have also 
adopted the use of this term 
in the same sense.] 

Moutao (the block in a 
ship through which the ropes 
run). L.-Hindust. mutdm. 
motdm, matdm. 

Muita merce (many 
thanks). Beng. muita merce; 
a stereotyped expression used 
by the Christians in the Dacca 
district in raising toasts ; it 
has nothing to do with its real 
significance and is used in a 
sense corresponding to * your 
health '. 

Mulato (one who is the 
offspring of a European and a 

negro). Konk. muldt. Tul. 
mulatta. 1 

In Konkani, the term is also 
used as an adjective and is 
applied to fowls and chickens 
with frizzled feathers : muldt 
kombi, muldt pil [&om&t = hen ; 

; pil = chicken]. 

[Mulatto means ' young 

; mule', the offspring of a stallion 

| and she-ass , hence, one of 
mixed race. The word is 
analogous to mestizo, q.v.] 
Mulher, (arch, form mother, 

I woman). Mai. molir ; vern. 

j terms prempuan, betina. 

Muita (fine, penalty). Konk. 
mult ; vern. term dand. Tet., 
Gal. muita. 

j Muni^ao (in the sense of 
'small shot'). Konk. muni- 
sdihv, vern. term chharro 
(1. us.)- Sinh. munissarna (pi. 
munisan) ; vern. terms munda, 

*V.AM- ---- 

unda^. Munisan pa^iya, shot- 
belt. Mai. manisan. Ach. 

1 " A mulato named Jofio Leite 
dying in Bengal." Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. VI, vii. 3. 

" Those born of a Portuguese 
fathor and a Caff re, or African 
negro mother, are called Mulastres 
(' Mulattos'), and are held in like 
consideration with the Metifs ('meati- 
cos')." Pyrard, Fiogrem, II, p. 32 
[Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 38}. 




menisan or melisan. Tet., 
Gal. munisa ; vern. term 

In Malay and Achinese, the 
term is used, by analogy, of 
* comfits.' 

* Mura (" an ancient measure 
of Portuguese India corres- 
ponding to 735 litres," 
Candido de Figueiredo). 
Anglo-Ind. moorah. 

It appears that the source- 
word is the Marathi mudd 
(Konk. mudo), "rice made up 
in a circular package being 
fastened by wisps of straw," 
which, however, does not 
actually contain the quantity 
mentioned by Antonio Nunes : 
" The mura of batee (q.v.) 
contains three candis." 1 

[Garcia da Orta who wrote 
about twenty years after 
Nunes says that a candy is 
522 arrateis (pounds). Crooke 
quotes from the Madras Glos- 
sary: Mood a, Malay al muta, 
from mutu, ' to cover '. " a 
fastening package ; especially 
the packages in a circular form, 
like a Dutch cheese, fastened 

1 "And (to be given) in the form 
of bate (' paddy ') two hundred and 
forty- three muras." Simao Botelho, 
Tombo, p. 163. 

with wisps of straw, in which 
rice is made up in Malabar and 

Musica (music). Konk. 
muzg, [also a musician] ; vern. 
terms gayan, vazap. Hindust. 
musiki, muslgi. Muslglddn 
(subst.), a musician. Mai. 
musik. Tet., Gal. musika. 
Pers. muslgi. Ar. musika, 
muzika, musikay. Musiki, a 
musician. Musikari, musical. 
Malag. mozika. 

Dr. Schuchardt prefers the 
Dutch musick as the original 
of the Malay word. See 
cdmara. - / 


Nababo (nawab). Anglo- 
Ind. nabob, [Indo-Fr. nabab]. 
From the Hindustani nawab, 
plural of the Arabic naylb, ^ 
1 a deputj ', [an 1, therefore, 
applied to a Viceroy or 
Governor-General under the 
Moghuls as the representative 
of the Emperor, e.g., the 
Nawab of Oudh, Nawab of 
Surat]. 1 

[The Anglo-Indian * Nabob ', 

i "There was in Surat as Nababo 
a certain Persian Mohammedan 
( Mouro Parsio). ..." Bocarro, Dec. 
XIII, p. 354. 




in the sense of * a deputy or 
delegate of the supreme chief ', 
was directly taken from the 
Port, nababo. But in the 
Anglo-Indian vocabulary of 
the 18th century the name was 
also sarcastically employed to 
denote an Anglo-Indian who 
returned to England with an 
immense fortune from the East 
and affected a luxurious style 
of living. The Portuguese in 
the 17th century referred to a 
countryman of theirs in 
similar circumstances as India- 
tico, 1 just as in a later age 
they spoke of one who return- 
ed to Portugal after enriching 
himself in Brazil as Brasileiro, 
and the Spaniards called one 
of themselves who returned 
to Spain after making his for- 

" By virtue of the gift made by the 
Moghul Prince Idail Moindikan, con- 
firmed by the Nababo of Anata." 
Chron. de Tisauary, I, 324. 

[" As tho Kingdom of Angelim was 
under the control of the Nababo the 
Prince was much disturbed by this 
message." Manrique, Travels, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. 1, p. 23.] 

i [' * An Indiatico boards a ship in 
Goa with plenty of money and arrives 
here (Brasil) or in Lisbon without a 
bazaruco (q.v.)." Xavier Dormindo 
(1694), in Dalgado's Qon$alvea Fiona 
e a Lex. Port, etc., p. 112.] 

tune in South America Meji- 

Naique 1 (a captain of 
indigenous soldiers ; a head- 
man). Anglo-Tnd. naique, 
naik. Indo-Fr. naique. 

The source-word is the Neo- 
Aryan ndyak or ndyk, from the 
Sanskrit ndyaka. * leader, 
director, chief. [Its exact 
equivalent is the Latin dux.] It 
is also the title of some kings, 1 
and a title of honour among 
certain classes. [It was the 
title of the petty dynasties 
that arose in S. India on the 
downfall of the Hindu empire 
of Vijayanagar in the 16th 
century.] In Konkani it is the 
name of a catchpole or bailiff. 

Naique in Indo-Portuguese 
had various meanings : captain 
or chief of indigenous soldiers, 
ordinarily called pides ; a 
headman ; an Indian inspector 
or supervisor. 2 

1 "This Ventapanaique had 
become, in these times, very powerful, 
and had conquered and made himself 
the overlord of all the neighbouring 
chiefs." Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 471. 

2 "He sent also a Nayque with- 
twenty Abysstnians, who came to 
protect us from robbers, and to 
provide us with supplies." Fernao- 
Pinto, oh, iv. 




Naire.,.('name of the ruling 

"To guard against these he esta- 
blished some people of the same island 
of the Canarese Hindus (gentios) with 
their Naiques, who are the captains 
of the footmen and of the horsemen, 
according to the custom of the land." 
Barroa, Dec, II, v, 8. 

" And in this wise about the salaries 
of the captains as of the naiques and 
peaea" (* sepoys'). Simfto Botelho, p. 

"The footmen of the land having 
broken off with their naiques, who 
are their captains. ..." Gaspar Correia, 
II, p. 512. 

" Among the Hindus, Rao means 
king and Naique means a Captain ; 
,when these Kings (the Mohammedan 
sovereigns of the Bahmani Kingdom) 
take a Hindu into their service, and 
do not wish to give any very great 
title, they add the title Naique to 
his name, as Salva Naique, Acem 
Naique. ..." Garcia da Orta, Col. X. 
[ed. Markham, p. 72, omits parts of 
this passage.] 

* But he assumed, out of very great 
humility, the title Naique which 
means captain or leader. 1 ' Diogo do 
Couto, Dec. VI, v, 5. 

[" Oaptaine Wed dell, then allsoe 
our Comaunder, wrote a lettre by him 
to the Naigue, or King of the 
country." Peter Mundy, Travels, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, pt. I. p. 72.] 

" Its common Anglo-Indian applica- 
tion is to the non-commissioned 
officer of Sepoys who corresponds to 
a corporal ". Hobson-Jobson. 

[Hyder AH of Mysore was proud of 
being called Hyder Naik ; this ia inter- 
esting because Napoleon's soldiers after 

caste in Malabar'). Anglo- 
Ind. nair. Indo-Fr. nalre. 1 

It is the Malay al. ndyar^ 
derived from the Sansk. 
nayaka, * chief, leader.' 

[" Another derivation is from 
Naga, " a snake, or man of 
serpent descent", and some 
possibility is lent to this by 
the fact. . . .that every Nayar 
family still holds the serpent 

the crossing of the bridge of Lodi 
dubbed their leader ' caporal ' and even 
afterwards he came to be affection- 
ately known as * le petit caporal.'] 

1 " In this land of Malabar there 
is another caste of people who are 
called Nay res, and among them are 
noblemen who have no other duty 
than to serve in war." Barbosa, p, 
235 [Hak. Soc., ed. Damea, Vol. II, p. 
38]. "These men are called Nayres 
only from the time when they come 
forth for war." Idem, p. 327 [Hak. 
Soc., Vol. II, p. 45]. 

" This name Nair<*, although one 
may be of the same blood, cannot be 
assumed until such time as one is 
an armed knight, and as such enjoys 
the privileges of his rank." Joffo 
de Barros, Dec. I, ix, 3. 

" In this country of Malabar the 
class of hidalgos is called Naires, 
which means ' Men of War.' Gaspar 
Correia, I, p. 75. 

"The Naires whoarathe Knights.'' 
Garcia da Orta, Col XXII [ed. Mark- 
ham, p. 193. For a description of 
Knighthood among the Nairs, see 
Barbosa, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 45 et 




The word is of Dravidian 
origin, Malayal. 6la t Tarn. 
6hi, and does not only mean 
'a palrn-leaf,' * but also 'the 
leaf prepared for writing on,' 2 
and ' a written order on the 
leaf' 3 . 

the branches') as dois ramos ('two 
branches') and arrives at a version 
which is meaningless.] 

1 " All the rest of the town of (Cali- 
cut) was built of wood and thatched 
with a kind of palm-leaf which they 
call Ola ". Jofto de Barros, Dec. I, iv, 7. 

["It (the Town of Bombaim) is a 
full Mile in length, the Houses are 
low, and Thatched with Oleas of the 
Cocoo-Trees." Fryer, East India, Vol. 
I, p. 172.] 

['The greater number of houses in 
the city (of Arakan) are made of 
bambua, which.... are strong canes 
often of great thickness. These cane 
houses are covered in with palm- 
leaves, intertwined, known as Olas". 
(The palm referred to here is the 
Nipajrutican*, and not the coco-nut 
palm as in the preceding quotations.) 
Manrique, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 

* "They are accustomed to prepare 
their olas, which are palm -leaves, 
which they use for writing-paper, 
scratching it with an iron point.*' 
Caspar Correia, I, p. 212. 

a " He sent his ola of thanks to the 
inhabitants of Sdo Thom6 ". Caspar 
Correia, IV, p. 132. 

"He wrote an ola to Modeliar, in 
which he informed him that he was in 
the camp, as he had said he would 

[Besides the above meanings 
there is one in which the term 
is used by Portuguese chroni- 
clers, viz., that of gold or cop- 
per-plate, in imitation of the 
palm-leaf strip, with an ins- 
cription. 1 

Barbosa gives a very full 
account of the royal scribes of 
Calicut and of their manner of 
writing on palm-leaves 2 .] 

be " Jofto Ribeiro, Fatalidade hiat., 
Bk. II, ch. x. 

[In the last two quotations ola is 
used in the sense of * a letter.*] 

1 (" All this he ordered to be inscrib- 
ed on ollas of copper." Fr. Antonio 
de Gouveia, Jornada do Arcebispo 
(1602), fls. 4 and 5, in Oloasario.] 

[" He sent a Comptroller of the 
Revenue, the most important person- 
age in his Kingdom, with fifty horses, 
and the ola of gold, which is a thin 
sheet like a thin plate of gold." 
Conquista de Pegu (1617), ch. 13, in 

2 [" The King of Calicut continually 
keeps a multitude of writers in his 
palace who sit in a corner far from 
him ; they write upon a raised plat- 
form... They write on long and stiff 
palm-leaves, with an iron style with- 
out ink; they make their letters in 
incised strokes, like ours, and the 
straight lines as we do. Each of these 
men carries with him whithersoever 
he goes a sheaf of these written leaves 
under his arm, and the iron style in 
his hand. ..." Hak. Soc., ed. Dames, 
Vol. II, p. 18. This is how writing on 
palm-leaves is still done in Malabar 




6leo (oil). Konk. 61 (espe- 
cially used of Holy Oil or of 
medicinal oils); vern. terms 
tel ; pavitr tel ; okti tel. Beng. 
61, Holy Oil. 

On^a (ounce). Konk. oms. 
Jap. onsu ; perhaps from the 
English * ounce '. 

Opa (long loose robe). 
Konk. op. Beng. opd. Tarn., 
Tet., Gal. o' 

and in Ceylon, where even to-day, 
when certain important documents 
have to be written, the Ola or palm- 
leaf is preferred to paper, in view of 
the former's durability and the indeli- 
ble nature of the writing on it.] 

["The books of the Singhalese are 
formed to-day, as they have been for 
ages past, of olas or strips taken 
from the young leaves of the Talpat 
palm, cut before they have acquired 
the dark shade and strong texture 
which belong to the full grown frond." 
Tennent, Ceylon I, p. 512.] 

[" Caps, fans, and umbrellas are all 
provided from the same inexhaustible 
source (the palmyra palm), and strips 
of the finer leaves steeped in milk to 
render them elastic, and smoothed by 
pressure so as to enable them to be 
written on with a stile, serve for their 
books and correspondence; and are 
kept, duly stamped, at the cutcheries 
to be used instead of parchment for 
deeds and legal documents." Idem, 
Vol. II, p. 627.] 

1 " He ordered big opas to be made 
from rich brocades." Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. VII, i, 11. 

Ora$ao (prayer). Konk. 
orasafav \ vern. terms magqem, 
prarthan. Tet., Gal. orasa. 
Jap. orashyo, from Latin 
oratio, according to Dr. Mura- 

Ordem (order). Konk. ord] 
vern. terms nirdp, hukum, 
pharman ; kram, mandaval. 
Mai. ordi, urdi, rudi, 
| rodi. | Jav. urdi. Bug. 
rodi. Tet. drdt. 

Orgao (organ, in the sense 
of ' musical instrument '). 
Konk. orgdrti ; org (more us.). 
Mar. org, ork. Hindust. 
argan.arghanum. Beng., Tarn. 
organ. Sinh. orgalaya, orgale. 
Mai. organ, or gam, organon. 
Tet., Gal. org&o. Jap. 
orogan. Ar. arganun, argan, 
organ, orgon. 1 

Shakespear derives the 
Hindustani vocables from 
Greek, through Arabic, 

Ourives (goldsmith). Mai. 
orivis (Haex); vern. term 

i " He was carrying in a skiff some 
orgaos on which they were playing." 
Castanheda, I, p. 91. 

" With all that was necessary they 
came well furnished from the Kingdom 
(of Portugal), with or&aos and a 
beautiful picture of Our Lady of 
Piety. 1 ' Gaspar Correia, 1, p. 687. 




pande-mas, lit., ' craftsman of 

[Ouvidor (lit., an auditor; 
one hearing cases, a magis- 
trate). Anglo-Ind. ovidore. l 

Whit worth (Anglo-Indian 
Dictionary) says that ' ovidor ' 
is " the title of a magistrate 
under the Portuguese govern- 
ment of Bassein." This is 
but a part statement of a 
fact, for the Portuguese had 
ouvidores not only in Bassein 
but in all their important 
settlements in the East.] 

Paciencia (patience). Konk. 
pasyems (1. us.) ; vern. terms 
are sosndy, sosnikdy, usarpat. 
Tet. pasinsi. 

Padeiro (baker). Konk. 
pader ; vern. term undekdr (1. 
us.). Pader-khdn, bakery. 
Guj. pader, in pader-khdnum. 

1 ['* After they had asked us ques- 
tions of one sort and another, the 
captain ordered the Merigne to take 
us to the Oydor de Cidade (City 
Magistrate) as being robbers and his 
proper game.'* Pyrard, Voyage, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. I, 428.] 

["On this the Oyodores and most 
of the Councillors assembled. 
Manrique, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
p. 40.] 

Khan and khdnum are from 
Hindust. khand, ' establish- 
ment, workshop '. See pdo. 

In Konkani at times pharn 
or kharn, from the Portuguese 
forno (* oven '), are used for ' a 
bakery '. 

Padre (in the sense of 
* priest, clergyman, mission- 
ary, parish priest, pastor'). 
Konk., Mar., Guj., Hindi, 
Hindust., Beng., Khas. padri. 
Padripan (Konk.), the state 
or condition of a priest. Sinh. 
pddiri t pddeli (followed by the 
usual unndnse, * reverend 5 ). 
Tarn., Malayal. pddiri ; padri- 
ydr (honorific). Tel. pddiri. 
Kan. padri, pddari. Tul. 
pddri, padre. Anglo-Ind. 

padre, padri (especially * Catho- 
lic priest'). Siam. bat. 1 Mai.. 
Sund., Tet., Gal. padri. Pid.- 
Engl., Chin. pa-ti-li t pa-te-le. 
Jap. bdteren. 2 

The clergy : padri-lok, 
Konk., Mar., Guj.; padri-log, 
Hindi ; padri-lok, padri-log, 
Hindust. ; padilivare, Sinh. ; 

1 For 6 in place of p, cf. 6S6=Sansk. 
papa, (' sin '); for t in place of dr, cf. 
t'ntfta=Sansk. indra ('the god Indra'). 

2 P initial is little used in Japanese. 
The dissolution of the compound 
consonant is the rule. Cf. vtdro. 




pddri-galu, Kan. ; pddrelu, 
Tul. Lok or log is from the 
Sansk. loka, * persons, people.' 
Pradhdn padri, a prelate. 
Rum kd pradhdn padri, the 
Roman Pontiff, the Pope. 

Bard-pddri (lit. the great 
padre'), Father Superior. 1 
Sarddr-padri, the bishop. 
Ldf-padri (also us. in Hindi 
and Khassi), bishop, arch- 
it** Padre Giu" (which corres- 
ponds to Reverend Sir in our language), 
" do you wish that we should proceed 
more severely against the Siguiclar ? " 
Manrique, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p 425. Padre Giu = Padre- ji, the affix 
ji being honorific. Siguidar=Pers. 
shiqdar, a revenue officer.] 

[" The Captain-major replied that 
among infidels it was essential that 
such demonstrations should be made 
in order that they should appreciate 
the position held by members of our 
Religious orders and by Priests and 
respect them. The more so in this 
case, since the news that the boro 
Padre, which is to say great Priest, 
was arriving had spread throughout 
the whole country. This name was 
applied by the pagans to the Priors of 
our Residencies in those Principalities, 
to whom the Bishops of San Tom6 or 
Meliapor usually delegated the power 
to inspect and generally officiate in the 
territory lying within their spiritual 
jurisdiction." Idem, Vol. I, p. 162. 
Boro padre= Hindus t. Bada Padre, 
'Great Father.'] 

bishop. Ldf is the corruption 
of the English * lord '. Rum kd 
sarddr padri, the Pope. Padri 
kd muhalla, a parish. Sarddr 
padri kd taaluga, a diocese. 
Sarddr padri kd maqam, Cathe- 
dral Church. Hindustani. 

In Madras the name Padri- 
gudi^s met with, and in Bengal 
PadriSibpur, names of missions 
belonging to the Portuguese 
Padroado 1 [q.v.]. 

1 " Padri 13 used by all classes for a 
Christian Minister.*' Candy. 

" And it is sometimes applied also 
to Brahmans or other religious 
persons." Whitworth. 

" I have already mentioned in the 
Journal of Rom. Phil. 6 xiii, 510, that 
this word (padre) is also applied to 
protestant clergymen and even also to 
heathen priests." Schuchardt, Kreol. 
Stud., ix. 

" In Malay the word padri signifies 
a Catholic priest. However, in 1820 
in the island of Sun atra, during an 
insurrection against the Dutch which 
has grown into a desperate struggle 
for more than twenty years, the chiefs, 
priests, and Mohammedan "pilgrims, 
and the partisans of a very fanatical 
religious sect, have assumed the name 
padri, and from this time this name 
has been given to all the insurgents " 

A Hindu landowner of Pern&m (Goa), 
in the course of conversation carried 
on in Konkani, once mentioned to me 
that his son, whom he introduced to- 
me, was being taught Marathi by a 




[Yule points out a peculiar- 
ity in the use of the term 
* padre ' in India among the 
Portuguese. It was a singular- 
ity of their practice at Goa, as 
noticed by P. della Valle, 1 to 
give the title of Padre to secular 
priests, whereas in Italy this 
was reserved to the religiosi or 
regulars. In Portugal itself 
the use was the same as in 
Italy ; but, as the first ecclesi- 
astics who went to India were 
monks, the name apparently 

padre mestre (' a priest-teacher '). 
When I expressed my surprise at this, 
I was told that the boy's teacher was 
a layman but he was referred to 
deferentially by the same style and 
title by which the priest who taught 
in the Government school of the place 
was addressed. 

[" Many families of Braminys* dayly 
leaving y' Portuguezes territories and 
repaire hither (Bombay) frighted by 
yc Padrees, who upon y^ death of 
any person forces all his children to be 
Christians." Forrest, Selection (Home 
Series), Vol. T. p. 120.] 

1 ["The Portugal* call Secular 
Priests, Fathers, as we do the 
Religious, or Monasticks." Della 
Valle, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 142.] 

[" I went into y City of Diarbikeer 
to visit y t% French Padres of y Order 
of St. Francis, who received and enter- 
tained me with great civility and 
respect." Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. I, p. 232.] 

became general among the 
Portuguese there for all priests. 

Thomas Bowrey (A Geogra- 
phical Account of Countries 
Round the Bay of Bengal 1669 
to 1679) employs all three 
names : Priests, * Patrees ', and 
Fathers. 1 

Though the term was ori- 
ginally introduced by the 
Portuguese to describe their 
priests, it still does duty in 
India for a chaplain or minister 
of any Christian denomina- 

1 [" Many of them (Parjars = 
(Pariahs) of Chore rnandel) nowadays 
are yearly converted to the Christian 
faith by the Portugal Priests and 
Jesuites." p. 41.] 

['* I have Seen many of the like 
Sort in Other places of India and 
Persia; but, however, the Portugal 
Patrees, whose dependence is meerly 
upon telling faire tales., ." p. 50.] 

[' The Portugueeses haveinge collect- 
ed a good Summ of moneys (in 
Bengala) to the End they might build 
a very large and decent Church, they 
now make preparation to begin the 
worke. Haveinge provided Stone, 
brick, lime, timber, they pull downe 
the Old one, and begin the new 
foundation, but ere one fourth finished 
the Moors, by Order of theire Gover- 
nour stopped the worke, commanding* 
the workmen Upon paine of imprison- 
ment not to proceed e, to the great 
griefe of the Fathers, and alias. '* 
p. 194.] 




Padrinho (god-father) . 
Konk. padan, padin. Beng. 
padu. j, 

Padroado ('the right of 
patronage called in English 
4 Advowson ' granted by the 
Popes to Portuguese sovereigns 
over Roman Catholic Churches 
in the East, and especially 
over those in India). Konk. 
padrovdd. Beng. padrovadu. 
Tarn, padrovadu. [Anglo- 
Ind. padroado. 1 ] 

[The frequent and tense 
misunderstandings and dis- 
putes between those Roman 
Catholics in Bombay, Calcutta, 
Madras, and other places in the 
East, who owed obedience to 
Bishops nominated by the 
Portuguese sovereign, called the 
Padroadists, and those others, 
who were under the spiritual 
jurisdiction of prelates ap- 
pointed by the Congregation 
of the Propagation of the Faith 
in Rome, called the Propa- 
gandists, especially in the last 
two decades of the 19th cen- 
tury, were responsible for the 

i ["With the abolition of the 
Padroado and the enjoyment of 
freedom from State trammels the 
Catholic Church will prosper in 
India..." The Padroado Question 
(1886), Examiner Press, Bombay.] 

introduction of this term into 
Anglo-Indian vocabulary. The 
' Padroado Question ' was then 
a familiar topic of conversa- 
tion and of controversy in 
newspapers and pamphlets. 
The Portuguese word is derived 
from the Lat. patrocinium, 
' patronage '.] 

[Padroadista (a term coined 
in Indo- Portuguese to denote 
one who is under the spiritual 
jurisdiction of Bishops nomi- 
nated by Portugal, or one who 
defends the right of the Portu- 
guese nation to ecclesiastical 
patronage in British India). 
Konk. padroadist. Anglo-Ind. 
padroadist. 1 

A parallel formation was 
that of the term Propagandista 

{ Paga ('salary, payment'), 
^Pagar (' to pay', used as a 

l [' When all this is done, let India 
be divided into as many dioceses as 
will be required, let their endowment 
be legally secured....; then the new 
clergy may become the proprietors of 
all the Colleges, Schools, Churches. . . 
and in fact of all that is now held and 
done by the present clergy under the 
Vicars Apostolic in British India. 
That will then be the beginning of the 
realization of the loftiest dreams of the 
most eager Padroadists." The 
Padroado Question.] 




subst.), Konk. pdg. Mar. 
pdg, pagdr. Pag&ri, stipen- 
diary. Baifhdpagdr, super- 
annuation, pension. Guj. 
pagdr. Pagdt apvo, pagdr 
karvo, to pay. Pagdr apvo 
joy 6, payable, Pagdr lendr, 
one receiving salary. Hin- 
dust. pagdr (us. only in the 
Bombay Presidency ; in other 
parts, talab). Sindh. paghdru. 
? Kan. pagadi, tax, customs- 
duty. Tul. pagaru (also us. in 
the sense of 'hire, rent'). 
Anglo-Ind. (in Bombay) pagdr. 1 
The Neo-Aryan terms are 
mufordy mazuri, vetan, pharik- 
pan, talab. 

In Marathi there is another 
vocable, pdg (fern.), which 
signifies " the duty paid by a 
vessel when it leaves port." 
I believe that it is derived from 
the Portuguese word, though 
Molesworth does not say so. 

Pgina (page of a book). 
Konk. pdzn, paserti (through a 
middle form *pdsri). Guj. 
pdsum. Sindh. pasd. The 
Neo-Aryan terms are pan, 
putto, varakh, pair, patro. 

Pagode (in the sense of 

1 "This word is commonly adopted 
in the vernaculars for monthly salary. " 

' idol, temple, coin ' *). Anglo- 
Ind. pagoda. Indo-Fr. pagode, 
pagodin. Tet. pagodi? 

1 [The order in the original is 
41 temple, idol, coin ", which has been 
altered as above to fit in with the 
results of the author's latter investi- 
gations. A similar alteration was 
inevitable in the order and arrange- 
ment of the citations.] 

2 A. Pagode meaning * an idol '. 
[1525. "And after the Brahmins 

had completed their ceremonies and 
sacrifices, they told the King that it 
was time for him to advance for the 
Pagodes had given him a sign of 
victory.*' Chronica de Bisnaga, p. 29.] 

(When King Crisnarao was astoni 
shed to find that all the work done by 
day in making a water tank was un- 
done at night) " he ordered all his wise 
men and wizards to be called together, 
and asked them what they thought 
of the phenomenon ; whereupon they 
said that their pagodes were not 

pleased with the work " Idem, p. 


[" In this House of Victory the 
King has a house built of cloth with 
its door made fast in which he keeps 
a pagode, nn idol " Idem, p. 102.] 

4 'Very often the devil is in them, 
but they regard him as one of their 
gods, or pagodes, for this is the 
name they give him." Castanheda, 
Bk. I, oh. 14. 

"Saying that they all had 
offended their pagodes in not having 
offered sacrifices and gifts which had 
been promised to them." JoSo de 
Barros, Dec. I, iv, 18. 

' ' Swearing besides by his pagodes, 
which are their idols and which they 




Half a dozen etymologies 
are suggested for this word, 

worship for gods." Gaspar Correia, 
I, P. 119. 

[" And they have their idols stand- 
ing in the woods, which they call 
Pagodes." Ralph Fitch, in Early 
Travels in India ( 192 1 ), O.U.P., p. 15.] 

[" And the red sandal is also used on 
pagodes or idols." Orta, Col. xlix ; ed. 
Markham, p. 394. Markham's render- 
ing is faulty, because he ignores 
entirely * or idols ', which gives pagodes 
the meaning of ' temples '.] 

["It is a most grave offence against 
Divine Majesty. .. .to light lamps 
before pagodes, or in places dedicated 
to them, to anoint them with oil, 
sandal, and other things, to place 
flowers on them.,.." The First Pro- 
vincial Council (1567), in Archivo Port. 
Or., Fasc. IV, p. 13.] 

"Especially with the Bonzes, who 
had the house full of images of 
pagodes." P. Sabatino de Ursis 
(1611), Matheus Ricci. 

[" Sevagee Raja. . . .has vowed to his 
pagod, never to sheath his sword till 
he has reached Dilly, and shutt up 
Orangsha in it." Hedges, Diary, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. II, p. cccxxvi.] 

B. Pagode meaning * a temple '. 

" In their [of the Nairs of Malabar] 
temples, which are called Pagodes, 
they perform many enchantments 
and witchcrafts." Duarte Barbosa, 
Livro, p. 333 [ed. ' Dames, Vol. II, p. 

["In this city of Goa, and all over 
India, there are an infinity of ancient 
buildings of the Gentiles, and in a 
small island near this, called Dinari 
(Divari), the Portuguese, in order to 

among them the Persian but- 
kadah, * idol temple ', and 

build the city, have destroyed an 
ancient temple called Pagode, which 
was built with marvellous art, and 
with ancient figures wrought to the 
greatest perfection in a certain black 
stone, some of which remain standing, 
ruined and shattered, because these 
Portuguese care nothing about them. 
If I can come by one of these shattered 
images I will send it to your Lordship, 
that you may perceive how much in 
old times sculpture was esteemed in 
every part of the world." Letter of 
Andrea Corsali to Giuliano de Medici, 
in Ramusio, 1. f. 177, cit. in Hobson- 
Jobson. ] 

[These pagodes are houses in 
which they conduct their worship, 
and have their idols, which are of 
different forms, viz., of men, women, 
bulls, monkeys, and there are others 
in which there is nothing besides a 
round stone which they adore." 
Chronica de Bianaga, p. 84.] 

"It is a pagode which is the house 
of prayers to their idols, which has 
been set apart for this purpose." 
Castanheda, Historia, I, 14. 

" The buildings of their pagodes, 
which are their churches." Gaspar 
Correia, Lendaa, I, p. 181. 

" All that pagode in which we 
notice many wonderful things." 
Diogo do Couto, Dec., IV, iv. 7. 

" On the other side (of Adam's 
Peak) is the Pagode, which is their 
Church." Fatalidade hist., Bk. 1, 
ch. 23 

[ "A Pagode or China Church. Woe 
went to a Pagode of theirs, a reason- 
able handsome building and well 




Sanskrit, bhagavati, ' a god- 
dess ', as especially applied to 

tyled." Peter Mundy, Travels, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. Ill, pt. i, p. 190.] 

[" At the present time they (the 
walls of Chitor city) are so dilapidated 
and ruinous that it is only here and 
there that ono sees fragments of its 
past grandeur, for, besides other build- 
ings, there still stand sumptuous and 
most magnificent Pagodas or Temples 
to Pagan and false Gods, as well as 
many other structures and private 
houses." Manrique, Travels, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. II, p. 284.] 

[" Overagainst where she (a great 
Junk of the Moors) rode, a fair 
Pagod or Temple of th^ Qentua t 
beleaguered with a Grove of Trees. . . . 
cast a Lustre bright and splendid, 
the Sun reverberating against its 
refulgent Spire, which was crowned 
with a Ulobe white as Alabaster, of 
the same tincture with the whole." 
Fryer, East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 74.] 

["It seems that some yeares if not 
ages since, I suppose about the time 
of the Moores first Conquests, they 
were severe against the Idolatry of 
the Hindooes, and sett a Poll Tax 
upon all the Family of Indians, which 
as I said made many of them turne 
Moores, nor was any Pagod or 
Idolatrous Temple of the Hindooes 
suffered to stand except the Hindooes 
at their owne charge made a place for 
Prayer for the Mahometans adjoyning 
to the very walls of it, and if they 
did 8oe, then they might build new 
Pagods, but since those times, 
especially during the Raignes of 
Jangeer and Sha- Jehaun, the Hindooes 

Durga or Kali. The latter has 
more reasons in its favour. 

were not at all molested in the 
exercise of their Religion, but were in 
flavour and Preferred to the great and 
Meane offices of the Kingdome soe 
well as the Moors." Letter from 
Surat, in Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. II, p. cccix.] 

["The Party soe misdemeaneinge 
him selfe [by losing his caste], whether 
he be rich or poore, (Except he intends 
to live in perpetuall ignominie) must 
take his travaile to the great Pagod 
Jno. Gernaet [JagannSth]." Bowrey, 
The Countries, etc., Hak. Soc., p. 12. 
This temple of Jagannath was also 
known as the ' White Pagoda '.] 

"Deer. 23d. We sailed in sight 
of the Black Pagoda and the White 
Pagoda. The latter is that place 
called Juggernat, to which the 
Hindues from all parts of India come 
on pilgrimages ". Streynsham Master's 
Journal, in Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. II, p. ccxxxviii. 

(7. Pagode meaning * a coin.' 

"Which coins, the Pagodes, were 
formerly called parddo d'ouro (see under 
-pardao) and each was worth 360 reis." 
Francisco Pais, Tombo Geral, fol. 

"With a sum of gold pagodes, a 
coin of the upper country (Balagate), 
each of which is worth 500 reis.** 
Diogo do Couto, Dec., VII, i, 11. 

" There were many chetties, who are 
merchants, who spoke of candys of 
gold pagodes, which is a coin re- 
sembling, lupine-seed, which has the 
figure of the pagode of these gentiles, 
and each one of which is worth more 
than four hundred reis." Diogo do 




The word bhagavati, in its 
passage to the Dravidian 

Couto, Dial, do Soldado Pratico, 
p. 156. 

["The Coin current here (Mechla- 
patan) is a Pagod, 8s.; Dollar, 4s. Qd.; 
Rupee, 2s. 3d.; Cash, Id. I ; a Cash ." 
Fryer, East India, Vol. I, p, 96. 
Crooke in a note to this word says 
that accounts at Madras, down to 
1815, were kept in pagodas, fanams, 
and cash. 80 cash = l single fanam; 
42 single fanams=l pagoda. In the 
above named year the rupee was made 
the standard coin.] 

["Noe man is admitted to marry 
(in Choromandel), Unlesse he can pur- 
chase moneys to the Value of 20 
or 25 pa gods, a Coine very Cur- 
rent here, which moneys the Male 
must bestowe upon the Parents of her 
he purposeth to be his Wife, to gaine 
their consent." Bowrey, The Countries 
etc., Hak. Soc., p. 30.] 

[" Currant Coynes in this Kingdome^ 

Fort St. Georg's, vizt. 

lb. s. d. 
New Pa gods here coyned 

passe att the Kingdome 

over all the Rate of .. 00 08 00 

The Pagod Valueth 00 08 06 

The Old Pagod Valueth 00 12 00 

Porto Novo and Trincombar 
The Pagod there Coyned 

Valueth but . . . . 00 06 00 

Idem, pp. 1 14 and 115.] 
[" You say likewise you think it not 
reasonable, that you should pay more 
money then was paid to the Black 
Merchants, and that at Nine Shillings 
a Pagoda What sort of Idiot must 

languages, ought in the mouth 
of the people to be transformed 
into pagodi 9 in accordance with 
phonetic laws. In fact, this 
form pogtidi or pavodi is used 
in Coorg, with reference to 
Kali, the goddess very popular 
in Southern India. Gundert 
mentions the Malayal. pagodi 
as the name of the temple of 
Durga, from which he derives 
the Portuguese pagode ; but 
Burnell maintains the contrary, 
and regards the Portuguese 
word as the original of the 
Malayalam. The name of the 
divinity would easily be ex- 
tended to the temple, if not by 
the indigenous population, at 
any rate by foreigners, Arabs 
or Portuguese. There is, for 
instance, the term milagre 
('miracle'), which the Mara- 
thas of the Konkan and the 
Mussulmans of South India 
sometimes use in referring to 

that be to Lend you a Pagoda at 
Nine Shillings, when at Bottomry at 
that time could have had Thirteen 
and Sixpence, and Diamonds Security? 
or to have bought them, would have 
made from Sixteen Shillings to 
Twenty Shillings a Pagoda ? " From 
T. Pitt and Council of Fort St. 
George to the Court oj Directors etc., 
in Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, 
p. civ.] 




an image of the Virgin Mary, 
and, at other times, a Catholic 
Church, because in those parts 
of the country there are many 
churches dedicated to Our Lady 
of Miracles. The third mean- 
ing, in which the word is used, 
is that of money ; the origin 
of this, in the speech of the 
Portuguese, is in all probability 
due to the image of bhagavatl 
or other divinity which was 
stamped on one side of the 
coin. See Hobson-Jobson, and 
Gon^alves Viana, Apostilas. 

In Portugal, pagode is more 
used in the figurative sense of 
' feasting and revelry ' ; but 
such a meaning is unknown in 
India. The natural explana- 
tion for this appears to be that 
this meaning was suggested by 
the feasts of the pagodas which 
are very pompous, and at times 
extravagant, especially to the 
eyes of a foreigner. 1 

[The author has dealt at 
great length with the origin of 
this word in his Contribui$de8, 

i " The boys used to laugh whilst 
recounting the pagode held last 
evening at the house of a half -caste 
maiden." Garcia da Orta e o seu 
tempo, p. 177. [For earlier references 
to the word, in this acceptation, see 

etc., (1916), and his Qlossario, 
Vol. ii (1921). As his investi- 
gations therein, subsequent to 
those set forth in this work, 
throw new light on the origin 
of this intricate word, we 
present a r6sum6 of them here. 
For good and various reasons he 
rejects the suggestions which 
would give it a Chinese, Portu- 
guese or Persian origin, and 
definitely states that it appears 
to him that the original of 
pagode is the Sansk. term 
Bhagavatl, ' Durga or Kali '. 
Bhagavatl in the process of its 
transition from Sansk. to the 
Dravidian languages, in accord- 
ance with the usual phonetic 
laws, must become Pagawadi 
or Pag6di. With regard to 
the initial p for bh, we have 
Tamil pandam for the Sansk. 
bhandam, ' an earthen vessel ' ; 
Pirama for Sansk. Brahma ; 
baspam or parpam for Sansk. 
bhasman, ' ashes '. With re- 
gard to d for t intervocalic, we 
have in Malayalam : pradi 
('copy') for Sansk. prati, 
sammadi (' consensus ') for 
Sansk. sammati, apakadam 
('accident') for Sansk. apa- 
ghata. It remains to justify 
the change of ava to o. In 




this connection it must be 
noted that, whether the in- 
digenous form was pagawadi or 
pagudi, they would both sound 
to the ears of a stranger as 
pagodi. The Indian v is a 
semi-vowel, equivalent to the 
English w, which with the 
short a preceding it would 
sound like au (as happens 
generally in Konkani) and 
would absorb the vowel follow- 
ing. Of such cases we have 
instances in the Tamil Para- 
mechchuran, from Sansk. Para- 
megvara, ' the Supreme Lord ' ; 
in the Neo-Aryan sona or 
sonem, from Sansk. suvarqa, 
'gold', in Dravidian hona or 
Jiun. Moreover, the form pagodi 
exists in some of the Dravi- 
dian regions. In Coorg the 
people, according to Kittel, 
give to Kali the title Pagtidi 
or Pavodi. Gundert mentions 
in his dictionary the Malayal. 
pagddi (but writes it pakoti, 
according to the character of 
the language) as a synonym of 
Bhagavati Durga, from which 
he derives the Port, pagode. 
It is of no use to allege that 
bhagavat or bhagavatl is in no 
Indian language the name of 
* a temple ', and that it is in 

this sense of a temple that 
' pagode ' is generally employ- 
ed, for it is not necessary to 
suppose, as Yule and other 
etymologists do, that the 
acceptation of ' temple ' is the 
first and the most important 

Historically, there is no- 
thing to justify the view that 
in Portuguese the meaning of 
* temple ' must have priority 
over other acceptations. It is 
true that Barbosa and Corselli 
in 1516 use it in that sense, 
but there is very good reason 
for this. The Portuguese had 
the word idolo to denote * the 
images of pagan cult ' ; it was 
a word very much used in that 
age. In an age of great re- 
ligious fervour, such as the 
sixteenth century was, it would 
have been regarded as profana- 
tion to speak of the casas dos 
falsos deuses (< houses of the 
false gods') as temples or 
churches. Hence they were 
put to the necessity of employ- 
ing pagode in that sense. In 
Chronica de Bisnaga (1526- 
1535) pagode, though used fre- 
quently in the sense of * a 
temple ', is employed five times 
in that of * an idol ' and not 



Ovington, Littr6, Devic, and 
Burnell. But phonetically 
but-kadah or but-kedah differs a 
great deal from pagode, and 
semantioally does not offer 
reasons for all the acceptations 
of the word. Moreover, it is 
necessary to assume that the 
Portuguese received the term 
from the Mohammedans. See 
Dalgado, Contribuicdes, etc., 
p. 161 seqq.] 

Pai (father) . Konk. pay, tiie 
appellation generally used of 
a father among the Christiana 
of Goa (babd, in Kanara ; dddd 
among the Hindus) ; vern. 
term bap ; bapuy. Kamb. 
pay. Used in the sense of 
4 Pope ', among the Christians. 
Mai. pay (Haex) ; vern. term 

In Konkani: pdy-tiv (=pat- 
tio of the Port, dialects), 
paternal uncle, uncle on the 
father's side ; vhadlo-pdy (lit. 
4 big father'), the paternal 
uncle who is older than the 
father ; dhak(6-pdy (lit. ' small 
father ') , the youngest uncle. 
See mde. 

Palanca (a defence made 
of large stakes). L.-Hindust. 
palang. *> > ^ \ ^ x 
~~ [ Vieyra also mentions palan- 

co, and gives as its meaning 
" (in a ship) one of the halliards 
so called." Might this word 
not he the original of the L.- 
Hindust. term ?] 

Palangana (a flat dish). 
Konk. palgan. Sinh. palan- 
gana, palangdnama, a dish. 
Tarn, pingdn, porcelain, a 
dish. Malayal. pinndnam. 
Chinappiftndnam, porcelain. 
Tel. pingdni, plngdni. Kan. 
pingdni. Tul. pingana, pin- 
gani 9 pingdni, porcelain. Mai. 
pingan, pinggan, a dish. Ach., 
Batt., Sund., Jav., Day., 
Batav., Taga'u, Bisaio (the last 
two I* .iguages belong to the 
Philippine Islands and are of 
the Polynesian family), pingan. 
Bal. palungan\ pingan, a 
hollow dish, a tureen. Bug. 
pinjan. Mac. pinjen. 1 

Pingan or pinjan are per- 
haps not derived from 
palangana. Shakespear derives 
the Hindust. /in/an, ' a por- 
celain plate,' from theJPersian. 

Palanquim ( ( a litter 
carried on a pole'). Anglo- 
Ind. palanquin, palankeen. 

1 " Another pallangnana mado in 
a different style." A. Tomaa Pires, 
Materiaes, etc., in Jour. Geo. Soc. 
Lisb., 16th series, p. 716. 



Indo-Fr, palanquin. ? Mai., 
Jav. peldnki, pldnki ; vern. 
terms kremun, tandu, joli, 
usongon. Malag. palankina. 1 

1 "He takes twenty five or thirty 
wpraen from those who are his 
greatest favourites and each one of 
them goes in her own pallamque 
which are like andas ('litters')." 
Chronica de Bisnaga (1535), p. 61. 

"The King of Bisnaga also comes 
to this feast, and comes with the 
greatest possible pomp, bringing with 
him as many as ten thousand horse, 
and two hundred thousand foot- 
soldiers, and hundred, and two 
hundred women attached to his person, 
TV ho come in palanquyns and litters 
looked with key, in a way that they 
might not be seen by any Sle, but 
that they might see everything 
through a fine silver net. . . ." Qasper 
Correia, Lendas, IV, p. 302. [The 
page number in the original is 460 
which is a slip.] 

" No person of whatever quality or 
condition shall go in a palanquim 
without my express permission, except 
those who are more than seventy 
years old." Letter Patent of the Viceroy 
Mathias de Albuquerque, dated 22 June, 

"The Governor used to go in a 
palanquim." Diogo do Couto, Dec. 
VI, v, 10. "He maintained that no 
prblic woman should go in a 
palanquim unless it was uncovered." 
Id., Dec. VII, i, 12. 

[* November 27 (1615). In much 
weaknes, beeing Carried in a Pall an - 

kie November 28. I hastened 

A way in my Palenkie and soe 

The Neo-Aryan word is 
palki^ from the Sanskrit 
paryanka. Yule and Burnell 
say that the nasal of the 
second syllable of palanquim 
may be explained by the 
influence of the Spanish 
palanca. But Malayalam has 
pallanki, which Gundert men- 

in my Palenkie/' Sir T. Roe, 
Embassy, Hak. Soc., p. 100.] 

[" Portugall Weomen Scantt (in 
Goa)," The generality Mestizaes, 
apparelled after this country Manner. . 
The better sort have store of 
Jewells and are Carried in covered 
Palanqueenes." Peter Mundy, Hak 
Soc., Vol. Ill, pt, i, p. 63. The form of 
the palanquin in use at Qoa can be 
seen from Linschoten's illustrations in 
the original edition : " Portuguese 
gentleman in palankin ", and " Portu- 
guese lady in open palankin."] 

[" Att Night, about the 7th or 8th 
houre, and from that to the 12th, the 
Bridegroom and bride " re carried in a 
Palanchino, through all the principle 
Streets of the towne attended with 
many Lamps and Torches, dancinge 
women, with all Sorts of the Countrey 
musick. . . . " Bowrey, Hak. Soc., p. 30. 
Bowrey gives an illustration of a 
palanchino on p. 86 which the editor, 
Sir Uichard Temple, believes to be 
not of the palanquin of to-day but 
of what is known in the Madras 
Presidency as ' muncheel ' (q.v.).] 

[There are a large number of 
variant forms of Palanquin cited in 
The Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXX, p. 



tions as a corruption (tadbhava) 
of the Sanskrit word. Could 
the Portuguese have carried 
the word to Malacca or did 
they receive it thence ? 

[The author has devoted 
considerable attention and 
space to this word in his 
Contributes, etc. (p. 73), 
wherein he suggests an answer 
to the query he puts in this 
book. He accepts that the 
Port, palanquim is derived 
ultimately from the Sansk. 
paryahka or palyahka, ' a bed ', 
but maintains that there is no 
need whatever to suggest, as 
Yule does, that the Port, or 
Sp. palanque or palanca ( 4 a 
pole used to carry loads on 
the shoulders of two bearers ') 
had any influence in deter- 
mining the form palanquim, 
especially as regards the 
nasalisation of the second 
syllable. He says the Sansk. 
paryahka or palyahka is repre- 
sented in Pali by pallanko, and 
in the Indo-Aryan languages 
such as Mar., Konk., Guj., 
(which also has paryahka) by 
palahg ('bed, sofa'). In the 
sense of * litter', it is met 
with in all Indian languages, 
Aryan or Dravidian, under 

the forms palki, palkhi, palgi, 
pallakki, pallakku, pallakkiya ; 
and in Malay o- Javanese, 
ptildngki, pldngki or paldng- 

The Port. palanquim, 
which in this form passed into 
the other European languages, 
is no doubt of Indian origin, 
but how are we to account for 
the two nasals pala(n)ki(m)^ 
The nasal termination is easily 
explained by the well-known 
phenomenon in which the tonic 
i of the Indian languages 
becomes nasalised in passing 
over into Portuguese, as in 
chatim, lascarim, mandarim, 
Samorim, Cochim. The diffi- 
culty is to account for the 
medial nasal. If the Pali 
pallanko were accepted as the 
immediate source of the Port, 
word, the difficulty disappears ; 
but Pali was scarcely ever a 
spoken language. Again, 
Sinhalese, which has been most 
influenced tyy Pali, has pallak- 
ki(ya). If it were possible to 
fix the birth place of the 
Port, vocable in Insulandia, 
the Malayo-Jav. paldngki, 
or, as Williamson has it, 
palangking, might bo regarded 
as the source-word. But the 



vernacular! ty of the Malay word 
is open to doubt, nor is there 
evidence to show that it was 
current in those parts before 
the Portuguese arrival ; again 
there are indigenous synonyms 
for palanquin, viz., kremun, 
tandu, usongon ; joli which is 

The form usually employed 
in Malayalam is pallakku, as 
in Tamil, or pallakki, as in 
Kanarese. But Gundert 
registers pallankl, which 
appears to have the savour of 
Portuguese influence. But 
Tulu has pallehki, side by side 
with pallaki, which squares 
neither with the Malayalan 
pallanki, nor the Port, palan- 
quin, , but with the English 
' palanquin.' Moreover, the 
influence of Tulu on Portu- 
guese is nil. It is extraordinary 
that none of the Indian 
languages should have preserv- 
ed the original nasal which is 
found in palang^ 'bed', of 
which palkt or pallaki have all 
the appearances of being 
diminutives, in the sense of 
'a , couch or little bed.' 
Normally, the diminutive 
should have been palangl or 
pallanki. And in fact, Hin- 

dustani, Marathi and Gujarati 
have palaftgdi, as a ^diminu- 
tive used depreciatively, in 
the sense of 'a small and 
ordinary bed.' 

But Shakespear does not 
derive the Hindust. palki, as he 
does palang, immediately from 
the Sansk. palyanka, but from 
the Hindi palakl. Now, Hindi 
has also side by side with it the 
form nalakl, which appears to 
be due to the transposition of 
the medial nasal. From which 
it may be conjectured that 
the denasalization took place 
in Hindi and from it was 
transmitted to the other 
Indian languages. 

The elimination of the nasal 
may also be explained by the 
law of least resistance, in view 
of the fact that the a which 
follows the I is surd in some 
of the Aryan languages and 
silent in others. The Sansk. 
martisa, ' flesh ', becomes in 
Konk. and colloquial Mar. mas. 
For the same reason, the Sansk. 
ananda is pronounced in 
Konk. anad> * glory '. 

Even if it were taken for 
granted that the n of the 
Portuguese word was not 
etymological, it is not neces- 




sary to have recourse to 
palanque or palanca to account 
for it. It may have developed 
of iteelf without outside in- 
fluence, as has happened in the 
Port, words fiandeiro, ' spin- 
ner,' from fiar, ' to spin,' and 
lavandeira, ' washer-woman ', 
from lavar, ' to wash ', or in 
the Japanese \vords bozu, 
* priest', changed into bonzu, 
and byobu, l screen ', into 

Palhota (athatohed-house). 
Indo-Fr. paillote. 

P&lio (pallium, pall). Konk. 
pal. Tarn, pdlli. Gal. pdliu. 

Palmat6ria (ferule). Konk. 
pdlmatdr. Guj. pdlmantri. 
Tet., Gal. palmatoria. 

Palmeira (tho fan-palm ; 
Borassus flabelliformis). 
Anglo-Ind. palmyra. 1 

* [1606. Palmeiras are trees yield- 
ing many fruits, and without receiving 
any aid furnish wine, vinegar, water, 
oil, sugar, and fuel". Jour. Geo. Soc. 
Lisb.. XVII, p. 366, oit. in Qlossario. 
This is the earliest reference to palmeira 
in the sense of * coco -nut tree '.] 

[(In Muscat) " there are orchards, 
gardens, and palmeiras, with wells for 
watering them by means of a contri- 
vance worked by oxen." Commentaries 
of Afonso Dalboquerque, Hak. Soo., I, 
83. With regard to the translation 
see foot-note to ' engenho' on p. 146. 

In Indo-Portuguese, pal- 
meira, without qualification, 

Palmeiras is used here of the date- 

[1569." There are many palmeiras 
bravas, but they are not put to 
account (in Africa) as they are in 
India. 1 * P. Monolaio, in Jour. Geo. 
Soc. Lisb., IV, p. 346, cit. in Qlossario. 
This is the earliest reference there to 
palmeira brava.] 

[" The tenth of November we ar- 
rived at Chaul.. .Here is great traffike 
for all sortes of spices and drugges, 
silke, cloth of silke, sand ales, elephants 
teeth, and much China worke, and 
much sugar which is made of the nutte 
called Gagara. The tree is called the 
palmer, which is the profitablest tree 
in the wo ride. It doth alwayes beare 
fruit, and doth yeeld wine, oyle, sugar, 
vineger, cordes, coles.... 1 * Ralph 
Fitch (1583-91), in Early Travels in 
India (O.U.P.), p. 13.] 

["Their houses (of the people of 
Ceylon) are very little, made of the 
branches of the palmer or coco -tree, 
and covered with the leaves of the 
same tree. * * Idem , p. 44. In the above, 
in fact throughout his narrative, Fitch 
uses ' palmer * of the coco-nut tree. ] 

["Hence to Variaw 20 c., a goodly 
countrey and fertile, full of villages, 
abounding with wild date trees, which 
generally are plentifull by tho sea-side 
in most places; whence they draw a 
liquor called tarrie, or sure, as also from 
another wild coco-tree called tarrie.** 
William Finch, in Early Travel* in 
India, O.U.P., 175. 'Tari'is Anglo- 
Ind. toddy, the same as ' sure * =Sansc. 
aura ; * the wild coco -tree called tarrie ' 
is the Borassus flabeUiformis, called in 




is the name of ' the coco-nut 
palm'. "With oil from the 

Guj. and Mar tdd; it is not yet called 
palmeira or palmyra.] 

[" The Palme tree on whose leaves 
they here write with Iron bodkins." 
Peter Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. 
I, 78. Mundy refers to the Borassus 
flabelliformis, which, perhaps in his 
time was not yet called palmeira.] 

[" At the foot of this mountaine, for 
some miles, in Circuit, I have knowne 
delicate Groves and Gardens, fountains 
very pleasant to the Eye,. . . the Groves 
consisting of Mangoe and Palmero, 
Palmito and Coco nut trees, which are 
now quite demolished by the forces 
and Order of the Golcondah Kinge." 
Bowrey, The Countries, etc., Hak. Soo., 
p. 46. ' Palmero ' in the above quota- 
tion, is, undoubtedly, the ' fan-palm '. 
' Palmito ' is here the wild date-palm, 
Phcenix sylvestris, which is very com- 
mon in Gujarat. But the name is 
given to various varieties of the dwarf 
fan -palm. * Palmito ' in Portuguese is 
also the name by which the ' cabbage ' 
or the edible heart at the end of the 
stem of a palm, whence the leaves 
spring, is called. " It is the eye of the 
coco-nut or its heart and the unex- 
panded mass of the very fine leaves 
that is called palmito and. . . .it some- 
what resembles in taste white and very 
tender chestnuts. . . .But he who eats a 
palmito eats a coco -nut tree for it 
presently dries up ; and the older the 
coco-nut tree the better is the palmito." 
Garcja da Orta, Col. XVI, ed. Mark- 
ham, p. 144. Markham has complete- 
ly misunderstood the original, and his 
rendering of it, it must regretfully be 
confessed, makes no sense.] 

coco-nut which is the fruit of 
the palmeira." Garcia da Orta, 
Col. LIII [ed. Markham, p. 
423, in which is omitted the 
clause ' which is the fruit of the 
palmeira ']. 

[The Portuguese word pal- 
meira has always stood for the 
various species of the palm 
family : in Portugal it stands 
for the Phcenix dactilifera, and 
in India for the Cocos nucifera 
(Ficalho, Colloquies, etc , Vol. 
I, 232). In fact, the Portu- 
guese chroniclers invariably 
employ palmeira to denote 
the coco-nut palm and when 
they wish to refer to the 
fan-palm or the Borassus 
flabelliformis, from the leaves 
of which strips for writing on 
are prepared, speak of it as 
palmeira brava (q.v.) t 

Yule in Hobson-Jobson, (s.v.) 

[" It has been said with truth that a 
native of Jaffna, if he be contented 
with ordinary doors and mud walls, 
may build an entire house (as he wants 
neither doors nor iron work), with 
walls, roof, and covering from the 
Palmyra palm. From this same tree 
he may draw his wine, make his oil, 
kindle his fire, carry his water, store 
his food, cook his repast, and sweeten it, 
if he pleases; in fact, live from day to 
day dependant on his palmyra alone." 
Tennent, Ceylon, Vol. I, p. 111-1 




palmyra, quotes from Orfca: 
" There are many palmeiras 
in the Island of Ceylon " 
(Col. XV), to support his view 
that the word stands for the 
Borasaus flabelliformis, and to 
show that this palm was called 
by the Portuguese par excel- 
lence, palmeira or ' the palm- 
tree.' But in this he is mis- 
taken, for, in almost all the 
places where the word occurs in 
the Colloquies, it is used to 
signify the 'coco-nut palm.' 
When Orta refers to Ceylon as 
being fi^Jl of palms, he is merely 
stating a fact, viz., that in that 
island are to be found several 
varieties of the palm. He is 
using the term in the generic 
sense in which it was employed 
in Portugal. Here is Sir 
Emerson Tennent's evidence 
on this point : " But the family 
of trees which, from their 
singularity as well as their 
beauty, most attract the eye of 
the traveller in the forests of 
Ceylon, are the palms, which 
occur in rich profusion . . . . ; 
more than ten or twelve 
(species of the palm) are 
indigenous to the island " 
(Ceylon, I, 109). 
In Indo-Portuguese palmar 

and palmeiral are used in the 
same sense in which the 
Anglo-Indian ' oart ' is used 
in Bombay and its suburbs, to 
denote a plantation or grove of 
coco-nut trees.] 

PSmpano (a fish : Stroma- 
tens sinensis, 8. cenereus, 
S. niger). Konk. pdmpl, ? 
pamplit; vern. terms sarango, 
saranguL ? Mar. papliat\ 
vern. term sargd. Anglo-Ind. 
pamplee (arch.) pamplet, 
[paumphlet] (arch.), pomfret. 
Indo-Fr. pample. Portuguese 
dialects of Malacca and Dutch 
pampcL 1 

* " And the fish found in that Medi- 
terranean is very dainty shad, dora- 
does, rubios, and good mullets and saw- 
fish and pampanos.'' Godinho de 
Er&lia, Dedara^am de Malaca, (1613), 
fol. 33. [Rubios is not found in dic- 
tionaries, it is perhaps a corruption of 
ruivos the Port, name for the roach.] 

[ " Fish in India is verie plentiful!, 
and some very pleasant and sweete. 
The best fish is called Mordexiin, 
Pampano, and Tatiingo." Linschoten, 
Voyage, Hak. Soc., Vol. TI, p. 11.] 

"The adjacent seas abound in 
Sharks, Saw -fish, Pampanos, Esmar- 
gaes, Doradoes, etc." F. N. Xavier, 
O. Oab. Litt , I, p. 32. 

[1703.** Here (in Pulo Condore) are 
in great plenty very fine Spanish 
Mackerell, Soles, Turbits, Mullets, 
Bonitas, Albaoores, Daulphins, Paum- 
phlets, and diverse sorts of Bock 




Candido de Figueiredo men- 
tions pdmpano ('fish') as a 
term hithertoined ited and gives 
it as the synonym of pampo. 
Vieyra says that "it is a fish 
shaped like a boar-spear." I 
do not know whether the word 
is in vogue in Portugal. The 
Indian fish resembles a vine- 
leaf, from which it derives its 

The words pamplit and 
paplify appear to have as their 
direct source the Anglo-Ind. 
' pamplet '. ~ 

[Pampano in Portuguese 
means primarily * a vine-leaf '. 
The O.E.D. derives * pomfret ' 
from the Port, pampo '(see 
above), French pample, and 
surmises that a diminutive 
pamplet may have become 
pamphlet, pamphlet, and finally 
pomfret ] 

Pangaio (a two-masted 
barge with lateen sails common 
in East Africa and in India). 
Konk. pangdy. Malayal. pan- 
gdyar. Kan., Tul. pangayu. 

| Mai. pengaiu. \ 

The word is of African origin. 
Almost all the old Portuguese 

fish..." From Letter of Allen Catch- 
pole, in Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. II, p. ccoxxxiv.] 

writers suggest the same 
source. 1 P. Vitor Cortois men- 
tions pangaya in his Portuguese- 
Cafre-Teto Dictionary. 

[Yule and Burnell register 
the word under the forms 
* pangara, pangaia ', and give 
citations in support of these 
and other forms, including the 
Port, pangaio.] 

? Pantalona (pantaloons ; 
trousers). Mai., Sund. telana, 
tjalana, tjilona. Jav., Mad. 
tjelono. Bal. chelana. Bug. 

Dr. Heyligers explains that 
the first syllable dropped out 
because it was regarded as an 
indifferent prefix, as happens 
with vernacular words. Gon- 
galves Viana has doubts as 
regards the word pantalona 

i "'Francisco Barreto left for the 
coast with the largest number of people 
in his fusta (q.v.) and pangaios and 
came to the city of Quiloa." P. Mon- 
olaio (1569), in Jour. Oeo. Soc. Lisb., 4th 
ser., p. 497. 

" The pangayos of Mosambique 
should halt at Calimane, as Sena was 
very unhealthy.** M. Godinho Cardoso 
(1585), in Hist, tragico-marit., IV, p. 

' It was a rough sea, and lifted the 
vessel (which on this coast is called 
pangaio). Fr. Jofto dos Santos (1600), 
Bthiop. Or., II, p. 191. 




existing in the Portuguese of 
the seventeenth century. Dr. 
Schuchardt says that telana has 
nothing to do with pantalona. 
If tjalana stands for chalana, 
as seems likely, the word must 
be of Indian origin, viz., the 
Hindustani cholnd, < trousers, 
breeches ', adopted in Marathi, 
Konkani, Kanarese, and Tulu. 
Pao (bread, loaf). Konk. 
pdrtiv, the vern. word undo 
is more in use in some parts. 
Guj. pduifa, pdrtiu ( = pau). 
Pam-valo, baker. Hindi pav- 
rofi. Hindust. pdrtiv-roti, pao 
roti. Roti means * a hand-made 
flour cake'. Sinh. pan ( = pa), 
pan, pdn-gediya. " Gediya, 
anything round, globular, 
fruit, abcess." Alwis. The 
vern. terms are roti, papa. 
Pdn-petta, a slice of bread. 
Pdn-pifosa, crust. Pah-kudu, 
the crumb or soft inner part of 
bread. Karakarapu-pdn, kara- 
kala-panpetta, bread- toast. 
Pdh-kdraya, pdh-pulussamd, 
baker; vern. term apupika. 
Pdh-pulu8sana ge (lit. the 
house for baking bread'), a 
bakery.? Tib. pd-le ; sh'e-pa 
(honorific). Kamb. ntim pang 
(lit. 'cake bread'). Siam. 
khanbm pang. Khanbm pang 

h&ng, biscuit. Michell derives 
pcing from the French pain. 
Ann. bdnh, bdnh mi. Tonk. 
bdnh. Bdnh su'a (lit. * bread 
of milk '), cheese. Bdnh U (lit. 
* bread of the Mass'), sacred 
wafer. Bdnh ngot, cake. An- 
namese and Tonkinese have no 
initial p. Mai. paon, 
| paung \ . Tet., Gal. p&. 
Jap. pan. Pan-ya, bakery ; 
baker. | ? Chin. mien- 
pdu. 1 | 

[Sir Richard Temple, in a 
note to " paying outt their gold 
and silver (in Macao and in 
China) by waightt, cutting itt 
outt in small peeces ", in Peter 
Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. 
Ill, pt. i, p. 309, quotes Magail- 
lans, p. 136: *'The pieces of 
Gold and Silver are not Coyn'd, 

1 " For a bag of rice which is the 
common food of all those who were 
then living in Qoa, because at present 
the greater number of our men already 
use kneaded pam, as in Portugal, of 
wheat which comes from abroad. ..." 
Jofto de Barros, Dec. II, vi, 9. 

' No pao was to be had (in Cochin) 
because there was no wheat to be had 
there except in the country of the 
Moors." Caspar Correia, I, p. 024. 

"Japan grows rice... and wheat of 
which, however, they do not prepare 
pao." Lucena, Hist, da Vida, Bk. 
VII. ch. I. 




but cast into Lingots in the 
form of a small Boat, which at 
Macao are called Paes [Port. 
Paes] or Loaves of Gold or 
Silver." This is a meaning of 
pao which I do not find men- 
tioned in the Portuguese dic- 
tionaries I have consulted.] 

*Papa (in the meaning of 
5 the Pope '). Konk. pdp-saheb. 
Saheb is * Lord '. Mar. pap. 
Papackd adhikdr, papacy. 
Beng. papa. Sinh. pap-un- 
ndnse. Unnanse is a term of 
respect: * reverend, vener- 
able'. Tarn, pdppa, pdppu., 
pdppanavar (more respectful). 
Malay al. pdppa. Tel. papa. 
Kan. pdpu. Kamb. santa 
pap. Mai. sdnto papa. Tet., 
Gal. papa. Malag. papa. Ar. 
babd. Babavi, papal. The 
other languages of India em- 
ploy the English form ' pope '. 

2 Papa (poultice). Konk. 
pdp. Sinh, pdppa. Jap. pap- 

Papa (papa, daddy). Konk. 
papd (1. us. and only among 
the Christians of Goa). Mar. 
ttf ptf. Mai. papa (Schuchardt). 
Bug. pdpang. Mol. papd 
(Castro). ? Malag. papa. 
| Chin, pd-pd. \ 

Molesworth thinks that the 

Marathi papd is a variant of the 
vernacular bap formed by 

Papaia (bot., Carica papaya, 
Linn., the papaw tree and it& 
fruit). Konk. papdy (the tree 
and fruit). Mar. popdy, pop- 
ayd, phopai. [Guj. papaiya, 
bapaiyo.] Hindi, Hindust., 
Beng. papayd. Tarn, pappai. 
Malayal. pappdyam. Tul. 
pappdya, pappayd. Anglo- 
Ind. papaya, papaw. Indo-Fr. 
papaye. Mai. papaya, pep- 
pdya, pdpua. Nic. popai. 
Malag. papai. 

It is an American term, 1 used 
in Cuba, probably introduced 
by the Portuguese together 
with the plant, as the Kanarese 
name parangi-hannu ( ( Frank 
or Portuguese fruit') seems to 
indicate. Linschoten (1597) 
thinks that it came from the 
Phili ppines to Malacca and from 
thence to India. In Siamese 

1 "There is another fruit papayas 
(in San Domingo) which in Brazil we 
call mamdes, and they could well be 
called melons from their appearance " 
(1596). Caspar Afonso, in Hist, tra- 
gico-marit., VI, p. 49. 

41 There is another tree called papa- 
elra which produces fruit which goes 
by the name of mamOea in America, 
and of papaias here.*' Fr. Clemen t-e 
da Ressurrei9&o, IT, p. 391. 




it is called lulc ma-la-ko, ' the 
fruit of Malacca ', [and in Bur- 
mese himbawthi, which means 
' fruit brought by sea-going 
vessels ']. See Hobson-Jobson, 
Apostilas of Gonsalves Viana, 
[and also Skeat, Notes on Eng- 
lish Etymology]. 

[The Portuguese introduced 
the ' papaya ' into Africa and 
Asia. In Africa, it is reported 
to be very common in the 
Portuguese possessions, 
specially in Cape Verde Islands 
and in Angola. It must have 
been brought to India towards 
the close of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, for Linschoten (1597) 1 
mentions it as one of the fruits 
of India and gives a very ac- 
curate description of the tree, 
but it is not referred to either 
by Orta (15C3) or in the Ain- 
i-Akbarl (c.1590). In 1656 it 
was figured and described by 
Boym (Flora Sinensis, pi. A) 
as an Indian plant introduced 

1 [" There is also a fruite that came 
out of the Spanish Indies, brought 
from Ye Philippinas or Lusons to 
Malacca, & from thence to India, it 
is called Papaios, and is very like a 
Mellon, as bigge as a mans fist, and 
will not grow, but alwaies two together, 
that is male and female.. . " Hak. 800., 
Vol. II, p. 35.] 

into China, so that it must be 
regarded as another instance 
of the rapid dispersion of new 
plants after the discovery of 
America. 1 

There can be no question 
about the home of this species 
being America, and it is, there- 
fore, all the more curious to 
find American dictionaries re- 
ferring its name to Asiatic 
sources. The Century Diction- 
ary says : " Papaya, a name of 
Malabar origin. . . also written 
pawpaw ". Webster referred it 
to Malay, but in the 1890 and 
subsequent editions he refers it 
to " the West Indies ". Accord- 
ing to Oviedo (1535), papaya is 
the name used in Cuba. Littr6 
(see papayer) gives the Carib- 
bean form as ababai. The 
O.E.D. derives the word from 
Carib, but is at a losa to indi- 
cate the immediate source of 
the English forms papa, papaw, 
and. pawpaw. Sir Richard 
Temple (Indian Antiquary, Vol. 
XXX, p. 552) says that " in 
the Madras Presidency it is 
known as * poppoy ' and usual- 
ly so spelt in accounts and 
letters ". ' Poppoy ' could give 

l [Watt, Comm. Prod, of India,. 
(1908), p. 269.] 




* pawpaw ', but how to account 
for the other forms ? Sir T. 
Herbert (1630) speaks of c pap- 
paes V .and Peter Mundy (in 
1636) of * papaes ', * but Fryer 
(1673) uses the word ' papaw ',* 
which, it might safely be con- 
cluded, must have come into 
vogue after Peter Mundy 's 

In Brazil the plant has ano- 
ther name mamoeiro, from 
mama, 'pap', because of the 
fruit's resemblance to woman's 

Papuses (' a sort of san- 
dals '). Sinh. pdpus. Also used 
in the Portuguese dialect of 
Oeylon, papus, boot, shoes. 

Tel. papdsum. Kan. pa- 

posu. Tul. pdpasu, papdsu. 

1 ["Pappaes, Cocoes, and Plan- 
tains, all sweet and delicious. . ." Ed. 
1665, p. 350, in Hobson-Jobson.] 

2 ["For to my Knowlidg it (Coco- 
tree) affoardes Meat, Drink. . . , and 
good Cordage Made of the outtward 
rinde ol the Nutte, which in Clusters 
grow outt att the toppe on a sprigge, 
as Doe allsoe the Papaes in a Manner, 
the tree Differing in leaves and height.' ' 
Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, pt. i, p. 68.] 

3 ["Here (in Johanna Town) the 
flourishing Papaw (in Taste like our 
Melons, and as big, but growing on a 
Tree leafed like our Fig-tree), Citrons 
. . .contend to indulge the Taste." Hak. 
.Soc., Vol. I, p. 64.] 

It is derived from the Persian 
pa-push, ' footwear '. See Gon- 
9alves Viana, Apostilas. 

[The Arabs who have no p 
converted papush into babush, 
which went over to France and 
became babouches, 'slippers', to 
return to Portugal in the new 
form babuche, which is etymo- 
logically not as correct as the 
older papus, pi. papuses.] 

Par (pair). Konk. par ; vern. 
terms zod> zodo, zodi, zunvli. 
Mai. parts (from the IPort. 
plural form pares). Caus-sa 
paris, a pair of shoes (Haex) ; 
vern. terms jodo, klamin. 

Para (prep., for). Mai. para 
(Haex) . Tet. para ; vern . 
term ato. 

Parabfcm (congratulation). 
Konk. parbem. Tet., Gal. 

Paraiso (Paradise) . Jap . 
paraizo (arch.). 

[Parau, par6 (a small vessel 
used in war or trade, compared 
by European writers to the 
galley or foist). Anglo-Ind. 
prow, parao, praw, etc. 1 

1 [ 1 604. He was bringing with 
him many men and Ixx or Ixxx 
paraaos each with ii mortars, " Letter* 
of A. de Albuquerque, III, p. 269, in 




The O.E.D. connects the 
Anglo-Ind. forms with the 
Malay p(d)ra(h)ft, 'a boat, a 
rowing vessel', and says that 
the forms prow and proa are 
assimilated to the Eng. ' prow ' 
and its Port, equivalent proa. 
Yule assigns to the word in 
European use a double origin : 
the Malayal. pafu, and the 
Malay prau or prahu. Dal- 
gado (Olossario) maintains 
that the Port, derived their 
forms from the Dravidian 
pad ami, and that the Malasian 
forms owe their origin to the 
Dravidian term. He is of the 
view that Yule's theory of a 
double origin is untenable, 
because, as he points out, 
pafu could not give the Port. 
parau or paro, and because the 

[1508. " One night he made reprisal 
on paraos carrying water." A. de 
Albuquerque, Letters, I, p. 13,] 

[(In Aohein) "they goe from place 
to place and house to house in prowes 
or boates." Mundy, Travels, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. Ill, pt. i, p. 132.] 

[" In the Morning they came and 
told me there was English on board 
there Proes." In Letter d. 1705, in 
Hedges, Diary, Vol. II, p. ccoxxxviii.] 

['They (the 'Saleeter Piratts')... 
have theire men of warre Prows in 
Upon the Maine of the Malay Shore." 
Bowrey, p. 238.] 

term was already known to the 
Portuguese before their con- 
quest of Malacca. Both the 
forms could, however, be 
derived from padavu. See 
piroga, and, for citations, Ind. 
Antiq., Vol. XXX, p. 161. 
There are illustrations of 

* prowes ' at Achein and at 
Madagascar in Mundy, Travels 
(Vol. Ill, PL viii and xviii), and 
one of " Men of warre prows " 
in Bowrey (Hak. Soc. ed., PI. 
xviii). For a description of 
' Flying Proes', see Dampier, 
Vol. II, p. 131.] 

Parceiro (partner). Konk. 
parser, padser ; vern. terms 
godo, samvgodo. Mai. parseru, 
parsero. Jav. berserd, bes6ro. 
In the last two languages it is 
used as a verb in the sense of 

* associating one's self '. 
Mac., Bug. parasfro. 1 

[Pard&o (arch.), Pardau 
(the name among the Portu- 
guese of a gold coin from the 
mints of Indian Rajas in 
Western India, which entered 

1 "I hold it proper that the said 
rent-farmer and his parceiros should 
let out and collect all the rent of the 
said lands which were assigned for the 
service of the Pagodas " (1545). Archivo 
Fort. Or., fasc. 6. p. 182. 




largely into the early currency 
of Goa and the name of which 
afterwards attached to a silver 
coin of their own coinage). 
Anglo-Ind. pardao, pardaiv, 
perdao, etc. 1 

l [" All this merchandize (in the 
city of Vijayanagar) is bought and sold 
by pardaos. . . .gold coin. . . .made in 
certain towns of this kingdom. . . .The 
coin is round in form and is made 
with a die. Some of them have on 
one side Indian letters and on the 
other two figures, of a man and a 
woman, and others have only letters 
on one side." Barbosa, Hak. Soc., ed. 
Dames, Vol. I, p. 203 sqq. See editor's 
note ] 

[" And if there is any one who does 
not know what a pardao is, let him 
know that it is a round gold coin, 
which is not struck all over India, but 
only in this kingdom (of Vijayanagar) ; 
it has on one side two figures, and on 
the other the name of the king who 
had ordered the coins to be struck., is a coin which circulates all 
over India, and each pardao, as I 
have said, is worth 360 reis." Chronica 
de Bisnaga, p 116.] 

["The principall and commonest 
money is called Pardaus Xeraphiins, 
and is silver, but very base, and is 
coyned in Goa . . . .There is also a kinde 
of reckoning of money which is called 
Tangas, not that there is any such 
coined, but are so named onely in 
telling, five Tangas is one Pardaw or 
Xeraphin badde money. Linschoten, 
Vol. I, Hak. Soc., p. 241. In the passage 
that follows the above citation, Lins- 

There were two kinds of 
pardaus : the pardau de ouro 
(' gold pardao ') of the value of 
6 tangas or 360 reis, and the 
pardau de prata (' silver par- 
dao ') worth 5 tangas or 300 reis. 
The former issued by Indian 
Rajas were already in circula- 
tion in Western India in the 
time of Albuquerque, and were 
known in the vernaculars as 
varaha or vara, the Sansk. name 
for ' the boar *, one of the in- 
carnations of Vishnu, whose 
effigy they carried. The Sansk. 
pratapa, " majesty, splendour,' 
was the legend on some of 
these coins, and referred to 
the sovereign who had ordered 
the coins to be struck ; this 
pratapa would be corrupted 
by the people into partap, 
or pardap, and would become 
transformed in tLe mouth of 
the Portuguese very naturally 

choten gives a very complete account 
of the Goa currency in his time.] 

[" Their (Goa) Coin 

1 Vintin 15 Budge- 


1 Tango 5 Vintins 

1 Xerephin or Pardoa..6 Tangos.' 9 
A. Hamilton, East Indies (1727 ed.), 
Vol. II, in Table at end.] 

[See quotations bearing on ' Pardao ' 
in Indian Antiquary, Vol. xxvii, p. 




into parddo or pardao. The 
pardaus which were most and 
longest current in Goa were 
those which had been struck 
by the Vijayanagar sovereigns, 
because of the intimate poli- 
tical and commercial relations 
that then subsisted between 
Goa and the Vijayanagar court. 
Silver pardaos began to be 
coined in Goa towards the 
middle of the 1 6th century 
and are distinguished from 
the gold ones in as much as the 
former are referred to as par- 
dau de tangas or pardau de 
larins or de xerafim. When 
the gold pardao went out of 
circulation, the silver pardao 
was worth 6 tangas or half a 
rupee, and the pardau de cobre 
( ' copper pardao ') , or more cor- 
rectly the xerafim, 5 tangas or 
300 rets. Yule says that at the 
close of the 16th century the 
gold pardao was worth 4s. 2d. 
to 4s. 6d., but that by the first 
half of the eighteenth century 
the pardao had dwindled in 
value to 10d. See Hobson- 
Jobson, Olossarioy and Gerson 
da Cunha, Contributions to the 
Study of Indo-Port. Numis- 

Parent (parent). Konk. 

parent (1. us.). Mai. parente 
(Haex). Tet. parenti. 

Parte (part, a share) . Konk. 
part ; vern. terms ku(ko, vanfo ; 
kul ; vddi, vadyo. Tet. parti ; 
vern. terms bdluku, bdlem. 

P^scoa (Passover, Easter). 
Konk. Pdsk. Beng. Paskuvd. 
Sinh. Pdskuva. Pdsku t Pas- 
chal. Pdsku kdlaya, PaschaJ 
time. Tarn. Paskd. Tel., 
Kan. Pdska. Kamb. btin pas 
(lit. 'Feast Paschal'). Tet. 

Pasquim (pasquinade, lam- 
poon). Mai. paskil t paskvil 
(Heyligers). As a verb, it 
means * to scold '.* 

1 "They used to treat Pero Per- 
il andes as pasquim of Rome used 
to be ; some of them writing to the 
King, all they wished to, in the name 
of Pero Fernandes." Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. VI, iv, 5. [Pasquim in Port., 
Pasquino or Paaquillo in Italian, was 
the name popularly given to a mutilat- 
ed statue disinterred in Rome in 1501 
and set up there. On St. Mark's Day, 
it became the practice to restore tem- 
porarily and dress up this torso to 
represent some historical or mytho- 
logical personage of antiquity on which 
occasion it was customary to salute 
Pasquino in Latin verses which were 
usually posted or placed on the statue ; 
the verses, in course of time, tended 
to become satirical; hence the term 
'pasquinade', applied to satires and 
lampoons, political, ecclesiastical, etc ] 




Passador (naut. 9 a marline- 
spike). L.-Hindust. pasador. 

Passaporte (passport) . 
Konk. pasaport. ? Sinh. 
pasportuva (perhaps from the 
English 'passport '). Ar. basa- 
burth. | Turk, pdssdporta. \ 

Passar (to pass). Konk. 
pasdr -za vunk (verb intrans . ) , 
pasdr-karuhk (verb trans.) 
Mar. pasdr (adj.), passed, elaps- 
ed ; e.g. : d(h pasdr, eight 
(hours) having elapsed. Guj. 
pasdr thavwfo (verb, intrans.) 
passar karvufa (verb trans.), to 
pass an examination ; to ad- 
vance ; to thrust forward ; 
to drive away. Pasdrvum, to 
pass ; to enter ; to be admitted ; 
to make one's escape, to run 
away. Mac. pdsu (from the 
1st person present, passo), to 
pass in a game of cards. 

In Gujarati there is another 
word pasdrvum, from the 
Sansk. prasar. In pds fhavufa, 
1 to pass ', pds is from the 
English ' pass.' 

Passe (pass, permission). 
Konk. pds. ? Sund. pds 
(probably from Dutch). Tet., 
Gal. pds si. 

Passear (to walk). Mar. 
pasdr (subst.), " giving a few 
turns for exercise ; walking up 

and down, like a sentinel on 
watch." Molesworth. Mai. 
pasiyar, to walk ; walking. 
Pasiyar-an, place for walk- 
ing. Batt. pasar, a wide 
street. Jav. pesiyar, besiyar. 
Radiman pasiyaran, walking 

In Konkani, the expressions 
used are : pdsey karunk or 
marunk, paseyek vachunk (' to 
go out for a walk '). 

Passo (step, pace, passage ; 
a picture or image representing 
the Passion of Christ) . Konk. 
pdz (through the intervention 
of pds), a highway, quay. 
Mar. pdz, a narrow passage in 
a mountain or between two 
mountains. Guj. pdj, quay, 

In Konkani, pds, masc., is 
'the representation in a 
church of the passion of Jesus 

Pastel (pie, pastry). Konk. 
pastel. Mai. pastel, pastil. 
Sund. pastel. 

Pataca (a dollar). Konk. 
patdk. Malay al. patt&kd. 
Anglo-Ind. pataca. Tet., Gal. 
pataka. 1 

i "Throughout India patacas and 
half patacas are current, and these 




The word is of Arabic origin, 
bataqa, or, according to Gon- 
galves Viana, Spanish. 

['Pataca' is not found in 
the O.E.D. which mentions 
* patacaoon ' as an augmenta- 
tive of pataca. Yule, too, like 
Dalgado is inclined to accept 
the Arabic abu\aka or corruptly 
bafaka, the name given to cer- 
tain coins of this kind with 
a scutcheon on the reverse, 
the term meaning * father of 
window,' the scutcheon being 
taken for such an object, as 
the original of the Portuguese 
and Spanish pataca. But they 
do not appear to take into 
account the following consi- 
derations : The Ar. ba(aka 
would not become in Port, and 
Sp. pataca, but remain bafaka 
for both Port, and Sp. possess 
a b sound, but if the original 
word was pataca, it would in 
passing over into Arabic be- 
come bataka, for Ar. has no 
p sound, and the change of p 
into Ar. 6 is the rule when 

go from Portugal." Jofto doe Santos, 
Ethiop. Or., II, p, 276. 

44 The Captain General or the Admi- 
ral (of Ceylon) used on these occasions 
to promise each of them a pataca by 
way of encouragement." Jofto Ribei 
ro, Fatalidade hist., Bk. 1, ch. xvi. 


words are taken over into Ar. 
"rom other languages. See 
papuses and pateca. Pataca 
was originally used of a S. 
American silver coin, and the 
name was certainly carried 
from Spain to America, and, 
in the absence of any more 
convincing etymology, it might 
be safer to regard the term as 
Spanish. Littr6, however, con- 
nects it with an old Fr. word 
patard, ' a kind of coin.'J 

Patacao (a coin). Anglo- 
Ind. patacoon. 1 

1 *' Some very good things he did in 
India, he minted patacoes of silver, 
whioh was the best coin there was in 
India, and which, because of its purity, 
was current in all the foreign king- 
doms." Diogo do Couto, Dec. VII, i, 6. 
44 With hundred thousand Madra- 
faria, each one of which is worth two 
silver larins which came to be equal to 
fifty thousand patacdes." Id., Dec. 
VII, ii, 3. [Modrafaria is obviously 
a variant of Madrafax&o which appears 
in old Portuguese works as the name 
of a gold and also of a silver coin of 
Gujarat : it is a corruption of the 
vernacular Muzaffar shahi,' Muzoffar 
Shah having being the grandson of 
Bahadur Shah of Quzerat. The gold 
coin weighed 200 grains, and the silver 
one 7 Larin is a kind of money 
formerly in use on the Persian Gulf, 
west coast of India and the Maldive 
Islands. It derived its name from Lar 
on the Persian Gulf where it was 
coined. It was a little rod of silvei , a 
finger's length, bent double unequally.] 




Patacho (a pinnace ; a two 
masted sailing vessel). Mal- 
ayal. pattdchu (Gundert.) 

Patamar ('a courier', Orta ; 
a letter-carrier ; a kind of 
lateen rigged ship). Anglo- 
Ind. pattamar, patimar. 1 
Indo-Fr. patemar, patmar. 

1 "The news of which disaster soon 
became known through patamares, 
who are men that make big journeys 
by land.'* Jofto de Barros, Deo. I, 
viii, 9. 

"He soon despatched Patamares 
<who are couriers) by land to San 
Thome." Diogo do Couto, Dec. V, 
v. 6. 

*' He wrote that he would get into a 
small vessel, one of those which are 
called patamares, and cross the bay." 
Lucena, Bk. Ill, ch. 7. 

[" Even if no ship were to go from 
this coast this year, but only a Pata- 
mar (i.e. a small vessel) I would confi- 
dently sail in it, placing all my trust 
in God." St. Francis Xavier, in Misadea 
de Jeauitaa no Oriente by Camara 
Manuel, cit, in Olosaario.] 

[" Presentlye after this, there came 
a pattamar with letters from Agra, 
oertifyinge us of the death of Mr. 
Caninge." Nicholas Withington 
(1612-16), in Foster, Early Travela in 
India, p. 202.] 

["You will tell us there is great 
Difference between East India and 
England, which is true; but per ad- 
vent u re upon due Consideration they 
may find a way to make something of 
this and carry the Company's Letters 
cheaper, safer, and speedy er then now 

According to Yule and Bur- 
nell, the word in both accepta- 
tions is the Konkani path-mar , 
' a courier ', at present not used 
in the first sense, and in the 
second, which is more modern, 
usually employed in the form 
of patmari. [The Konk. path- 
mar is lit. equivalent to ' kill- 
road or road-killer'. In this 
sense it is not used at present ; 

they are sent by your Pattamars, 
except the Company pay all the 
charges of their own and other people's 
Letters, which is most unconscionable." 
From Court's Letter to Fort St. 
George, 6th march, 1694-5, in Hedges, 
Diary, Vol. II, p. cxix]. 

[" Running on Foot, which belongs 
to the Pattamars, the only Foot-posts 
of this Country, who run so many 
Courses (kos, a measure of distance) 
every Morning, or else Dance so many 
hours to a Tune called the Patamar s 
Tune." Fryer, Eaat India, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. I, p. 278 sqq.] 

[" Just as the time was approaching 
for ray departure to Cochim (from 
Goa), a Courier (called Patamar in 
these parts) was received from Ben 
gala." Manrique, Travela, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. II, p. 6.] 

[" And not being satisfied with our 
evading his (Sir Gervase Lucas's) dis- 
course about their building fortifica- 
tions, hee sent the Pattamarr that 
brought his letters wit his Broker 
home to our howse to justifie it.'* 
Forrest, Selections (Home Series), Vol. 
I, p. 216.] 




perhaps, pathmdr is merely a 
variant of vatmdr which is used 
in the same sense even to-day. 
There are instances in Konk. 
of the change of v into p.] 

Garcia da Orta derives it 
from Malayalam [Col. on Betel, 
etc.] which Charles Brown ad- 
mits but only as regards its 
meaning of ' a sailing vessel '. 
Molesworth derives the Marathi 
patemari, ' a native craft ', from 
the Hindust. patimari, ' cou- 
rier ', but Hindustani diction- 
aries do not mention any such 

[" The principal difficulty 
consists in knowing where it 
was that the Portuguese first 
received the word. Hindust. 
and Mar. have patta, ' tidings, 
information ', which with the 
addition of the suffix var or mar 
could have given patamar, ( the 
bearer of tidings '. It is also 
worthy of note that Duarte 
Barbosa, speaking of Gujarat, 
says that among the Brahmins 
" there are others of low degree 
who act as messengers and go 
safely everywhere without 
molestation from any, even 
during war or from highway- 
men ; these men they call Pate- 
les ". Now, paid, besides de- 

noting the headman of a vil- 
lage, is in Gujarat also borne as 
a name by certain sub-divisions 
of castes, and by the Ahirs and 
Bhoyars it is used as a title. 
Longworth Dames observes 
(Vol. I, p. 117) : " It is pro- 
bable that some men of these 
castes acted as messengers for 
the Brahmans in Barbosa's 
time". Patel, with an affix, var, 
for instance, or in Malayalam 
ar, could be transformed into 
patamar." Dalgado, in Glos- 
sario, s.v. palamar.] 

Patarata (affectation ; boast- 
ing). Konk. patrdt ; vern. terms 
baddy, tavdarki. Mai. patrds, 
patrdz. Patrasi, patraji, boast- 
ing, boaster. Tet. patarata ; 
vern. terms I6k6 t bosok. 1 

In Konkani, there is also the 
form patrater meaning * boast- 

Pateca (arch, for ' water- 
melon ').* Sinh. patdgaya, pat- 

1 " We (Portuguese) either lett the 
word patarata in Malay or borrowed 
it from that language.' 1 Dr. Albert 
de Castro. 

2 Fr. Jofto de Sousa mentions the 
form bateca. 

" In respect of fruits it (the city of 
Cairo) is not very rich, except for pate- 
cas, which are like melons, but not as 
savoury.** Antonio Teiireiro, Itinera- 
rto, ch. xlii. 




takka gediya. Tarn, pattakd, 
vattakei. Malay al. vattakka. 

"The melon of India* which we (the 
Portuguese) here call pateca ". Garcia 
da Orta [Col. xxxvi]. " Melons of 
India or patecas which must be what 
to-day we call melancias [water-melon 
or Cucurbita Citrullus, Linn." Conde 
de Ficalho, Coloquios, Vol. II, p. 144. 
[Fioalho, who is surprised that Orta 
should speak of the pateca as though it 
were unknown in Portugal, identifies 
it with the melancia, which he says 
was cultivated from immemorial times 
in the Mediterranean basin, and must, 
therefore, have been also cultivated in 
Spain and Portugal. To this Dalgado, 
in his Gfonpalves Vianet e a Lexicologia 
Portuguesa, says: 

" Inspite of Ficalho's opinion to the 
contrary, it can be seen from Ant6nio 
Tenreiro* from Garcia da Orta, and 
others that the water-melon was then 
little cultivated in the Iberic peninsula. 
The name which the Portuguese gave 
to the fruit in India is pateca, from the 
Ar. batfikh, which they probably heard 
used by the Arab traders in Malabar. 
As pateca, the fruit is even to-day 
known in the^ Portuguese speech 
current in Asia. Frei Jofto dos Santos, 
however, speaks of the melancia 
('water-melon') as a fruit, very com- 
mon, in his time [160$], and it is, 
therefore, not improbable that the 
Portuguese who had sampled the fruit 
irt India, had either introduced it into 
Portugal or extended its cultivation 
there, and that the popular form balan- 
da was a corruption of the cultivated 
term melancia. Notwithstanding the 
fact that the Spaniards had sandia, 
a term received, according to Dozy, 

Tel. bateka. | Indo-Fr. pasti- 
que. | ? Siam t&ng. Mol. pa- 
teka, bateka. Tet., Gal. pateka; 
vern. term babuar. 

The Port, word is from the 
Arabic battikh or bittikh. 

Pato (gander ; drake). Konk. 
pat, drake ; vern. terms hdrtis, 
rajhdms. Or., Beng. pdti- 
hafas. Ass. pati-hdrnh. Sinh. 
pdttayd. Pdtti, goose. Tarn. 
vattu. Malay al. pdttu, drake 
Tel. bdty. Pedda bdtu (lit. 
'big drake'), gander. Kan. 
bdtu. Tul. battu. Siam. pet. 
Pet pa> wild duck. Tet., Gal. 

from the Ar. sindiya, and derived 
from Sindh in India, it cannot be said . 
that they had given the fruit to the 
Portuguese, because, had they done so, 
its name would have accompanied it, 
and in Portuguese there is no word for 
it corresponding to sandia. According 
to the testimony of Pyrard de Laval, 
Bernier, and Tavernier, the fruit was 
also unknown to the French, their 
word for it pasteque being a corruption 
of pateca and imported from India."] 

" Melons, pumpkins from Portugal 
and from Guinea, patecas, comba- 
lengas and biringelas." Qabriel Rebelo, 
Informa$ao, p. 172 [Oombalenga is a 
species of Indian pumpkin. Biringela 
is the same as beringela, q.v.]. 

"They ate nothing but the bran of 
the millet and the rind of patecas, 
which are like our water-melons.** Joao 
dos Santos, Bthiop, Or., II, p. 182. 




The original of the Port, 
word appears to be the Ar. bat, 
4 drake, gander ' (batak is the 
diminutive), also used in Persi- 
an and Hindustani. 1 Tt may 
be that batu has been derived 
directly from bat. The old 
Portuguese writers use adem 
for pato. 2 

[Gongalves Viana is not dis- 
posed to accept the Arabic ori- 
gin for pato and for the follow- 
ing reason : The change of b 
into p. In the Bulgar language 
the gander is called pdtek or 
pdtok, which is a derived form 
and presupposes the exist- 
ence of an earlier one, pat ; it 
is possible that the Ar. bat came 
to be written that way because 
of the absence of p in that lan- 
guage. In Persian the drake 
is also called bat, and it is pro- 
bable that the Arabs imported 
either from Persia, Armenia or 
India the word which belongs 

* Goncalves Viana disputes the Ara- 
bic origin of the word. 

2 "In the breeding of adens some 
break the egg and bring out the duck- 
ling which they then rear for the mar- 
ket," F. Pinto, ch. xcvii. 

' ' Peaoooka, ganders, adens, and all 
domestic fowls." Lucena, Bk. X, oh. 

to the stock of Aryan and not 
Semitic languages. In Arme- 
nia, too, it is called pat, or bad, 
according as the dialect which 
uses the word belongs to 
Europe or Asia.] 

Patrono (in the sense of 
* patron-saint '). Konk. pat- 
ron. Tet., Gal. patronu. 

? Patrulha (military patrol) . 
Mai., Jav., Mad. patrol (Heyli- 
gers). Batt. pataroli. 

Patrol appears to be Dutch. 
The Portuguese term intro- 
duced in these languages is 
>ronda, q.v. 

PPatuleia (a mob, rabble). 
Mai. patuley, race, tribe. 

Did the word go from Portu- 
gal or did it come to Portugal 
from Malacca ? The Portu- 
guese dictionaries do not give 
the derivation of patuleia. 
Gon9alves Viana, however, pre- 
sumes that it is patuU in the 
sense of ' rustic '. 

It might have been brought 
from Asia by the Spanish gip- 
sies and introduced into Casti- 
lian which employs it in the 
sense of ' irregular troops '. 

Pau (piece of timber). Mai. 
pdu, shaft. 

Paulista (a Jesuit). Konk. 




Pavlist (1. us. at present). 
Anglo-Ind. Paulist (obs.). 1 

Many legends of a mythic 
character are current in Goa in 
respect of the old Paulists. 2 

[The Jesuits were so called 
in Goa from the famous Col- 
lege of St. Paul (consecrated 
on the 25th January, 1542, the 
day of the conversion of St. 
Paul) which they had there, 
and the name spread all over 
India with the extension of 
the missionary work of the 

The Church of St. Paul, com- 
pleted in 1602, was the seat of 
the Jesuit College at Macao ; 
this church, according to the 
testimony of Pre Alexandre 
de Rhodes (Voyages et Mis- 

1 The news I have is that Don Anto- 
nio goes to Shagardy with his house- 
hold and the RR. PP. Paulistas will 
look out for him with all zeal expecting 
that we will be sure to go with him" 
(1682). O Chron. de Tiasuary, I, p. 318. 
[RR. is a plural form, abbreviation of 
'Reverend 1 and PP of Padres ('Fathers 
or Priests'.] 

[See also quotations from Tavernier 
and Pietro della Valle in Hobson-Job- 

,2 it was in the possession of the 
Jesuits (commonly called Paulistas 
with reference to the College of St. 
Paul)." O Qabinete Litterario das Fon~ 

sion8,ed. 1884, p. 56, in Peter 
Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. Ill, pt. I, p. 163, n. 2.), 
was the most magnificent that 
he had seen, with the excep- 
tion of St. Peter's at Rome, 
and from this Church and Col- 
lege the Jesuits in China de- 
rived the appellation * Pau- 
lists ', of which they appear to 
have been quite proud * 

Yule says that the Jesuits 
" are still called Paolotti in 
Italy, especially by those who 
don't like them ".] 

Pavao (peacock). Mai. pa- 

Peao (foot-man, foot-soldier, 
messenger) . Konk. pydriiv ( us. 
in Salsete). Sinh. piyon. 
Anglo-Ind. peon* 

1 [" Jesuitts calling themselves Pau- 
lists and wherefore. 

" As the Church (in Macao) is Named 
St. Paules, soe Doe they stile them- 
selves Paulists, as Paules Disciples in 
imitating or Following him in his Func- 
tion, For as hee was Cheiffe in conver- 
sion of the gentiles in those Daies, Soe 
Doe they attribute thatt office More 
peculier to themselves in converting 
the heathen off these tymes." Mundy, 
Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, pt. i, pp. 
163 and 164.] 

2 "The Samorim ordered the piao 
to carry the letter and strictly for- 
bade him to say anything about hav- 
ing seen it." Caspar Correia, I, p. 421. 



[Whitworth gives ' peon ' as 
a corruption of Hindust. pi- 
yada, 'a foot-soldier'. He is 
wrong. The Port, word is the 
Lat. pedanus, though ultimate- 
ly peon and piyada are akin in 

Pe^a (piece, piece of cloth). 
Konk. ps ; vern. terms nag, 
dagino, tako. Tet. peso,. 

In Konkani, peso, is also the 
name of ' a piece of gold jewel- 
lery '. 

[Pedraria (in the sense of 
* precious stones') . Anglo-Ind. 
pedareea, pedaeria (obs.) 1 not 

" He placed a guard of plains from 
the place, so that the enemy might not 
enter once again through the villages." 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. V, vii, 3. 

[" But he (Caninge) had a tedious. . 
journey of yt,.. .beeinge sett on by the 
ennemye on the waye, whoe shott him 
through the bellye with an arrowe. . . 
and killed and hurte manye of his 
pyonns". Nicholas Withington 
(1812-16), in Foster, Early Travels, p. 

[ l " Aboute the tyme that I was in 
Synda, the Boloohes tooke a boate 
wherin were seven Itallians and one 
Portungale fryer, which fought with 
them and were slayne everye man ; 
only the Portungale escaped alive, 
whoe beeinge verye fatt, they ripped 
upp his bellye and searched whether 
there were anye gould or pedareea in 
his guts". Nicholas Withington, in 
Foster, Early Travels, O.U.P., p. 220.] 

in Hobson-Jobson nor in the 

Pedreiro (stone-mason) . 
Konk. pidrer, pidrel ; vern. 
terms, garhvdo, chirekanti. 
Mar. pidrel ; vern. terms ga- 
undi, gavandyd, raj. Sinh. 
pedarfruva, pedarereva; vern. 
terms galvaduvd (lit : ' a worker 
in stones ') . Malayal . peri- 
deri. 1 

[Pedreiro, pederero ("a 
small piece of ordnance, mostly 
used in ships to fire stones, 
nails, broken iron, or cartridge 
shot on an enemy attempting 
to board. It is managed by a 
swivel." Vieyra). Anglo-Ind. 
pattarero, pateraro, petarero, 
paterero s . 

[ Pedaeria various". Foster, The 
Eng. Fact. 1618-1621, p. 62.] 

i With regard to the change of r 
into I, cf. kadel, from Port, cadeira 
(< chair '), kontrel, from Port, cantareira 
( a wall cup-board'), in Konkani. 

* [" Hee likewise in the generall letter 
to the Radja &c. gave positive Orders 
that each of the 3 Sea Ports Shold 
build and fitt out to Sea 2 men of 
warre Prows, each to carry 10 gunna 
and Pattareros, and well manned and 
6tted with Small arms." Bowrey, 
Hak. Soc., p 254.] 

[" ilth March, 1683. This morning. . 
we weighed anchor . . .and being got 
up with Kegaria, we went on shore . . . 
and landed at an old ruined Castle with 




Pyrard uses the French form 
perrier 1 and Manucci the term 
petrechos 2 to denote the identi- 
cal kind of mortar or swivel- 
gun. The Anglo-Indian forms 
are not in Hobson-Jobson nor 
in the O.E.D.] 

? Pegar (to join ; to stick ; 
to take hold of). Mai. p&gah 
(also used in the sense of 
4 knit, tied, stuck to anything ') . 
Jav. pegen. 

According to Dr. Schuchardt, 
it is a vernacular term. 

mud walls and thatched. We saw one 
small Iron Gun mounted and an Iron 
Pateraro." Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. I, pp. 66 & 67.] 

["Camels of War with Pate re roes, 
on their Saddles, marched with a Pace 
laborious to the Guiders." Fryer, East 
India, etc., Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 271.] 

["Camels that carry Petereros." 
Idem, Vol. II, p. 112.] 

1 [" We gave them a mainsail, of 
which they stood in need, and in 
exchange they gave us two perriers, 
or small iron cannon. 5 ' Pyrard, Voyage, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 23. See Gray's 
note on 4 perrier.'] 

2 [" Their armament was of small 
pieces, swivel guns and petrechos of 
bronze, of which the muzzles whence 
the ball issues were fashioned into 
shapes of animals tigers, lions, dogs, 
elephants, and crocodiles. 1 * Manucci, 
Storia do Mogor, ed. Irvine, Vol. II, 
p. ICO. See also note in Vol. IV, 
p, 430.] 

Peito (breast, chest). Konk. 
pit ; vern. term hardifa Mai. 
peito (Haex) ; vern. term 
dada. *v > ~^ ;*V\ 

Pelouro (a ball, a great 
shot). ? Beng. piluri. ? Siam. 
pliuek. Mai. peluru, pttor, 
piloru, pilor. Ach. pilor 
Batt. p6lur, pinuru. Sund., 
Mad. pelor. Mac., Bug. 
piluru. 1 

Bulloram T gives the 

Bengali pilur ; valent to 

the English 4 pn 

Pena (in the sen. c of ' pain ; 
punishment'). Konk. pen; vern. 
terms duhkh, khant ; dand. 
Mai. pena, a fine (Haex) ; vern. 
term denda. 

Pena (' quill, writing-pen '). 
Konk. pen. Mar. pen. Guj. 
pen. Slsapen (lit. 'lead pen'), 
pencil. Beng. pena; the vern. 
Neo-Aryan terns are kalam, 
lekhne. Sinh. pena pene, ta\n- 
pena (lit. * wing feather ') . 
Penapihiya, pen-knife. Tarn. 
pena pennei. Pene-katti, pen- 
knife. Malayal. pena. Penak- 
katti, pen-knife. Tel. plnd. 

1 < From your magazines help me 
with pelouros and gunpowder, of 
which I am at present in great need ". 
Letter from the King of Bata, in F. 
Pinto, ch. xiii. 




Kan. penu. Slsapenu, pencil. 
Tul. penu, penu. Mai., Tet., 
Gal. p6na. 

Kalam, from the Greek 
kdlamos (already introduced 
into Sanskrit, kalama, and also 
adopted in Arabic, qalam), is 
generally used in the Indian 
and Malay languages. 1 Even 
to-day, in different parts, the 
style, or a small rod with 
pointed end for scratching 
letters, is used for writing. 
Pen, in Japanese, appears to 
be from English, as pin is, 
because they end in a conso- 

Penacho (plume or bunch 
of feathers). Mac., Bug. pin- 

Peneira (a sieve). Sinh. 
penfraya, penereya (pi. penera) ; 
vern. terms chdlartaya, &ata- 

Penhor (pledge, pawn) . 
Konk. pinhor. Pinhor dav- 
ruhk, to pawn ; vern. terms 
gahdn y taran, adav. Mai. pan- 
jar, earnest-money. Sund . , 
Jav. panjer. 

Penitencia^ (penitence} . 
Konk. penitefns, 

1 Gonpalves Vians points out that 
the term is Semitic in origin. 

vern. terms prajit, pirajit. 
Tet. penitensi. 

Pepino (cucumber). Sinh. 

pipinna ( = pipinha) ; vern. 

terms kekiri, tiyambar. 

| Mai. pepinio, according to 

Rumphius. | 

Per a (for 'guava', Psidium 
guayava}. Konk. per (neut.) ; 
per (' the guava-tree ', fern.). 
Mar. peru ; vern. term jamb 
(properly Eugenia jambos). 
Guj. per, perum\ vern. terms 
jam, jamphal. Beng peru, 
piyard. Sinh. pera. Tam. 
plrd (also goyd palam (lit. 'the 
guava fruit or the Goa-fruit '?), 
Malayal perd (the tree), 
plrakkd, perakka. Kan. pdrla- 
mara (the tree), perla hannu 
(the fruit). Tul. peranggdyi.* 

Amrut or amrud is the name 

1 *' Oranges, pomegranates, myra- 
balans, Indian peras which do not 
resemble ours." Pyrard, Viagem I, 
p. 338 [Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 399]. 

" Of Indian fruits there are many, 
pera, figs, jangoma, pine-apple, all in 
abundance, especially in Luabo." 
Fr. Ant6nio da Conceicfto, in O Chron. 
de Tissuary, II, p. 42. [Jangoma is 
the fruit of the Flacourtia cataphracta.] 

" There is another tree seen in the 
Island called pereira, which bears a 
fruit resembling the guava of Ame- 
rica." Fr. Clemente da Res8urreic.&o, 
II, p. 338. 




of the ' guava ' in Hindustani, 
and amrud is the name of the 
fc pear ' in Persian. In Hindus- 
tani and Bengali it is also 
spoken of as the saphari am 
(lit. the * journey mango' or, 
rather, c foreign mango ', see 
Hobson-Jobson, s.v. ananas), 
corrupted into supari dm, 
' areca-mango '. 

In Burma, the guava is 
called ma-la-kah-thi, ' the 
Malacca-fruit ', and the guava- 
tree ma-la-kah-bin. Siamese 
has luk fdrang, * fruit Euro- 
pean ', and tOn fdr&ng, ' tree- 
foreign ' (fdrftng Frank). 

The plant is indigenous to 
America and was introduced 
into India by the Portuguese, 
who, owing to its similarity, 
called the fruit pera, ('pear'), 
just in the same way as they 
called the fruit of the banana- 
tree figoC fig'). 

In Africa also the term 
pera is used to denote the 
' guava '. 

In Konkani, perad (from 
perada in the Portuguese 
dialect of Goa) is a conserve 
prepared from guavas. See 

[A. Siddiqi (in JRAS, July, 
1927, p. 560) says : "It is 

only in Urdu and also in 
certain other Indian languages 
that the name amrut is applied 
to guava. The reason is quite 
clear : guava became perfectly 
naturalised in India, where 
pear never thrived. The 
resemblance in shape and 
colour of guava to pear 
obviously led to the adoption 
of amruth for " guava " most 
probably by the Persians or 
Moghuls naturalised in North- 
ern India. In the South-Indian 
Urdu a " guava" is >U* prob- 


ably on account of its resem- 
blance to a pear-shaped bowl ". 

Marathi and Gujarati use 
jamb and jam for the 'guava', 
perhaps because the shape of 
the latter is similar to that of 
the Eugenia jambos (Hindi 
gulab-jaman, ' rose-jaman '), 
which in its turn is in form 
like an apple or a pear.] 

Percha (naut., rails of the 
head, the outwand planks be- 
tween the beak-head and the 
keel of a ship). L.-Hindust. 

Perdao (pardon). Konk. 
perddfov (1. us.); vern. terms 
bogsaqtih, maphi. Tet. perrfdL 

Perdi?ab (perdition). Konk. 
pirdisdmv; vern. terms 




satyand6. Tet. perdisa ; vern. 

term Idkon. 

Perdido (lost). Konk. per- 

did, a person gone astray ; 

vern. terms hogadlalo, avdisd 

laglalo. Tet. perdidu ; vern. 

term Idkon. 
Peres (' a variety of mango'). 

Anglo-Ind. peirie. Konk., 

Mar., Guj., pdyri (through the 

influence of the English word). 

See Afonsa, [and notes to 


[For the way Portuguese 

names have been mutilated in 

Western India, see Ind. Aniiq., 

Vols. XIX, p. 442 and XXIII, 

p. 76.] 

Permissao (permission). 
Mai. permisi, \ perhaps from 

Dutch. | 

Perten^as (appurtenances). 
Anglo-Ind. perten^as, in 
Bombay. " It (foras) occurs 
in old grants of the local 
government especially in the 
phrase foras and perten^as, 
the latter also Port., de- 
pendencies, appurtenances." 
Wilson, [Glossary, p. 577]. 

Peru (popular form perum, 
turkey). Konk. perurti. 
Hindi, Hindust., Or., Beng., 
Ass., Punj. peru. Khas. peru, 

Goncalves Viana calls into 
question the derivation of the 
fowl's name from the South 
American state of Peru, 
because, says he, it is not a 
native of Peru, but probably 
of Mexico, and also because the 
Spaniards, who must have 
given the word to the Portu- 
guese, call the bird pavo, 
1 peacock ', or pavo comun, ' the 
common peacock ', and not 
peru t and he adds, " for the 
present the origin of the bird 
and its name in Portuguese is 
an enigma". But Diogo do 
Couto calls the birds galinhas 
de Peru, ' Peru hens': " And 
all along that route (from Abys- 
sinia) they had been eating 
many (jallinhas do Peru, 
partridges, wild cows, stags, 
doves, turtle doves." Deca- 
das, VII, iv, 6. 

"There are many pelicans, 
which are as large as a big 
gallo do Peru " (' Peru cock '). 
Fr. Joao dos Santos, Ethiop. 
Or. I, p. 135. 

The French coq d'Inde, the 
German Calecutische Hahn, the 
Dutch Kalkoen (from Calicut), 
the Arabic Dajdj Hindi, the 
Turkish Hind Tdnugu would 
point to an Indian origin ; but 




the bird is not a native of 
India, and its name peru is an 
exotic. The word does not 
exist in Marathi and Gujarat!. 
Hindustani has, side by side 
with peru, Sutra-murgh (lit. 
* camel-cook, ostrich ') and fil- 
murgh (lit. ' elephant-cock ') 
from Persian. The Dravidian 
languages describe the bird by 
means of various compounds, 
some of which assign to it a 
foreign origin. 

[The view generally accepted 
that the domestic fowl all over 
the world had been derived 
from a bird met with it in 
its wild state in India had 
very likely a great deal to 
do with assigning the turkey 
also to India . That the turkey 
was an exotic and introduced 
into India by the Portuguese 
is borne out by the description 
of the bird from the pen of 
the Emperor Jahanglr given 
below. 1 The turkey, domesti- 

i [" On the 16thFarwardin [3 April, 
1612 A.D.] Muqarrab Khan brought 
from Goa certain "rarities he met 
\7ith in that port. . . Among these were 
some animals that were very strange 
and wonderful, such as I had never 
seen, and up to this time no one had 
known their names. . . One of these 
'animals in body is larger than a 

cated by the people of Mexico 
and Peru, was introduced into 
Europe by the Spaniards, soon 
after the discovery of Mexico.] 
P6s (feet). Mol. pees 
( = ps) t camphor of an inferior 
quality. See barriga and 

Peste (plague). Konk. 
pest ; vern. terms m&ri, mari, 
marik, pidd. Tet., Gal. ptsti. 

peahen and smaller than a peacock. 
When it is in heat and displays itself, 
it spreads out its feathers like a 
peacock and dances about. Its beak 
and legs are like those of a cock. Its 
head and neck and the part under the 
throat are every minute of a different 
colour. When it is in heat it is quite 
red. . .and after a while it becomes 
white in the same places and looks like 
cotton. . . Two pieces of flesh it has on 
its head like the comb of a cook. A 
strange thing is this, that when it is in 
heat the aforesaid piece of flesh hangs 
down to the length 01 a spun from the 
top of its head like an elephant's 
trunk, and again when he raises it up, 
it appears on its head like the horn of 
a rhinoceros, to the extent of two 
finger- breadths. Round its eyes it is 
always of a turquoise colour, and does 
not change. Its feathers appear to be 
of various colours, differing from the 
colours of the peacock's feathers " 
TAzuk-i'Jahdngiri, Tr. Rogers and 
Beveridge, I, 215-6. Aligarh Text, 
104, last line, in Hodivala, Notes on 
Hcbson-Jobson, in Ind. Antiq., Vol. 




PPetardo (petard). Mai. 
petas, petdsan. Siam. pa-that. 

Pla (stone trough; font). 
Konk. pi. Bong., Tarn. piyd. 
Tet., Gal. pia. 

Picadeira (a mason's pick- 
axe). Konk., Mar,, pikdndar. 

Picao (sort of pick-axe with 
two sharp points used by stone- 
cutters). Konk. pikdrhv. 
Mar. pikdrhv, Ipikds. ? Guj. 
tikam. Sinh. pikama ; pikd- 
siya (from the English * pick- 
axe ' ?). Malayal. pikkam. 
Tul. pikkasu, pikkdsu (perhaps 
from English). 1 v x 

Picota ( * a pump-brake ') . 
Anglo-Ind. picotta, picottah 
(us. in S. India), " a machine 
for raising water, which con- 
sists of a long lever or yard, 
pivotted on an upright post, 
weighted on the short arm and 

1 " And so they used to carry bancos 
pinchadot, rnardes, picdes, gunpowder, 
and other materials/ 1 Joao de Barros, 
Deo. II, vii, 9. [Banco pin chad o is a 
contrivance which had the appearance 
of a bench (banco) and was used 
formerly in battering down (pinchar) 
walls, Mardes from marram is a sort 
of hammer used by bombardiers.] 

"The Captain sent him a hundred 
men with mattocks, and another 
hundred with picdes, and a thirc 
hundred with baskets and bowls. 1 
Caspar Correia* III, p. 617. 

bearing a line and bucket on 
ihe long arm ".* 

The term must be well- 
known, because Percival, in 
his Tamil-English Dictionary, 
gives ' picotta ' as the equiva- 
lent of the Tamil tula, and 
* the arms of a picotta ' of 

Pilar (aubst., a pillar, beam) . 

1 "They take a great ox-cart and 
set up therein a tall picota like those 
used in Castillo for drawing water from 
wells/* Duarte Barbosa, Livro, p. 304 
[Hak. Soc., ed. Longworth Dames, 
Vol. 1, p. 221. Mr. Dames (p. 220) 
says that this water lift was no doubt 
a contrivance like the shaduf used in 
Egypt, and introduced into Spain by 
the Arabs. It consists of a leather 
bag or a bucket which hangs from the 
end of the long arm of a bamboo crane, 
while the short arm is weighted with 
a heavy stone and so nearly balanced 
that a slight pressure will raise the 
long arm into the air.] 

" The place in which the King orders 
justice to be administered to wrong 
doers is the picota." Gaspar Correia 
IV, p. 151. [This is another accepta- 
tion of picota. The dictionaries give 
* a species of a pillory ' as one of the 
meanings of the word, and it is ap- 
parently used here in that sense. In 
Hobion-J obson, *.v. picottah, there is a 
quotation also from Correia, in which 
the word has the meaning of a ' pil- 
lory*. Yule says that the picota or 
ship's pump at sea was also used as a 

4 pillory ' which explains its use by 

Correia in that sense.] 




Mad. pttar. Jav. pilar. 
Milar, " to crack along the 
whole length " (Heyligers). 

The change of p into m is 
normal in the formation of 
Javanese words. 

Piloto (pilot) . Konk. pildt ; 
vern. term sukaneihkdr. Tet. 

Pimentos (Capsicum gros- 
sum y Roxb.). Camb. metis. 

With regard to the dropping 
of the first syllable, cf. Ses = 
Frances (' Frenchman '). 

[? Pinaca (the residue that 
remains after oil has been 
expressed from seeds or coco- 
nuts ; the word is current in 
Asio-Portuguese) . Anglo- 

Ind. poonac. 1 

The Port, form shows the 
influence of Konk. pinak 
(Sansk. pinyaka) : the Anglo- 
Indian form appears to be 

1 [1786." What is left after the oil 
is expressed from coco -nut is Pin&ca, 
which is useful for fattening pigs, 
ducks, and hens.'* Fra Paolino, 
Viaggio, p. 116, in Qlossario.] 

[" The following are only a few of 
the countless uses of this invaluable 
tree (the palm) : . . .The oil, for rheuma- 
tism; for anointing the hair, for soap, 
for candles, for light ; and the poonak, 
or refuse of the nut after expressing 
the oil, for cattle and poultry." Ten- 
nent, Ceylon (1859), Vol. I, p. 109, n.] 

directly taken from the Tamil 
punnakku (Whitworth gives it 
as pinnakku) or the Sinh. 
punakku and not influenced by 
Portuguese dialects, though 
pinaca occurs much earlier 
than poonac in the writings of 
European travellers. The 
word is not mentioned in Hob- 
son-Jobson t but is found in the 

Pinchar (to push, to thrust). 
Mai. picha, to fling or throw 

Used in the same sense in 
the Portuguese dialects in 

fPinda (Aravhis hypogaea, 
ground-nut). Anglo-Ind. pin- 
dar. 1 Not in Hobson-Jobson. 

The Portuguese word is an 
adaptation of mpinda used in 
Congo. The O.E.D. says that 

i ["Sometimes they (the common 
people of Surat) Feast with a little 
Fish, and that with a few Pindars is 
esteemed a splendid Banquet. These 
Pindars are sown under ground and 
grow there without sprouting above 
the surface, the Cod in which they are 
Inclosed is an Inch long, like that of 
our Pease and Beans . . . Some of these 
I brought for England, which were 
sown in the Bishop of London's Garden, 
but whether they will thrive in this 
Climate is yet uncertain/* Ovington, 
Voyage to Surat, O.U.P., p. 50.] 




this name for the nut was 
carried by negroes to America, 
and that the name for the 
ground- or pea-nut in the West 
Indies and Southern United 
States is ' pindar '. But which 
is the original home of this 
nut ? De Candolle inclines to 
the view that it is a native of 
Brazil and that it was carried 
from there to Africa and Asia 
by the Portuguese. But there 
are serious difficulties in the 
way of accepting this view ; the 
most important of which is that 
the dispersion of this plant over 
a very large part of Africa and 
the extensive zones in which 
it is and was cultivated can- 
not be easily accounted for by 
assuming that the plant was 
introduced into Africa after 
1500. Burton (TMke Regions, 
II, 52) referring to a region 
situated on the borders of Tan- 
ganika says " U-Karanga sig- 
nifies etymologically the land of 
ground-nuts." Now there are 
those who identify ' U-karanga' 
with the land of Mocarangas or 
Ba-caranga which as a pro- 
vince of the grand empire of 
Monomatapa was known to Fr. 
Joao dos Santos. If, therefore, 
the etymology suggested by 

Burton is reliable, it becomes 
very difficult to believe that a 
plant introduced into Africa 
after 1500 should by 1580 or 
1690 have given its name to a 
vast region in the interior of 
the continent. 

There are equally great diffi- 
culties in assuming that the 
plant is a native of Africa and 
was therefrom introduced into 

There are a series of names 
by which this plant was known 
to the Portuguese. Some like 
the following appear to be of 
Brazilian origin : manobi, mun- 
dubi, mend obi, mendobim, men- 
doim, amendoim ; others clear- 
ly African in origin : mancarra 
in Guinea and Cape Verde 
Islands ; mpinda on the Congo 
Coast; ginguba in Angola; 
karonga in Swahili on the east 

The more probable view 
seems to be to regard it as in- 
digenous both to America and 
to Africa. See Ficalho, Plantas 
Uieis da Africa Portugueza, p. 
133 seq. t where the question 
has been discussed at length. 
Watt, however, is of opinion 
that the home of the plant is 

288 ' 



The ground-nut is another 
of the long list of plants intro- 
duced into India in recent 
times. In India it is known 
by different names in different 
localities ; some of these are 
perhaps evidence of successive 
and independent efforts to in- 
troduce it into India. " It 
may have come from China to 
Bengal (hence the name Chini- 
badam) ; from Manila to South 
India (Manila-kotai), and from 
Africa and very possibly direct 
from Brazil as well, to Western 
India.'* Watt, The Comm. 
Prod, of Ind., (1908), p. 74. 
In Konkani it is known as 
Mosmichifa biknafa (* Mozam- 
bique nuts ') which attests to 
its introduction into Goa from 

[PPingue (adj., fat). Anglo- 
Ind. penguin, the general name 
of birds of the family Sphenis- 

Yule says that ' penguin ' 
may be from the Port, pingue, 
fat ', but this conjecture is 
not accepted by the O.E.D. 
which also rejects, after due 
analysis and examination, all 
other derivations till now put 
forward and maintains that 
the origin of the word is 

obscure. The Novo Diccion- 
drio derives Port, penguim from 
Fr. pingouin. Pyrard men- 
tions " numbers of birds called 
pinguy, which lay there (in 
the Maldive Islands) their eggs 
and young, and in quantities 
so prodigious that one could 
not. , . . plant one's foot with- 
out touching their eggs or 
young ". But the editor (Hak. 
Soc., Vol. I, p. 97) says 
that there are no penguins at 
the Maldives and that the 
author is describing probably 

Pinho (pine-wood). Konk. 
pinh. Malaya 1. pinna 
( = pinha) . Piftnapetti, pine- 
wood box. 

Pintada (Melagris numida, 
Linn., Guinea-fowl ; " the fowl 
of India or Angola"). Konk. 
pintalgem. Anglo-Ind. pin- 
tado. Indo-Fr. pintade. 1 

[The Novo Dicciondrio says 
that pintada in the above 
meaning is fern, of pintado, 
' speckled '.] 

1 '* Everywhere on this island (of 
Saint Helena) there are many wild 
goats, many wild pintadas, very 
beautiful and big." Joao dos Santos,, 
Ethiop. Or., II, p. 379. 

" The interior of the island [of Fogo 
in Cape Verde Islands] abounds with 




Pintado (painted or spotted 
cloth). Anglo-Ind. pintado 
(obs.), chintz. 1 [See salpica- 

game; pintadas (which they call 
Guinea-fowls), quails, and mountain 
goats " Jour. Geo. Soc. Lisb., 5th 
series, p. 385. [Fryer (East India and 
Persia, Vol. I, Hak. Soc., p. 51) speaks 
of meeting " with those feathered 
Harbingers of the Cape, as Pintado 
Birds, etc.", and the editor identifies 
them with the ' Cape pigeon or 
Pintado (Port, pintado, "painted") 
Petrel, Daption Capensis", and also 
says in Hobnon-Jobson (s.v.) that the 
word is more commonly applied to the 
Cape pigeon]. 

[" Pintados is a Fowle well knowne 
and Much Noted by Seamen in these 
partts : Found no where butt aboutt 
Cape Bona-esperanza allthough seene 
sometymes 4 or 500 leagues off of it to 
the Northward and Southward off itt 

aboutt the biggnesse of Pidgeons." 

Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, 

pt. II, p. 359.] 

1 *' And so there are (in Gujarat) also 

other pintados (' coloured clothes ') of 

diverse kinds." Duarte Barbosa, p. 

282 [Hak. Soc., ed. Dames, Vol. I, 

p. 154]. 

' Here (in Paleacate) are made great 

abundance of cotton pintados." Id., 

p. 360 [Hak. Soc., ed. Dames, Vol. II, 

p. 132]. 

" They use to make payment in 

pintados from Cam bay a." Caspar 

Correia, II, p. 41. 

"Four bales of tapestry and 

pintados." Id. Ill, p. 51. 

[" For these remooue all like princes, 

Pintar (to paint). Konk. 
pintar -karunk, pintarunk (an 
exceptional formation from the 
substantive pintdr, * paint- 
ing '). Siuh. pintar e-karandva. 
Malayal. pintarikd. Gal. 

Pintura (painting). Konk. 
pintur ; pintar (from the Port, 
verb.) ; vern. terms chitr, 
nak&6y pratirup. Sinh. pintd- 
ruva, pintdrema, pinturaya ; 
vern. terms sitiyama. 
Malayal. pintdrani. 

Pipa (a cask ; also a barrel). 
Konk. pip (also pimp, in 
Kanara). Mar. pip, pimp. 
Guj. pip. Hindi, Hindust., 
Nep., Punj. plpd. Beng. pipd, 
pipe, pimpa. Sindh. pipa. 
Sinh. pippaya, pippe. Pip- 
pa-vaduvd, a cooper. Tarn. 

pippa. Malayal. pippa. Tel. 


with seuerall shiftes of tents that goe 
before, compassed iu with Pales of 
Pintadoes, which are ready euer two 
dayes for them." Sir Thomas Roe, 
Embassy, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 275.] 

[" They (the * Qentues ') are general- 
ly a very Subtile and Cunninge Sort 
of men, Especially in the way of 
merchandizeing, also Very ingenuos in 
workinge Cotton Cloth or Silks, 
pantados." Bowrey, Hak. Soc., p. 9.] 

["There was not One peeoe of 
Pintadoe, or any other Paintings." 
Id., p. 9, n.j 




pipaya. Kan. pipe, pipdi, 
pipdyi. Tul. pipa, plpdya, 
pipdyi. Gar., Khas., Mai., 
Aoh., Mac., Nio., Malag. pipa. 
Siam. pib ; vern. term thdng. 
| Chin, pi-pd-tung \. 1 

There is another word pipa 
in Malay, Madurese and Galoli 
(pipo in Javanese), which 
comes from the English * pipe ' 
and signifies a ' tobacco pipe '. 

Pires (saucer). Konk. pir. 
Hindust. pirich ; vern. terms 
taitari, thali (as in Hindi). 
Beng. pirij. Ass. piris. Sinh. 
pirissya. Tarn, piris. Khas. 
phiris. ? Mai., Ach., Sund., 
Jav., Bal., Day., Mac., Bug. 
piring. Tet., Gal. piris. 

The Portuguese dialect of 
Malacca has pirin, and Cape 
Dutch pierentje. 2 

1 4I For a Portuguese not to wish to 
pay for the transport of a pipa of 
wine ! " DamiSo de Gois, Chron. de D. 
Manuel, IV, ch. 18. 

" He handed over the cooper's work- 
shop to Francisco de Mello Pereira, so 
that he might get him to turn out bar 
rels, large wooden bowls, pi pas.*' 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. VI, viii, 5. 

2 " A dozen pyres from India, of 
ordinary quality, each valued at 80 
re&" (1613). A. Tomas Pires, Mate- 
riae$, in Jour. Qeo. Soc. Lisb., 16th 
ser., p. 745. 

" A pires of silver, gilded over." 
Ibid., p. 754. 

Kacha-piring, picha piring 
(lit. * broken-plate '), in Sunda- 
nese, is the name of Gardenia 

Bigg says: "Piring, plate, 
big plate such as is used by 
Europeans. The small Chinese 
plates which are used by the 
natives are called pinggan." 
But Swettenham on the con- 
trary in his English-Malay 
dictionary gives : Saucer, 
piring ; Plate, pinqgan. Favre 
gives to both words the mean- 
ing of " soucoupe ('saucer'), 
assiette (< plate ') ". Bikkers 
mentions piring, ' plate ' ; and 
piring teh (lit. * plate for tea '), 
' saucer '. | Wilkinson gives it 
the meanings of * plate, 
saucer '. | 

The word pires appears to 
be originally a Malay word, 
adopted by the Portuguese and 
taken to India together with 
the word chd. But the termi- 
nation es or is offers some diffi- 
culty, because piring ought 
normally to give pirii. v . Per- 

"He (the King of Annam) sent three 
big trays, japanned and gilt, round, 
two spans high, full of many dishes; 
each of these trays contained many 
pires, forming a sort ol a mound, in 
which there were all sorts of eatables. ' 
A. F. Cardim (1649), Batalhae, p. 80. 




haps pires is the plural of 
*pirim and stands for *pir- 
ins. Its derivation from the 
Hindustani pirich is improba- 
ble, for it has the appearance 
of an exotic and is not men- 
tioned by Shakespear in 1817. 
[In the Oloaaarioj the author 
says that it appears to him 
that the Hindust. pirich, the 
Beng. pirij, and the Sinh. pi- 
rissiya are adaptations of the 
Port, pires. The vern. terms 
in Hindustani, as also in 
Hindi, are taStari, thali. The 
word is not mentioned by 
Shakespear in 1817; on the 
other hand it is to be met 
with in almost all the Mala- 
sian languages in the form pir- 
ing, ' a little plate.' From 
this it might be inferred that 
it was in Malasia that the 
Portuguese first received the 
word, and from there intro- 
duced it into India. Again, 
Candido Figueiredo mentions 
pire as a cant term and gives 
it the meaning of a ' plate.' 
To this Dalgado says that it 
is not improbable that the 
word in this form, modified 
by Portuguese influence, was 
imported by gipsies from the 
Malay piring, ' small plate.' 

It might be mentioned that 
Portuguese is the only one of 
all the European languages 
which uses pires in the sense 
of ' saucer/ and this in itself is 
proof that the word is of non- 
European origin. With regard 
to the borrowing of names for 
tea and everything connected 
with its service, see chicara.] 

[? Piroga (a long canoe or 
dug out used by the American 
Indians). Anglo-Ind. porgo, 
purgo, purga, pork (obs.). 1 

1 [" Here in Bengala they have 
every day in one place or other a 
great market which they call Chan- 
deau, and they have many great boats 
which they call Pericose, wherewith- 
all they go from place to place and 
buy rice and many other things". 
Ralph Fitch (1583-91), in Foster, Early 
Travels in India (1921), p. 26. Foster 
says that ' pericose ' is the ' porgos * or 
'purgoos* of later writers, and that 
the word is possibly a corruption of 
the Port, barca ; if this is so, it is the 
earliest reference to this word.] 

["Immediately on receiving this 
information, the Father Vicar de la 
Vara ordered a porca to be got ready. 
This kind of rowing boat is almost as 
common in those parts (Kingdom of 
Angelim or Hijll) as dingues and 
balones . . . The porca was manned 
with strong rowers . . " Manrique, 
Travels, Hak. Soo., Vol. I, p 24.] 

[ " Severall Sorts of boats that Use the 
Rivers, whose Shapes are as here 




1 Porgo ' in this sense is not 
found in the O.E.D. Yule says 
that ' porgo ' most probably 
represents Port, peragua. Port, 
dictionaries mention no such 
word, but it is evident that 
Yule is referring to Port, piroga 
(Span, piragua, Fr. pirogue). 
Skeat lists it among Carib-bean 
words (Notes on Eng. Etym. 
(1901), p. 349), but Marcel 
Devic (Supplement to Littr6) 
connects the Fr. pirogue with 
Malay prahu which, according 
to Yule, is responsible for 
Anglo-Ind. prow, parao, etc., 
(See parao). Sir Richard Tem- 
ple (Ind. Antiq., Vol. XXX, 
p. 101) is of the opinion that 

A Purgoo. These Use for the 
most part between Hugly and Pyplo 
and Ballasore. With these boats they 
carry goods into the Roads On board 
English and Dutch &c., Ships". 
Bowrey, Hak. Soc., p. 228. See also 
editor's note for other references in 
which the word is spelt ' Porgo ', 
Porgoo ', * Porkoe ', and Porka '.] 

["January 30 (1683). The Thomas 
arrived with ye 28 Bales of Silk taken 
out of the Purga, and was dispatched 
for Hugly yo same night". Hedges, 
Diary, Vol. I, p. 65.] 

[" Will send aboard with all expedi- 
tion both goods and provisions * some 
by the pynnace, others by porks 9 ". 
Foster, The English Factories 1634- 
1636, p. 51.] 

' purgoo or porgo ' is probably 
an obsolete Anglo-Indian cor- 
ruption of an Indian corrup- 
tion of the Portuguese term 
barco, barca, terms which were 
used for any kind of sailing 
boat by the early Portuguese 
visitors to the East. 1 

"The purgoo then was a 
barge (barca) confused with 
the bark (barco), just as the 
sail-less barge and the sailing 
bark have been confused in the 
West" (op. cit., p. 162). 

There is a description of a 
' purgoo ' in Bowrey (p. 228) 

1 [*' Into the Island ol Quaquem 
they imported many spices from India, 
and there they embarked in geluas 
(which are a kind of barques (barcos), 
like caravelas, which ply in the Straits), 
and were carried to Coyaer . . . and 
there (Cana) they took passage in 
barges (barcaa), and in a few days' 
time reached Cairo ". Convni. o] A. 
Albuquerque, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 

[1504. " All the paraaoa and catures 
left and many other small barks 
(barcos) which are called tones." 
Letters of A. Albuquerque, Lisbon, 
III, p. 261.] 

[1560. " All the people went in 
small boats (bateis) ; and the King in 
his barks (barcos) which are of fine 
workmanship and which are called 
tones". Caspar Correia, Lendas, I, 
p. 378, in Olossario.] 




and also an illustration (PI. 
XIII) which most certainly 
does not look like an American 
Indian canoe.] 

Pistola (a pistol). Konk., 
Guj. pistol. Mar. pistol, pis- 
tul. Hindust. pistol, pistaul. 
Beng. pistol. Sindh. pistola. 
-Punj. pistaul. Sinh. pisto- 
laya, pistole. Tel. pistolu. 
Kan., Tul. pistulu. Gar., Mai. 
pistol. Ach. mestol. Cf . meskut 
= biscoito (' biscuit '). Batt. 
pestul. Sund. pestol. Nic.. 
Tet., Gal. pistola. Jap. pis- 
torn, pisutoru. | Turk, pish- 
tow. 1 | 

Some dictionaries give as the 
source-word the English ' pis- 
tol ' or the Dutch pistool. Dr. 
Schuchardt refers the Malay 
word to Dutch. 

Poa (naut., bridle of the 
bow-line). L. -Hindust. pdo. 

Pobre (poor). Konk. pobre 
(1. us. ). Pobrahchifo ghar t asy- 
lum for the poor. Beng. pobri 
(subst.). Properly speaking, it 
denotes * the servant of the 
church ' (such as a bell-ringer, 
grave-digger, etc.), who must 

1 "The arms which could be em- 
ployed in this post were blunder- 
busses and pis tolas." JoSo Ribeiro, 
Fatalidade hist., Bk. II, ch. xxiv. 

formerly have been selected 
from amongst the poor. 

Pobreza (poverty). Mai. 
pavresa (Haex). 

Poial (" a raised platform 
on which people sit, usually 
under the verandah or on either 
side of the door of the house "). 
Konk. puydl. Tel. payal, pay- 
dlu. Anglo-Ind. pial. Indo- 
Fr. poyaL 1 

[The Port, word is itself 
derived from the Lat. podium, 
' a projecting base, a bal- - 
cony '. Yule says it corres- 
ponds to the N. India cha- 

PPolicia (police). Konk., 
Guj., Hindust. polis. Tel. 
polisu. Kan. polis. The 
forms in some of the verna- 
culars, perhaps, owe their 
origin to English. 

Poltrona (arm chair, as a 
rule, stuffed). Konk. pultran. 
? Mai. patardna. 

Gon9alves Viana throws 
doubt on the Portuguese origin 
with reference to the Malay 

[The Port, word is the It. 
poltrona, the feminine of 

1 " There were large seats like 
poyaes built of earth, very well made.'* 
Caspar Oorreia, I, p. 87, 



poltrone, in the sense of * a lazy 
fellow '. Poltrona in It. is also 

* a large chair, with arms, and 
almost always cushioned ' 
the very seat for an idler. Cf. 
the English * easy-chair '.] 

Polvorinho (powder-flask). 
Konk. polvorinh ; vern. term 
to&ddn. Tet. polvorinhu. 

Pomba (dove). Mai. pomba, 
pombaq, pamba, pambaq ; 
vernacular term parapati. 
Tet., Gal. pomba. 

PPompa (pomp). Mai., 
Sund. pompa. Jav., | Mad. | 

Dr. Heyligers, who mentions 
the word and assigns to it a 
Portuguese origin, gives it the 
French meaning pompe, which 
may stand as much for ' pomp ' 
as for ' pump '. In the former 
meaning, it may be derived 
from Portuguese ; but in the 
second, undoubtably, from the 
Dutch pomp or the English 

* pump '. Malay has bomba and 
pombain this sense. | Wilkin- 
son derives the word from 
Dutch and gives it the meaning 
of ' pump \ | See bomba. 

Ponta (peak, tip). Konk. 
pont. ? Mar. pot ; vern. terms 
tad, tembi, agr, damas, 6ing, 
sunk, pohkh, p&lamv, padar (ac- 

cording to different senses). 
L.-Hindust. pont, pontd, puntd, 
promontory ; pontd, the end of 
a rope. Ponte kd phutin, or 
putin, thick knot of the ropes 
of the sails. Puntd chhor dend, 
to double a cape at sea. Ach. 

Molesworth derives pot from 
the Persian pota or mota. 

Ponto (point, stitch, dot). 
Konk. pont. Bug. pontu (in 
a game of cards). Tet., Gal. 

Por (prep., for). Mai. por, 

Porcelana (porcelain, china- 
ware). Konk. phusldn. a por- 
ringer ; vern. term kdrhso. 
Sinh. pusalana, kusldna, cup, 

Persulana has the same 
meaning as tigella, * a por- 
ringer ', in the Portuguese of 
Goa. Gongalves Viana says 
(Palestras Filologicas) that 
" the old Portuguese chroni- 
clers regarded the term porce- 
lana as synonymous with chd- 
vena (' tea-cup 'J". 1 

1 Fernfto Pinto invariably uses per- 
for porcelana. 

"They were ready to give me in 
Balagate a porcelana for 200 par- 
dao." Garcia da Orta, Col. xliv 



[The Port, word comes from 
the Italian porcellana, which 

" Porcelana is here used in the sense 
of a cup ; it was customary to use it in 
that sense in that age." Conde de 
Ficalho [Coloquioa, Vol. II, p. 221]. 

" Fifteen to twenty scores of porce- 
lanas and as many more of plates." 
(1585). Archivo Port. Or., fasc. 5th, 
p. 1021. 

["They make here (in China) great 
store of porcelain, which is good 
merchandize everywhere. This they 
make from the shells of fish ground 
fine, from eggshells and the white of 
eggs and other materials. From these 
they make a paste which they place 
under the ground " for a certain time." 
This among them is held to be a valu- 
able property and treasure, for the 
nearer the time approaches for work- 
ing it the greater is its value." Bar- 
bosa, Hak. Soc., ed. Dames, Vol. II, 
pp. 213 and 214. See also editor's 

"The earthen Pots, Porcelains 
(' Cuppes') and vessels that are made 
there (China), are not to bee numbred, 
which are yearely carried into India, 
Portingall, Nova Spaignia .... 
These Pots and Porcelains ('Cups') 
are made ... of a certaine earth that 
is verie hard, which is beaten smal 
and then layed to stepe in Cesterns 
of stone full of water." Linschoten, 
Voyage, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, pp. 129 and 

["The heathenish Indians that 
dwell in Qoa are verie rich Marchants, 

and not onely sell all kindes 

of Silkes, Sattins, Damaskes, and 
curious works of Porselyne from 

in mediaeval times was the 
name given to the molluscs 
called Cypraeidae, or 'Venus 
shells ', or in India * cowries '. 
The word is adapted from the 
It. porcella, diminutive ofporco, 
which is the same as the Latin 
porcus, ' a hog \ and was ap- 
plied to these shells because of 
their strong resemblance to the 
body and back of a pig. The 
enamel of these shells was used 

China and other places, but . . . 
Silke . . ." Id. t p. 228.] 

["When the Portugals go from 
Macao in China to Japan, they carry 
much white silke, golde, muske, and 
porcelanes and they bring from 
thence nothing but silver." Ralph 
Fitch, in Foster, Early Travels (1921), 
p. 41.] 

[" A chiefe citie of trade in his (Tar- 
tar) territorie is Yar Chaun (Yar- 
khand), whence conies much silke, 
purslane, muske, and rheubarb." 
William Finch, in op. cit. t p. 169.] 

[References to the term porcelain/ 
in its various forms from English and 
Dutch writers have been given, be- 
cause it is not easy to say for certain 
whether their use of this word (in use 
in Europe from about the 14th cen- 
tury), especially in reference to the 
Portuguese trade in this article, and 
in its acceptation of 'a tea- cup', 
which is peculiar to Portuguese, was 
not influenced by the currency which 
the Portuguese term must have at 
one time acquired in India and the 
Far East.] 




in the Middle Ages in lining or- 
namental pottery and especial- 
ly cups. From this the word 
came to signify in Portugal the 
cup itself, and finally to denote 
the material out of which cups 
are made, and this is the mean- 
ing which it generally has to- 

Porco (pig). Malayal, pork- 
ku (1. us.) ; vern. terms panni, 

The motive for the introduc- 
tion of this word into Malaya- 
lam is not known; perhaps it 
was the same as brought about 
the adoption of burro (* ass ') 
in Sinhalese. 

Por for^a (by force). Mai. 
par forsa, per forsa (Haex). 

| Portugal (Portugal). Pers, 
purtughdl, orange ; vern. terms 
nardnj, ndrang. Turk, portu- 

Italians also call the orange 
portogallo, but it is not known 
whether they transmitted the 
name to the Turks and the 
Persians, or whether the latter 
received it from some other 
source. See Hobson-Jobson, 
8.v. orange. | 

[Yule thinks that, though it 
is scarcely right to suppose 
that the Portuguese first 

brought the sweet orange into 
Europe from China, credit must 
be given to them for the culti- 
vation and propagation of the 
fruit in Portugal, especially, in 
Cintra ; for thus only can one 
account for the persistence with 
which the name of Portugal? 
has adhered to the fruit in ques- 
tion. " The familiar name of 
the large sweet orange in Sicily 
and Italy is portogallo, and no- 
thing else; in Greece portogalea, 
in Albanian protokale, among 
the Kurds portoghal ; whilst 
even colloquial Arabic has bur- 

PortuguSs (a Portuguese). 
Konk. Porluguez ; vern. term 
phirangi (from the Persian), 
Tet. Portugez. 

[Whitworth says that Portu- 
guese is a term " applied in 
India not only to immigrants 
from Portugal, but also to the 
community of mixed Portu- 
guese and Indian descent perma- 
nently settled in India. The 
latter are in western India called 
also Goanese." It is true that 
the ' Goanese ' not only in 
western but also other parts of 
India are spoken of as ' Portu- 
guese ', but the implication 
that they are of mixed Portu- 



guese and Indian descent is 
certainly not correct. The in- 
habitants of Goa with very few 
exceptions are pure Indians 
and have no vestige of Portu- 
guese blood. Albuquerque's 
well-known policy of encourag- 
ing the Portuguese to marry 
women of the country has, per- 
haps, given currency to the be- 
lief that the Christian inhabit- 
ants of Goa who affect Euro- 
pean ways of dress and have 
Portuguese names are the de- 
scendants of these marriages. 
This is far from the truth. The 
descendants of these and similar 
alliances during the centuries 
of Portuguese connection with 
the East are known as mestizos 
or half-breeds and form a social 
stratum distinct from that of 
the Christian natives who are 
converts from Hinduism. 
These latter would regard it as 
a very great offence to be refer- 
red to as being of mixed de- 

Some of the Christian inhabit- 
ants of Goa who emigrate to 
British India in search of their 
livelihood describe themselves 
as Portuguese. They do this 
because they believe that such 
a designation gives them a 

better social status and provides 
opportunities for more lucrative 
employment ; also because they 
think that Portuguese constitu- 
tional law which recognises the 
political and social equality of 
the colonials with the citizens 
of Portugal gives them also a 
right to describe themselves as 
Portuguese. There are others 
who desire to stress their own 
individuality and race and to de- 
monstrate their regard for their 
own country and its history 
and call themselves Goans 
not Goanese ; l the latter term 
has come to be regarded among 
them as containing a sneer. 
Others again who are alive 
to the confusion that results 
from Indians calling themselves 
Portuguese try to get over the 
difficulty by a sort of compro- 
mise and call themselves Indo- 
Portuguese or Goa-Portuguese. 
Thus in Bombay there used to 
exist two institutions belonging 

1 {""The growth of Goan communi- 
ties in British India has been very 
marked and remarkable during late 

years The Goans have their school 

and Institute in Poona, societies in 
Bhusawal and Harda and a Hall and 
Association in Karachi the outcome 
of much self-sacrifice and patriotism/' 
Boletim Indiano, No. 1, p. 8.] 



to these emigrants from Goa 
one of which was called the 
1 Gremio Portugues ' and the 
other 'Uniao Goana\ whereas 
in Calcutta they have a review 
called < The Indo-Portuguese 
Review' and in Karachi their 
principal centre of social life is 
known as ' The Goa-Portuguese 

In their early connection 
with Goa the Portuguese re- 
ferred to its inhabitants as 
Canarins, but as this term, 
like ' Goanese ' in British India, 
came to be regarded as convey- 
ing an offensive connotation, 
they at the present time speak 
of the people of Goa as Goeses 
and not Goanos. 

The Portuguese policy of in- 
termarriages had been fruitful 
in a fairly large Luso-Indian 
population which was to be 
found in the principal centres 
of Portuguese trade in India: 
Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, etc. 
These mixed descendants were 
at one time proud of their Por- 
tuguese extraction and names, 
spoke a dialect of Portuguese, 
and described themselves as 
'Portuguese', but during the 
closing decades of the last cen- 
tury, with the recognition of 

the Eurasian or Anglo-Indian 
community as deserving of espe- 
cial consideration at the hands 
of the British Indian Govern- 
ment, the Luso-Indians were 
not slow to identify themselves 
with the Anglo-Indians with 
the hope of bettering their 
prospects. They gave up Por- 
tuguese speech, altered their 
Portuguese surnames, inter- 
married with Anglo-Indians, 
and, in fact, did everything that 
they thought necessary to draw 
a veil over their past history. 
When English factors or travel- 
lers speak of the * Black Por- 
tuguese' l or Kola Firingis, they 
are probably referring to these 
Portuguese half-breeds who 
were found in most of the im- 
portant cities in the East and, 
perhaps in some cases, to Indian 
converts to Christianity who 

1 ["The inhabitants (of the Island 
Junkzelone) are Siaras, about 2,000 
soules, and about 200 or 300 black Chris- 
tians, who call themselves Porteguese 
.... The black Portegues would be sure 
to joyn with any European that settles 
there." Ind. Antiq., Vol. LX, July 1031, 
p. 103.] 

[" I would send the Gala Franguis, 
by which term they indicate the colour- 
ed Christians who accompany and serve 
the Portuguese." Manrique, Travel*, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. II. p. 228.] 



adopted Portuguese style of 
dress. (See mestizo and topaz.) 

Whilst on th subject it is 
interesting to record that the 
indigenous Christian inhabit- 
ants of Bombay, Salsete and 
Bassein, who nowadays call 
themselves * East Indians ' and 
who were referred to by the 
Portuguese as ' Norteiros' (see 
note to Sul), spoke of them- 
selves in the sixties and seven- 
ties of the last century either 
as ' Portuguese ' or ' Native 
Portuguese' Vj 

Porteiro (porter), Konk. 
porter. Mai. portero, especial- 

i [" The Native Portuguese com- 
munity ot Bombay, and its condition. 
Ever since we have been in a position 
to judge for ourselves, we have been at 
a loss to comprehend by what anomaly, 
or fatality, an important section of 
the community in this city, we mean 
the Native Christiana, denominated the 
Portuguese. . . have been treated with 
such disregard and indifference as to 
be reduced to utter insignificance both 
in the eyes of our rulers and the people 
at largo." Patriota, July 1, 1871, 
p. .] 

[" Our gratuitous adversaries, the 
Goanese sojourners, have taken it into 
their heads to charge the Bombay 
Native Portuguese, and especially the 
Editor of this Periodical . . .with envy 
and hatred towards them." Idem, 
Dec., 1874, p. 45.] 

ly the door-keeper of the courts 
of justice. 

Posta (' post, post-office ') . 
Konk. poat\ vern. term i& 
dank (1. us.). Posta-kdr, post- 
man. ? Ar. busafa (from 
Italian, according to Belot). 

Posta (' a slice'). Konk. 
post ; vern. terms kapd, ravo. 
Gal. posta. | Turk, possta. \ 

Pdsto (office, employment). 
Konk. post-, vern. terms darzo, 
adhikdr. Tet. pdstu. 

[Povo (inhabitants, common 
people, parishioners). Konk. 
pov. (1. us.) ; vern. terms lak, 
prajd, rayt. Anglo-Ind. povo 
(obs.). 1 

1 [" And under these the names 
of one hundred and twenty of the 
eminents of the Povo in behalf of the 
whole Povo of the Isle" (of Bombay). 
Articles of agreement made and enter- 
ed into between the Right Honorable 
Gerald Aungier, Governor of Bombay, 
&c., and the people of this Island, on 
the 16th July, 1674, in Forrest, Felec* 
tions, Vol. II, p. 387.] 

[" Whereas . . . the contract made 
between the Governor or Honourable 
Company and the Povo was unjust. . 
..the Governor summoned all the 
Povo to meet at a General Assembly 
....whereupon the Povo in general 
said they never exclaimed against the- 
said contract., ." Id. t loe. cit.] 

[" To His Sacred Majesty of great 
Britain. The Humble Petition of th& 




* Povo ' in its Anglo-Ind. 
usage is not mentioned in Hob- 
Jon-Jobson nor in the O.E.D.] 

Praga (plague). Malay al. 
prakuka, pirakuka, to curse. 
Tet. praga. 

Pranch (' scaffolding for 
masons'). Konk., Guj. 
pardnch. Mar. paranchi 5 

vern. terras maid, pahdd. L.- 
Hindust. paranchd, raft ; plat- 
form, Sinh. palanchiya ; vern. 
term messa Tet. paranja, 
paranju. Tul. parenji, pareji. 
| Mai. paranja. \ 

Prata (silver). Mai. prdda, 
pardda, a thin plate of metal ; 
silver-plating, gilding ; silver- 
ed ; gilt. Ber-prdda, silvered, 
gilt. Mam-rada, to gild ; to 
silver. Sund , Day. prdda, 
pardda, thin metal sheet, gold 
foil. Bal. prdda, gilding ; gold 
foil; painting. Mac., Bug. 

Povo of the Island of Bombaim'' 
(o. 1663). Khan, Bombay (1660-1677), 
O.U.P. p. 453.] 

[" It (the Island of Elephanta) 
may be Ten Miles round, inhabited by 
the Povo, or Poor." Fryer, East 
India, Vol. I, p. 195.] 

[(In Qoa) "the Segnioros minding 
nothing less than Merchandizing, and 
the Povo imploying their Fish-hooks 
and knitting-needles to get a Liveli- 
hood." Id., Vol. II, p. 21.] 

pardda, to gild ; gilding ; to 
paint, painter. Nic. pardta, 
pewter, zinc. 

Pardda- Makdo (Bug.), silver 
from Macau ; tinsel. Bdtu- 
pardda, marble. Bunga- 
pardda, Bixa orellana, Linn. 

Prato (plate ; dish). Konk. 
pardt, dish of food ; viand. 
Mar. pardt. Hindi, Hindust. 
pardt, parati, big dish, a tray. 
Kan., Tul. pardta. 

Prazer (verb, to please). 
Mai. paresser (Haex). 

PreO (price). Konk. pres ; 
vern. terms mol, kimat, dar, 
dhara^. Tet. presu ; vern. 
term folin. Gal. presu ; vern. 
term helin. 

Pregao (ban, proclamation). 
Konk. pergdmv ; vern. terms 
dangoro, dandoro. Guj. peg- 
dm, message. Sinh. peragama, 
bans of marriage. 1 

Prego (hairpin, nail). 
Konk. preg, a gold ornament 

1 "He ordered the Magistrate to 
go to all the ships with pregoes." 
Gaspar Correia, 1, p. 556. 

"The Governor ordered pregdes 
to be made throughout Gogola." 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. IV, v, 5. 

["The persons who conduct the 
auction-sales are called Pregonneurs 
(Pregoeiros) or criers." Pyrard, Voyage, 
Hak. Soc.,Vol. II, p. 65.] 




shaped like a hairpin. 
Hindust. preg, pareg. L.- 
Hindust. prek. Beng. perek. 
Khas. prek, nail, fork.- Mai. 
prego (Haex). Tet., Gal. 
pregos; vern. term kusan. 

Pregoa^ao (preaching) . 
Mai. pregoagaon (Haex). 

Pregoar (to proclaim). 
Mai. pregoar, to proclaim; to 
preach (Haex). 1 

In the Port, dialect of Ceylon 
pregod is used in the meaning 
of * to preach '. 

Preparar (to prepare). 
Konk. prepdrdr-karunk ; vern. 
term tai/dr karunk, sanzaunk. 
Tet. prepdra ; vern. term 
hdlu, haloti. 

Presente (subst., a present, 
a gift). Konk. prezent ; vern. 
term sdguvdt. Mai. person. 
Tet. prezenti. 

In Konkani the term is also 
used as an adjective. 

Presidente (president). 
Konk. pirzent, one who cele- 
brates a church feast. Used 
in the same sense also in 
Tamil and Malayalam. Tet. 

1 ' And they were soon proclaim- 
ed (se prego a ram) throughout the 
entirety of Qoa with much festivity." 
Diogo do Couto, Deo. VI, v, 4. 

Preso (imprisoned). Konk. 
prez. Guj. parej. In Konk- 
ani prez karuhk, and in Guj. 
parej karvufn,, means ' to 
arrest ; to imprison '. 

Prima (a female cousin). 
Konk. prim ; vern. terms 
are bapal-bahiq, chulti-bahiu ; 
ayte-bahin ; mav$i-bahin. MaL 
prima (Haex). Gal. prima ; 
vern. term liar. 

Primo (a male cousin). 
Konk. prim\ vern. terms 
baadhu or bandh ; bapal-bhdv, 
chulto-bhdv ; ayte-bhdv ; mame- 
bhdv\ mavsi-bhdv. Mai. primo 

Processo (judicial process). 
Konk. proses ; vern. terms 
khafld, vyavahdr. Tet., Gal. 

Procissao (procession) . 
Konk. pursdmv\ vern. terms 
dindi, jdtrd (us. among the 
Hindus). Tet., Gal. prosisa. 

Procura^ao (power of at- 
torney). Konk. prokurasdmv ; 
vern. terms adhikdr> sattyd. 
Tet., Gal. prokurasd. 

Procurador (an attorney, 
proxy). Konk., Tet., Gal. 
prokurador. [Anglo-Ind. pro- 
curador (obs.) 1 .] 

1 [" This night the Oflfioers, seeing I 
sent not, deliuered the Prisoners into 




[The Anglo-Indian word is 
found neither in Hobson-Job- 
son nor in the O.E.D.] 

Prof eta (prophet). Konk. 
prophet. Sinh. prophetaya. 

Promessa( promise). Konk. 
promes (1. us.) ; the vern. terms 
bhasdvqi, boli ; angvan. Tet. 

Pronto (ready). Konk. 
promt ; vern. terms taydr, 
mzu. Tet. prontu ; vern. 
terms tok. 

[Propagandista (a mission- 
ary or convert of the Roman 
Catholic congregation of the 
Propagation of the Faith). 
Anglo-Ind. propagandist. 1 

In India this term was gene- 
rally used in opposition to 
* padroadist ' (q.v.).~\ 

Proposta (proposal). Konk. 
propost (I. us.); vern. terms 

my Procurators power." Sir T. 
Roe, Embassy, Hak. Soc., p. 446.] 

[" To receiue justice from our 
Procurator Qenerall" Id.,p 609.] 

i [" Let the Propagandists bring 
forth statistics.. . .and show the 
conversions they have effected in 
India." Plain Facts Plainly Told 
(Bombay, 1885) by R. M. P., p. 59.] 

["The Padroado party aimed a 
blow at the Propagandists." E. R. 
Hull, Bombay Mission History 
(Bombay, 1927), p. 290.] 

bolqefo, vachan. Tet. pro- 
posta ; vern. term lia. 

Pr6prio (one's own, pro- 
per). . Konk. propr\ vern. 
terms apqacho, khdagi ; apa- 
qach. Tet. propi ; vern. term 
lolun, rdsik. 

Protesto (protest). Konk. 
portest ; vern. term nakdr. 
Tet. protestu. 

Prova (proof). Konk. 
prov (us. only among the edu- 
cated classes), purdv. Mar. 
purdv, purdvd. Guj. puravo. 
The Neo-Aryan terms are 
dakhlo, praman. Tel. puroya^ 

Moles worth gives as the 
original of the Marathi word the 
Sanskrit pur, confounding the 
meanings of the various deri- 

Provar (to prove). Konk. 
provdr-karunk. Qu j . purvdr 
(adj.), proved. Purvar karvum, 
to prove. Purvari (subst.), 

Proveito (profit, advant- 
age). Mai. proveito (Haex) 

Provisor (provisor ; holder 
of a provision ; a Bishop's 
Vicar-general). Konk. provi- 
sor. Beng. provijor. 

Prumo (lead, plumb). 
Konk. purim ; vern. terms 
alambo, lamb ; budid, (hdv. 




L.-Hindust. prum. Mai. 
prum, parum. 

Gundert derives the Malay- 
alara olumbu from the Portu- 
guese plumbo ; hut it appears 
that the word is affiliated to 
the Sanskrit avalamba. 

Pficaro (an earthen cup). 
Konk. pukr\ vern. terms are 
mogh, gulam. Sinh. pukuruva, 
pukiraya. [Anglo-Ind. puck- 
ery (rare and obs.).] Gal. 
pukaru. 1 

[The Anglo-Ind. form is not 
mentioned in Hobson-Jobson 
nor in the O.E.D.] 

Pulpito (a pulpit). Konk. 
pulput ; vern. terms manch (1. 

1 "There are houses where they sell 
at the door water in many pucaros 
and earthen vessels, as they do along 
the riverside in Lisbon." Caspar 
Correia, 1, p. 815. 

" An earthenware pucaro." Lu- 
cena, Historia da Vida, Bk. VII, ch. 4. 

[" The Water is preserved in Jarre, 
and drank out of Puckeries, that 
keep it cooler than any where else." 
Fryer, East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
p. 163. Crooke, who edited Fryer, 
could not give a satisfactory expla- 
nation of the word. I have not found 
the word used by any English travel- 
ler other than Fryer.] 

["Earthern Jars for Water, and 
Puckeries, which are porous Vessels 
to keep their Liquor Cool." 7d., Vol. 
Ill, p. 135,] 

us.), sadar (us. in Salsete). | 
Tarn., Kan. pulpitu. Mai. 
pulpito (Haex). Tet., Gal. 

Purga (purgative). Konk. 
purg; vern. term bhayri. 
Tet., Gal. purga. 

Purgatorio (purgatory) . 
Konk. purgator. Beng. pur- 
gatori. Sinh. purgatoriya. 
Tet., Gal. purgatori. 

Quanto (how much). Mai. 
quanta (Haex). c /t 

Quanto mais (how much 
more). Mai. quanto mas (Haex). 

Quaresma (popular form 
coresma, Lent). Konk. korejm. 
Beng. korjmu. Tarn, kares- 
mai. Tet., Gal. koresma. 

Quartel (military barrack). 
Konk. kartel. The word is also 
used to signify ' contribution or 
tax paid every quarter.' Tet. 
kartel ; also signifies ' arrested, 
to arrest '. 

Quarto (subst., quarter; 
apartment). Konk. kvdrt, room, 
apartment, also used of * the 
fourth part of a piece of paper ', 
or * the quarters of an hour '. 
Tet. kudrtu, apartment. 

Queijo (cheese). Konk. kej. 



Sinh. kiju. Mai. k6ju, kiju. 
Sund. kiju. Jav., Mad., 
Mac., Bug. keju.Tet., Gal. 

Querubim (a { cherub).! 
Konk. kerubim. Hindust. , 
Beng. karii bim. Malay al. 

kheruba. Tul. kerubi. Bug. 
kar u biyuna . Jap . kerubin, 
kerubu. Pers. kantbi. Ar. 

The word is of Hebraic ori- 
gin. In some of the above lan- 
guages it must have found its 
way without the intervention 
of Portuguese. 

[Queve (a Portuguese form 
of the Cantonese kan-pan, ' an 
attendant, an interpreter ', used 
in the sense of c a broker or go- 
between ' ) . Anglo-Ind. , keby. l 

The citation below from 

1 ["The Portuguese, at the instance 
of the Queve s or merchants of the pro- 
vince of Canton . . . then moved to the 
island of Macan " (Macao). Manrique, 
Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 60.] 

[" 18th August, 1637. On the mor- 
row, haveirige procured a petition to 
be formally drawne by the mearies of 
the said Noretty (who after shalbe 
styled our Keby or Broker), they were 
called ashore." Mundy, Travels, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. Ill, pt. i, p. 209.] 

[" Silver we desire shall be delivered 
in presence of the Queves." Idem, 
p. 211.] 

Mundy is the only passage in 
which we have come across this 
word. The Portuguese form is 
not mentioned in the Glossario, 
neither is ' keby ' found in Hob- 
son-Jobson nor in the O.E.D.] 

Quintal (garden adjoining a 
house). Beng. kintal. Batav. 
kintal, " the interior of a house". 
Favre. Tet.Jcintal, a garden. 1 

Quita-sol (not now in use; 
literally it means ' bar-sun ' ; it 
was used in the sense of * a sun- 
shade'). Anglo-Ind. kitty sol, 
kitsol 2 (obs.). Kittysol-boy, the 
carrier of the sun-shade. See boi. 

1 " They soon went to the quintal 
of their houses." Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. VII, vii, 3. 

2 ["Of kittasoles of state, for to 
shaddow him (the Moghul Emperor), 
there bee twentie. ' ' Williams .Hawkins, 
(1608-13), in Foster, Early Travels in 
India, p. 103.] 

["Costly Palanquines and ritche 
quitasoles (in "Eecarce" (Ikkeri)). 
Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, 
pt. i, p. 86.] 

[There is an illustration of " A qui- 
tasoll held over him (< a Mandareene '), 
if hee bee in the sonne: Scarce any 
withoutt them as they passe to and 
Fro" in Mundy, Vol. Ill, pt. J, pi. 

[" Sumbareros or Catysols are here 
(in < Choromandel') very Usefull and 
necessarie beinge rather more Con- 
venient then the other but not soe 
fashionable or Honourable by reason 
any man whatever that will goe to the 




The Spaniards even to this 

day call a sun-shade quita-sol. 



Rabao ('radish'). Sinh. 
rdbu', vern. term mulaka.^ ,** \ 

Rabeca (a fiddle). Konk. 
rebek. Mar. rabak (also rabdb). 
Malayal. rabekka. Kan. 
rabaku. Tet., Gal. rabeka. 

Gongalves Viana has doubts 
as to the Arabic rabdb being the 
source of the Portuguese rabeca 
[Apostilas, II, p. 325]. Rabdb is 
adopted in Persian, Hindustani, 
Gujarati and also in Marathi. 

The names of European mu- 
sical instruments and their ac- 
cessories are, in Konkani, al- 
most all Portuguese. 

Charge of it, which is noe great Matter, 
may have one or more Catysols to 
attend him, but not a Roundell Unlesse 
he be in a Credible Office, and then 
noe more than one Unlesse he be a 
Oovernour or One of the Councell." 
Bowrey, Countries Round tlie Bay of 
Bengal, Hak. Soc., p. 86. There is an 
illustration of * a roundel ' in the book, 
PL VII. The use of umbrellas was the 
subject of sumptuary legislation both 
on the part of the Portuguese and the 
East India Company.] 

["Kitesall or Barabulla Trees." 
Yule, Early Charte, etc., of the Hugli 
River, in Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. Ill, p. ccvii. In 1701 ed. of chart 
called Parrasoll Trees. See also Ind. 
Antiq., Vol. XXX, p. 347.1 


Ra^ao (ration; allowance). 
Konk. rasdfov. It is especially 
used in connection with the 
allowance of liquor which is 
given to workmen. L.-Hind- 
ust. resan. Mai. ranson. Jav. 
rasan, ransan. Ngransommi, to 
give ration. In the verbal form, 
the initial r is preceded by ng. 
Tet., Gal. resa; vern. term 
sdhi. 1 

It is but proper to note that 
Dutch has rantsoen. 

[Raia (the ray fish, popularly 
also called skate). Anglo-Ind. 
raia 2 (obs.).] 

The quotation below is the 
only passage where we have 
come across the use of this 
form in Anglo-Indian writings. 

[Ram ad a (a shelter made of 
boughs ; in Portuguese India, a 
temporary shed erected gene- 
rally for marriage festivities, the 
roof and sides of which are co- 
vered over with coco-nut fronds 
the leaflets of which are braided 
into mats). Tarn, ramade, ac- 
cording to Manucci (ed. Irvine, 
Vol. Ill, p. 339) : " Seven days 

1 " And coming to himself, he found 
the shepherd by him with a reao of 
milk.'* Diogo do Couto, Dec. .VI, v, 5. 

2 ["We have thornbacks here with 
severall other sorts of the Raia kind." 
Hedges, Diary, Vol. II, p. cccxxxiv.] 




afterwards a sort of four-cor- 
nered tent was erected, called 
by these people ramade". 

Irvine is evidently on the 
wrong track when he tries to 
explain the word thus : " The 
word used might be aramanai, 
6 royal palace ', or araimanai, 
6 single-room house ' . Or can it 
have any connexion with Ram- 
kela, a name for the plantain- 
tree ? (see * Madras Manual of 
Administration,' iii. 687). Plan- 
tain trees are used in erecting 
the pandal".] 

Ratno (branch, bough). Sinh. 
rdmuva, moulding, picture. 
Mai. ramo (Haex). 

In the Portuguese dialect of 
Ceylon, ramo also signifies * a 
framed picture'. 

It may be that in this sense 
ramo is a corruption of lamina, 
used in Konkani as lamn. In 
Konkani ram is the name of 
* the palm-leaf blessed on Palm- 
Sunday'. Candido de Figuei- 
redo says that lamina, in the 
sense of * frame, picture', is 
used in Miranda, Tr&s-os- 
Montes. 1 Dutch has roam in 
the sense of ' a frame '. 

i "A lamina of the birth of Our 
Lord". Cardim, p. 44. 

Rancho (a group of men 
assembled for a journey or for 
marching ; also the food that is 
served out to a company of 
soldiers or sailors). Konk. ranch. 
Sinh. rdnchuva, class of people 
(Eng. * rank ') ; vern. terms pela, 

?Raso (even, level). Mai. 
rata. Jav. r6to. 

Dr. Heyligers attributes the 
change of s into t to the law 
of repulsion, that is, to the 
pre-existing vocable rasa or 
rosd from the Sansk. rasa, 
1 taste, sentiment '. 

From rdto is formed in High 
Javanese radin, whence radi- 
man, * level plain ; a street' . See 

Raxa (arch., 'a species of 
thick cloth ' ) . Jap . rasha . 1 

Razao (reason). Konk. 
razdniv. But serezdmv=sem- 
razao, without reason ; vern. 
terms kardn, prastdv, pramdn. 
Tet., Gal. rezsT 

Recado (message, compli- 
ments). Konk. rekdd. [Anglo- 
Ind. recado, recarders (obs.)]. 

i "A cloak of raixa and a sheep- 
skin coat valued at two thousand reis " 
(1548). A. Thomas Pires, Materials, 
etc., in Jour. Oeo. Soc. Lisb., 16th ser.> 
p. 706. 




Mai. recado (Haex). Tet., Gal. 

[Pyrard speaking of the pages 
that used to accompany in 
Goa the Portuguese lords and 
gentlemen says : " Their service 
only is to attend their masters 
and to carry messages, which 
they call Recates ". Gray com- 
menting on this term makes the 
following surmise : " Unless Dr. 
Murray and his coadjutors can 
give earlier authority, I venture 
to think we have here the origi- 
nal of our modern phrase " kind 
regards " ".* The earliest cita- 
tionin the O.E.D. of 'regard' in 
the sense of 4 token or evidence 
of esteem or affection ' is dated 
1747, and of * regards ' in epis- 
tolary expressions of goodwill 
1775. The Dictionary lists the 
Anglo-Indian forms recado, re- 
carders, etc., but does not sup- 
port Gray's conjecture ; it de- 
rives the English ' regard ' from 

There can be no doubt, how- 
ever, that the Portuguese reca- 
do, ' a message or errand ', 
pi. recados y * compliments or 
greetings' must have acquired 
considerable vogue among 

1 [Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 80.] 

Anglo-Indians in the 17th cen- 
tury, to judge from the cita- 
tions below. 1 ] 

Recheio (stuffing, in cook- 
ery). Konk. rechey. Mai. 
richd y richya, a species of cap- 
sicum; vern. terms chdbi, chd- 
bey, lada china. 

Recibo (receipt). Konk. 
resib] vern. term pavti. Guj., 
Hindi, Hindust., Or., Sindh., 
Punj. rasid. Ass. rachita. 
Malayal. rasidu, rasdi. Tel. 
raGidu. Kan. rasidi, rasidi, 
rabidu. Tul. rasidi. Anglo- 
Ind. raseed. Mai. resit. Tet., 
Gal. resibu. Pers. rasid. 

Yule and Burnell regard 
raseed or rasid as a corruption 
of the English ' receipt ' through 
the influence of the Persian 
rasida, ' arrived', viz., an ack- 
nowledgment that a thing has 
' come to hand '. 

Rede (a net). Konk. red 

1 [" Pray give my recadoes to Pedro 
O Lavera ..." Letter dated 13th Oct., 
1663, in Bowrey, Travels, Hak. Soc., 
p. 75]. 

["Four Mile off Bandora (we) were 
stopp'd by the Kindness of the Padre - 
Superior, whose Mandate, whereever we 
came caused them to send his Recar- 
ders (a Term of Congratulation, as we 
say, Our Service) with the Presents of 
the best Fruits and Wines, and what, 
ever we wanted." Fryer, East India, 
Vol. I, p. 184.] 




(more in use is the vern. jali). 
Mai. rede (Haex) ; vern. term 
jdla (Sansk.). Tet. redi ; vern. 
terms khdhoti, Idhoti. 

Reformado (subst., a person 
superannuated or pensioned 
off). Konk. rephormdd. Tet. 

Regalo (rejoicing ; enter- 
tainment). Mai. regalas, " a 
sumptuous banquet " (Haex). 

Registo (a register). Konk. 
rejist (also us. of a small reli : 
gious picture) ; the vern. terms 
are patti, 6ivdi. Tet. rejistu. 

Regra (rule, example). 
Konk. regr ; vern. terms ol, regh ; 
nem. Tet., Gal. regra. 

Rei (king). Konk. rey (king 
in cards). Mac., Bug., rei (king 
in cards). Nic. derh. Derti-en- 
kina (lit. 'wife of the king'), 

Man derives dem ( = de) from 
the Port, rei and, I believe, with 
reason, notwithstanding the 
phonetic divergency. R initial 
and medial can be changed in- 
to d ; cf. dai^rai, ' leaf ', kadu 
= karu, 'wide, large,' lard < 
Malay Idda, 'pepper'. The 
Nipobarese have not got the 
diphthong ei, and the nasalisa- 
tion is explained by the ten- 
dency of their language. 

[Reinol (one born in the 
kingdom (reino), i.e., Portugal ; 
a term used by the Portuguese 
in India to distinguish the 
European Portuguese from the 
country-born (see castiqo). 
Konk. reinal. Anglo-Ind. 
reinol, reynolds, reynol (obs,). 1 

The Anglo-Indian forms are 
not mentioned in the O.E.D. 

Yule says that at a later date 
the word appears to have been 
applied to Portuguese deserters 

1 ["When they are newly arrived in 
the Indies, they are called Raigriolles, 
that is to say, " men of the Kingdom ", 
and the older hands mock them until 
they have made one or two voyages 
with theni, and have learned the man 
ners and customs of the Indies." Py- 
rard, Voyages, Hak. Soc., Vol. IF, p. 123. 
Reinol in the above sense has the same 
meaning as the Anglo-Indian griffin,' 
or * Johnny Newcome'.] 

[** He (the Topass chaplain) is only 
there for the better catching of the poor 
* renols ' ; who departing this life, 
leave the chaplain as their testamen- 
tary executor." Manucci, ed. Irvine, 
Vol. Ill, p. 283.] 

[There are many Gentows dwell in 
the City (of Goa) . . , they are tolerated 
because they are generally more indus- 
trious than the Christians . . , but the 
mercantil Part of them are very subject 
to the Insults of the Reynolds or Euro- 
pean Fidalgoes, who will often buy their 
Goods, and never pay for them." A. 
Hamilton, East Indies (1727), Vol. I, 
p. 248.] 




who took service with the E.I. 
Co., and quotes from Grose, A 
Voyage to the East Indies, (1772 
ed.), Vol. I, p. 38. 1 ] 

Reitor (rector). Konk., 
Beng. reytor. 

Rela^ao (relation). Konk. 
relasdrtiv. The term is more 
used as the name of the ' Court 
of Appeal'. Tet. relasa. 

Religiao (religion). Konk. 
relijydmv (1. us.) ; vern. terms 
samurt, astrasamurt, dharm. 
Tet., Gal. relijia. 

Rel6jio (clock, watch). Konk. 
reloz., vern. term ghadydl. 
Sinh. orlosiya, oralosuva. At- 
oralosuva, pocket-watch. 
Tarn, oreloju. Malayal. orloj- 
jika. Mai. arloji (Castro), uru- 
lis ; vern. term jam (from 
Persian). Tet. reloju, reldji, 
relosi. Gal. reloji 2 . 

1 ["c . 1 7(>(). With respect to the mili- 
tary, the common men are chiefly such 
as the Company sends out in their 
ships, or deserters from the several 
nations settled in India, Dutch, French 
or Portuguese, which last are com- 
monly known by the name of Rey- 

2 "Considering that the Reloglos 
by which time is regulated are made 
in different Countries..." D. Jofto 
do Castro, Roteiro de Lisboa a Goa, p. 

" The movements of the heavens 
which the relogios with difficulty show 
or imitate." Lucena, Bk. VII, ch. 7. 

The Portuguese dialect of 
Ceylon has orlozo. 

Horluji (Mai.), horloji 
(Sund.), horolosi (Mac.) appear 
to be from the Dutch horologie. 

Remedio (remedy). Mai. 
remedio (Haex). 

Renda (' rent, hire '). Konk. 
rend. Renddk divunk or lavuhk, 
to let on hire or rent. Renddk 
ghevunk or karuhk, to take on 
lease. Rendacho, leased. Rend- 
kdr, the lessee, he who holds on 
payment of rent. Render has 
lost its original meaning of l a 
person who held estate on pay- 
ment of rent ' ; it is now used 
to designate a sub-caste com- 
posed of the Sudras who live on 
the estate of another and take 
up, on payment of rent, coco- 
nut trees which they tap for 
toddy. The vernacular terms 
for the Portuguese rendu are : 
saro, dharo ; ghen (us. in Kana- 
ra). Mar. reml, monopoly. 
Rendka,ri, a monopolist. Rend- 
sard, a distillery (us. in Rajapur 
and Savantvadi) . Gu j . rent 
(perhaps from English). Sinh. 
rtndaya, hire; toll, customs. 
Rlnda-kara^ava, to farm out 
the revenues of the State. 
Rendapala, the place where the 
imposts are paid. Rendakdrayd t 




farmer of rent, tenant ; farmer 
of toll. Atu-rendakdraya, a sub- 
lessee, a partner in the farming 
of the revenue of the state. 

[There are references to 
4 Rende Verde * in the Surat 
Letters. This was evidently the 
name of a tax levied by the 
Portuguese and derived by the 
Company in and around Bom- 
bay. In a letter of Aungier and 
others, dated 7th April, 1676, 
it is described as follows : "The 
new Rent called " Rende 
Verde n consists of Oyle, 
Opium, Bange, and Mowra. 
Noe person except ye farmer 
being permitted to retaile under 
a maund, it will in time wee 
hope prove a good addition to 
ye Revenue, yg Merchants and 
all other being well satisfyed 
therewith." (Forrest, Selec- 
tions (Home Series), Vol. I, p. 
92). The name shows that 
the tax or rent was to be 
levied on vegetable produce. 
Verde in Port, means ' green '.] 

Renda (' lace '). Konk. rend ; 
vern. terms zali ; ddl (1. us.). 
Sinh. renda, rendapa$iya. 
Tarn, renda. Ann. ren. Mai., 
Sund., Day., Mac., Bug. renda. 
Jav. rendo (also ' gold or sil- 
ver lace'). Ngrendo, to furnish 

with gold lace. Binendo, decked 
with gold lace or finery. 

[Rendeiro (in the sense of 
* tax-gatherer or revenue-farm- 
er ; ). Konk. render (see above 
under renda) . Anglo-Ind. ren- 
dero, rendere (obs.) . 1 

The primary meaning of the 
Port, word is ' one who holds 
land by paying rent, a tenant 
or renter ' . The Anglo-Indian 
forms are mentioned neither in 

1 [" Nor durst they (the merchants 
of Goa) sell anything ere the police 
have first fixed the price. Nor durst 
they sell aught wholesale or retail, 
whether food -stuffs or other thing, that 
have not paid tribute to the king. So 
it is that with merchandise of every 
craft, trade or kind, however small, 
the power of dealing in it, making or 
selling it, is farmed out to the highest 
and last bidder. They call these farm- 
ers Renderes; sellers and dealers must 
have notes in writing from these Ren- 
deres." Pyrard, Voyage, Halt. Soc., 
Vol. II, p. 178.] 

[" The next Morning; with only send- 
ing my Servant ashore to acquaint the 
Rendero, I quitted the Pass." Fryer, 
East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 307.] 

["However this has made Volup 
Venny the Rendere of ye Customs 
very uneasy, rinding that no vessells 
can pass unplundered by one sort of 
nation or other." Forrest, Selections, 
Home Series, Vol. I, p. 154.] 

[" Your Excy &c^ are noe strangers 
to ye Rendeiroes of ye last years 
Tobacco stand." Idem, p. 155.] 




Hobson-Jobson nor in the 

Repique (peal, ringing of 
bell). Konk. repik. Tet. repiki. 

Reposta (answer). Konk. 
repast ; vern. terms uttar, zdb, 
pratizdb. Tet. reposta; vern. 
terra simu. Gal. resposta ; 
vern. term limteha. 

Reprovar (to disapprove). 
Konk. reprovdr-karuhk, to de- 
clare that a candidate at an 
examination is not fit to be pro- 
moted to the higher class. 
Tet. reprovq,. 

Requerer (to petition). 
Konk . rekerer-kar link . -Mai . 
requerer, "to petition, to de- 
mand back" (Haex). 

Requerimento (a petition, 
application) . Konk. rekriment ; 
vern. terms arji. Tet. rekeri- 

Resma (a ream). Konk. 
rejrn . Mar . rejim . Kan . 


Respeito (respect). Konk. 
respet ; vern. term man. Tet. 

Respons&vel (responsible) . 
Konk., Tet. respomsdvel. 

Retrato (portrait). Konk. 
retrdt ; vern. terms rupqiih, rup- 
kdr. Tet. retrdtu ; vern. terms 
modun, hilas. 

Reuniao (meeting, assem- 
bly). Konk. revunydfnv (1. us.) ; 
vern. terms mil, samdz. Tet. 

Rial, r6is (a Portuguese coin 
equal to about 25th part of 
an anna , the pi. of rial is reis). 
Konk. res (pi. res). Mar. rems. 
Guj. res. Sindh. riydlu. 
Malay al. i%aydl, ress. Tul. 
reisu. Anglo-Ind. reas, rees. 
res. Kamb. riel, piaster. 
Siam. rien, piaster. 1 | Mai, 
rial | . Sund., Jav., Mad. real. 
Ach. rydh. Mac., Bug. 
reyala. Bal. reyal, leyar. 
Pareayllan (Jav.), a money- 
changer. Pers. riydl. Ar. rial, 
riydl. 2 

1 " The final r and I are both pro- 
nounced, almost universally, as n." 

2 "For two tan gas, which are two 
reales, our men used to go in a 
boat." Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 171. 

["48 Rues (rew) in Rabag, is 1 
Tucca." Fryer, East India, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. II, p. 129. 

(In Goa) " The Vinteen, 15 Basrooks* 
Whereof 75 make a Tango 
And 60 Ree8 make a Tango." 

(In Bombaim) " 80 Rales 1 Laree." 
Idem, pp. 130 and 131.] 

[" Their Accounts (Bombay) are kept 
by Rayes and Rupees. 1 Rupee is 400 

Rayes But they (in Qoa) 

keep their Accounts in Rayes." A. 
Hamilton, East Indies (1727 ed.), Vol. 


[Yule says that accounts were 
kept at Bombay in rupees, 
quarters, and reas, down at least 
to November, 1834.] 

? Rinoceronte (rhinoceros). 
Siam. ret. No ret, the horn of 
the rhinoceros. 

It appears that the word is 
of foreign origin and that ret 
stands for (rinoce)-ront(e). 

Ripa (the thin laths laid 

across the rafters of a roof to 


bear tiles). Mar. rip. Guj. rip, 
rip. Sinh. rippaya. Rippa- 
tattuva, lath-work. Kan., Tul. 
ripu. | Anglo-Ind. reaper l \ . 

[Yule admits the Anglo- 
Indian form in Hobson-Jobson 
but is at a loss to explain its 
origin. He fails to trace it to 
Hindi but mentions that rip is 
met with in Marathi.] 

Rizes (naut., reef, brails). 
Mai. ris (Marre). 

Roda (wheel). Konk. rod 
(especially a cart-wheel) ; vern. 
term chdk. L.-Hindust. rodd. 
Sinh. rodaya, roda, rode\ 

II, A Table of Weights, etc., pp. 6 and 

1 ["Paid the Bankshall Merchants 
for the house poles, country reapers, 
&c,, necessary for housebuilding." In 
Wheeler, III, 148. See Hobson-Jobson, 
a.v. bankshall.] 

vern. terms chakraya, saka. 
Jala-rodaya, a water-wheel ; 
vern. term jalachakraya. Roda 
$i, provided with a wheel. Roda 
karattaya, a wheel-cart. Mai., 
Sund., Mac. roda. Anak roda 
(lit. 'the son of the wheel'), 
the spoke of a wheel. Ach. 
ruda. Jav., Mad. rodo. Tet., 
Gal. roda. 

Rodo (corn-rake). Mai. rodoq. 

Rolao (used in Portugal 
for * brown flour ', but in India 
for 'fine flour or semolina'). 
Konk. ruldihv. Sinh. rulan. 
Tarn, rolam. Anglo-Ind. ro- 

Rolo (a roll, a scroll; swell, 
surge). Konk.roL L.-Hindust. 
rol. ? Tet. lalum. 

Ronda ('a patrolj). Konk. 
rond. Guj . iron. Beng. rond 
pheran. Malayal. ronda. Tul. 
rondu. Mai., Sund., Mac., Bug. 
ronda. Jav. rondo. Parondan, 
prondan, a squad of police. 
Bal. ronda. 

[Yule connects the Hindi 
raund with English (see #06- 
son-Jobson, s.v. round).] 

Rosa (rose). Konk. roz 
(neut., the flower), roz (fern., 
the plant). Sinh. rosa, rosa- 
mala (lit. 'rose-flower'); vern. 
terms sevvandi-mala ; sevvandi- 




gala (' the rose bush '). It ap- 
pears to correspond to the 
Konk. iivanti (Rosa semper flo- 
rens). Rosa-vatura, rose-water. 
Rosa-mala samana, rosy, rose- 
ate. Tarn. rasa. Rosa-pup- 
ponra, rosy. Mai. roja, ? r6s. 
Swettenham believes that ros is 
from the English 'rose'. ? 
Sund. ros. Rigg derives it from 
the Dutch roos. ? Mac., Bug. 
rosi. Matthes connects it with 

Roz in Konkani is the * mari- 
gold'. The rose is properly 
called <julab. Roz de pers stands 
for rosa de Persia, ' the rose of 
Persia ', and roz-anvalo l is the 
fruit of Cicca disticha. 

Rosario (rosary).' Konk. 
rnzdy. Beng. rosari. Kan. 
rosdri. Tet., Gal. rozdriu. 

Roupa (clothing). Konk. 
r6p ; vern. terms kapddrh, vas- 
trdrh, ; dhgvastrdifo, angdvlim. 
Tet. roupa ; vern. term ndhan. 

In Konkani there is also the 
form roper, from roupeiKo, ' a 
dealer in cloth, a mercer', in 
the Portuguese spoken in Goa. 

Roxo (purple). Konk. r66\ 
vern. termzdmblo. Beng. ro6u. 

1 According to Garcia da Orta, rez- 

The term is used in connection 
with the purple vestments used 
in divine service. 

Rua (street). Mai. rua. 

? Rupia (rupee). Siam. rupia. , 
Mai., Ach., Batt., Sund., Jav., 
Mac., Bug. rupiya, also ' the 
Dutch florin ' ; figuratively 
money in general. Mad. ropi- 
ya. Day. rupia, ropia. Tet. 
rupia. Malag. rupia. 

It is an Indian word from the 
Sanskrit rupya, ' wrought 
silver '. Dr. Heyligers believes 
that the Portuguese carried it 
to Insulindia. But the old 
Portuguese writers do not men- 
tion it, because the rupee was 
not then current in the south 
of India. 1 [The earliest refer- 
ence to the ' rupee ' in the Glos- 
sario is dated 1600. 2 ] 

1 "The zeal must have been great, 
because these Religious went so far as 
to meet together, to give some six 
hundred rupias to Don Antonio" (in 
Bengal, 1682). O Chron. de Tissuary 
I, p. 317. 

"The Indians have for their silver 
money the Rouple." Tavermer, III, 
p. 21. [ed. O.U.P., Vol. I, p. 22]. 

2 [1600." Adding that he would 
collect from the Hindus 2000 Rupias 
(which are certain coins)." P. FernSo 
Guerreiro, Rela$am Annual, p. 31.] 




Sbado (Saturday). Mai. 
Ach., Jav. sdbtu, sdptu. Sund. 
#dptu. Mad. sdpto. Day. sdb- 
tu. Mac., Bug. sdttu. Tet., 
Gal. sdbadu. 

Dr. Schuchardt and Dr. Mat- 
thes attribute to sdbtu or sdptu 
-an Arabic origin ; but Dr. Hey- 
ligers is inclined to favour the 
Portuguese derivation of the 
word and supports his view by 
citing mingo from the Port. 
domingo, ' Lord's day or Sun- 

Sabao (soap). Konk. sab- 
dmv ; sabu (m. us.). Mar. sabu, 
sabun. Guj. sabu, sabu. 
Hindi, Nep. sabun. Hindust. 
$abun, sabun, saban. Or. sabun, 
Sabini. Beng. saban. Saban- 
bat, soapy. Ass. saban, chaban. 
Sindh. sabuni. Punj. sabun, 
sabun. Sabuni, sabuni (adj.), 
from soap. Sabuni, sabuni, 
mbunid, sabunld, soap-kettle, 
soap-boiler. Kash. sdban, sd- 
bun. Sinh. saban, saban. Tel. 
3abbu. Malayal. saban, sabun. 
Kan. sabbu, sabunu. Tul. 
-sdbu, sdbunu, sabunu. Gar., 
Khas. saban. Burm. ksap- 
pyah. Kamb. sabu, sabedng. 1 

1 The foreign a is sometimes re- 
presented in Kambojan by ea, as for 

D6 sabu, to wash with soap. 
Siam. sa-bu, sabu. Ann. a- 
bong. Mai. sabon (Haex), sa- 
bun, sabun. Ach., Batt., Sund., 
Jav., Bal. sabun. Mad., Day. 
sabon. Mac., Bug. sabung. 
Nic. Savdng. Tet., Gal. saba. 
Jap. sabon, shabon. Pers. 
sabun. Ar. sabon, sabun. 
| Turk, sdbun 1 \ . 

Dr. Heyligers observes that 
the Arabs rarely make use of 
soap, and, on this account, it is 
not likely that they could have 
introduced the term into Mala- 
sia. 2 

[From the way the Portu- 
guese word for soap has been 
introduced into almost every 
language or dialect of the East 
one might reasonably infer that 
soap was unknown in India be- 
fore the arrival of the Portu- 
guese ; but Watt says: "The 
art of soap-making has been 
known and practised (in India) 

instance, reacsa ('to guard') from 
Sansk. raksha ; rotea ('chariot') from 
Sansk. ratha. 

1 " Saffron from Portugal, sab&o, 
porcelain, and some silk cloth." Bo- 
carro, Dec. XIII, p. 688. 

2 "The Arabic name is derived from 
the Latin sapo, which is itself derived, 
according to Pliny, from a Gallic word." 
Dr. Pierre Guiges, Journal Asiatique, 
j u iJlet Aout, 1905. 




from a remote antiquity, the 
impure article produced being 
used by washermen and dyers " 
(The Comm. Prod, of India, 
1908, p. 819). He does not give 
any reference in support of this 
statement. There is, however, 
plenty of evidence to show that 
the people used in ancient India, 
as they do even now, soap-nuts, 
the nuts of the Sapindus trifoli- 
atus for washing clothes.] 

Saber (to know). Pid.-Engl. 
sabby, savvy (more us.), sha-pi 
(1. us.), to know, to understand, 
to recognise ; knowledge, 
science. " Used in the widest 
sense." Leland. 

Sabre (sabre). Konk. stfbr. 
? Jap. saberu. 

The term must have been in- 
troduced recently into Japanese 
from some other language. 
" The word is modern in Portu- 
guese", says Gonc^alves Viana, 
in his Apostilas. [Tn old Portu- 
guese, instead of sabre, they 
spoke of catana and espada 

Saca-rolhas (cork-screw). 
Konk. sakardl. Tet., Gal. saka- 

Saco (sack). Konk. sdk\ 
vern. terms are gon, poteih, bok- 
sem. Sinh. sakka-malla ; saku- 

va, pocket; vern. terms odok- 
kuva, pasumbiya. Tarn, sakku ; 
vern. term pai. Malay al. chak- 
ku (also ' a pocket ', as in cor- 
rupt Port.). Mai. sdku, sdko, 
pocket. Sund. sdku. Rigg de- 
rives it from the Dutch zak, 
purse. ? Nic. sayo. 

Tn the Portuguese dialect of 
Ceylon saco is used of ' pocket, 
purse ' . 

Sacramento (sacrament). 
Konk. sakrament ; vern. term 
saoskdr (1. us.). Beng. sakra- 
mentu. Sinh. sakramentuva. 
Tarn., Kan., Tet., Gal. sakra- 
mintu. ? Malag. sakramenta ; 
perhaps irom the English ' sacra- 

Sacr &rio (tabernacle). 
Konk. sakrdr. Tarn, sakkrdri. 
Tet., Gal. sakrdr iu. 

Sacrificio (sacrifice). Konk. 
sakriphis. Tet., Gal. sakrifisiu. 

Sacril6gio (sacrilege) . 

Konk. sakrikj.Tet., Gal. 

Sacristao (sacristan). Konk. 
sa kristdthv, sa kistdmv. Beng . , 
Tarn., Kan. sankristdn. Tel. 
sakristu. Tet., Gal. sakristd. 

Sacristia (sacristy). Konk. 
sakristi, sankristi. Beng., 
Tam., Kan. sakristi. Tel. sak- 
ristu. Tet. sakristia. 




? Sagu (' farinaceous pith 
taken out of the stem of certain 
palms'). Konk. sagu, sabu. 
Mar., Guj., Hindi, Hindust., 
Or., Beng., Punj. sagu. Sinh. 
* sagu, savgal. Tarn, savvu. 
Malayal. sagu, sago. Tel. sag- 
gu. Kan. sago, seigo. TuT. 
seigo (through the influence of 
English) . Anglo-Ind. sago. 
Indo-Fr. sagou\ Gar. sagu. 
Khas. sako. Kamb. saku 
(Kambojan has no g). Siam. 
sdkhu. Mai., Batt., Sund., 
Jav., Mac., Bug. sdgu. Ach. 
sagu, sage. Bal. sagu, sago. 
Day. sago. Tet., Gal. saku. 
| Chin. shd-ku-mi \ . Jap. 
sagobei. Pers. sabu. 1 

Candido de Figueiredo de- 
rives the Portuguese word from 
the language of New Guinea. 
Clough traces the Sinh. sagu to 
Portuguese; but such a word 
is not met with in modern Sin- 
halese dictionaries. Rigg de- 

1 "All the people of the Tales of 
Maluco eat a certain food which they 
call Sagum, which is the pith of a tree 
resembling a palm-tree." Jofto de Bar- 
ros, Dec. Ill, v, 5. 

" There arrived a junk laden with 
Qagu, and on it he returned to the 
fortress." Gaspar Correia, III, p. 740. 

" Five hundred bags of Sagu, which 
is a meal made from some tree and 
which is there eaten. ' ' Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. VI, ix, 12. 

rives the Sund. sagu from Sinh. 
saguna (Sansk. saguna), in the 
sense of * a valuable substance ', 
but this appears to be an arbi- 
trary derivation. According to 
Yule and Burnell, the original 
word is the Malay sagu ; the 
plant is indigenous to the Indian 
Archipelago, and probably its 
original home was the region 
from the Moluccas to New 

It is not known for certain 
whether sagu was known in 
India before the sixteenth cen- 
tury ; it may, therefore, be pre- 
sumed that the Portuguese help- 
ed to spread the use of the word. 

Saguate (' a present, an offer- 
ing '). Konk. saguvdt. [Anglo- 
Ind. seguaty (obs.)]. Tet. 
saukdti, saudti. Gal. sagudti, 

The word is current in the 
Indo-Portuguese dialects and on 
the eastern coast of Africa, and 
was much employed by old 
Portuguese writers. The ori- 
ginal word is the Hindustani- 
Persian saughdt, ' rarity, curios- 
ity, present ', and not the Sans- 
krit svagata, as I at first thought 
it to be. 1 

i "In return for which present, the 
Father Provincial went to visit him 




[The older and correcter form 
is saugate, now obsolete. The 
Anglo-Ind. ' seguaty ' is neither 
in Hobson-Jobson nor in the 

Sagueiro (bot., the name ap- 
plied to the Gomuti palm of the 
Malays or Arenga saccharifera, 
Labill., found in the Indian 
Archipelago). Anglo-Ind. sag- 

with another saguate of a very differ- 
ent kind." P. Manuel Barradas, in 
Hist, tragico-marit., II, p. 113. 

"The Queen [of Onor] gave orders 
that they should visit the Captain - 
General with a big auguate of many 
fowls, chickens, and eggs." Fern&o 
Pinto, eh. xi. 

"With their saguates of rice and 
cooked meat for the pilgrims." A. F. 
Cardim, Batalhas, etc., p. 164. 

[" For the obteyning the Kings fer- 
man this Governours unckle and father 
in lawe, called by the name of Mam- 
madamy, a man in great estimacion 
with the King, whomo ho would cm- 
ploy in this busines, and doubted not 
but to bring us to have trade and com- 
merce with theis people upon good 
termes, if we could procure a good 
seguaty or piscash for the King." 
Foster, The English Factories in India 
1624-1629, p. 255. Piscash ' is the 
Pers. plshkash, * a present '.] 

1 " They could safely go in search of 
provisions a league from the fortress, 
which contained none, because the 
agueiros had been cut down, and 
likewise the coco-nut trees." Castan- 
heda, VIII, ch. 131. 

[" The name is Port, sagueira 
(analogous to palmeira)... .and 
no doubt is taken from sagu, 
as the tree, though not the sago- 
palm of commerce, affords a 
kind of inferior sago." Yule in 
Hobson-Jobson. He would have 
been correcter if he had said the 
Port, sagueiro (this is the Port, 
form and not sagueira) was built 
upon the analogy of coqueiro, 
coco-nut tree, from coco.] 

Saia (petticoat, skirt). Konk. 
say ; vern. term ghagro. Hindi, 
Hindust. sayci. Beng. chhayd. 
In the sense of * shadow ' the 
word chhaya is derived from 
Sanskrit. Ass. saya ; vern. 
term mekhlela. Sinh. sdya\ 
vern. term votiya. Gar. saia. 
Ar. saya. 

Sal (salt). Nic. Sal. With re- 
gard to the substitution of for 
s, see sabdo and sapato. 

It is curious that the Nico- 
barese should not have been ac- 
quainted with salt or not have 
a word for it. They have, how- 
ever, the adjective haiy6, ' salty' . 
But there are other islands 

" The Qagueiro has wood and 
green leaves very dark, and from this 
it took the name 9agu." Gabriel 
Rebelo, Infonnafao das Cousas de 
Maluco, p. 169. 




which have also no salt. ' ' Pieces 
of the tunny fish which they dry 
in the sun, because in the (Mai- 
dive) Islands they have no salt." 
Caspar Correia, 1, p. 341. [Py- 
i^trd says the same : " They (the 
fish called by the Maldivians 
Cobolly masse or ' black fish ') 
are cooked in sea-water, and 
then dried in the sun upon trays, 
and so when dry they keep a 
long while. . . " (Hak. Soc., Vol. 
I, p. 191). " The fish of which I 
speak is cooked in sea-water 
and dried, for other mode of 
salting they have none... No 
salt is made at the Maldives : 
what they use comes from the 
coast of Malabar." Idem, p. 

Sala (hall, sitting-room). 
Konk. sal ; vern. term vasro. ? 
Sinh. &ala\ sale, sdlaya (also 'a 
verandah '), saldva. Nadu-sola, 
court of justice. Tet., Gal. 
sola. 1 

It seems that in the Sinhalese 
word there is the influence of, 
if it is not directly derived from, 

1 " And he received him in the salla 
with many honours." Caspar Correia, 
IV, p. 443. 

" He received him in the sala with 
great pomp." Diogo do Couto, Dec. 
VI, v, 4. 

the Sanskrit a/#, to which is re- 
lated the German saal, the 
sources word of the Portuguese 

Salada (salad). Konk. salad ; 
vern. term karam (1. us. in this 
sense). Hindust. saldta, salu- 
tih, salitih. Beng. saldta. 
Sinh. saldda (also ' lettuce, en- 
dive ') . Tarn, sallddu. Tel. 
salladam. Kan. salddu, let- 
tuce. Mai. saldda, seldda. 
Ach. selada. Sund. saldda. 
Saldda-chai, water-cress. Jav. 
selodo. Mac., Bug., Tet,, Gal. 
saldda. Ar. saldtha. Turk. 

[Salpicado (speckled, spot- 
ted) . Anglo-Ind . salpicado, 
spotted cloth. 1 

The term is neither in Hob- 
son Jobson not in the O.E.D.] 

Salva (salute, volley). Konk. 
sdlv. Tet., Gal. salva. 

Sal va^ao (salvation). Konk. 
salvasdmv\ vern. terms mukti, 
taraii. Tet., Gal. salvasa. 

Samatra (sudden squalls). 
Anglo-Ind. Sumatra, sudden 
squalls which are common in the 

1 [" Wee would have you provide 
some salpicadoes flowr'd and plaine, 
and send us hither as soon as pos- 
sible." In a Letter from Fort St. 
George in Ind. Antiq., Vol. L, Sc. 11.] 




narrow sea between the Malay 
Peninsula and the island of Su- 

The Portuguese used the term 
more generally of any tempest, 
and in this sense it is to this day 
employed in Goa. 1 [The O.E.D. 
omits to mention that ' Su- 
matra ' is adopted into Anglo- 
Indian from Portuguese.] 

Santa Maria (St. Mary). 
Nic. sdnta-maria , the name of a 
copper coin : half anna or quar- 

1 " There was a thunder storm from 
the north-east which is one of the sea- 
sonal squalls which usually sweep over 
this island of Qamatra." Fernao 
Pinto, ch. xxiii. 

" It was not possible to avoid the 
loss of the galliot of Miguel do Maccdo 
on the Ilha Grande of Malacca where 
he had come to anchor, when a sama- 
tra arose and d^ove the vessel on the 
island, reducing it to a complete wreck, 
though the crew and most of the cargo 
were saved." Bocarro, Dec., XI IT, p. 

[" Wee., .had much Raine, gusts and 
thicke weather, which our Portugalls 
said is usuall in these parts att this 
tyme oft the yeare. And because such 
weather is incidentt to the lie of Su- 
matra, therefore such gusts, etts. are 
here awaies by the Portugalls Named 
Sumatraes." Peter Mundy, Travels, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, pt. II, p. 320.] 

[" They would no doubt have suc- 
ceeded in their object, had not our 
Lord, in His infinite mercy, in the 
meantime sent us a Samatra from the 

ter anna or tanga of the Goa cur- 
rency ; vern. terms paisa (from 
Hindust.), riuid, copper in gene- 

As there was no copper coin, 
as far as I know, called Santa 
Maria, I presume that the term 
denotes some place from which 
the Nicobarese first received the 
coin referred to above or one 
more or less like it. Perhaps it 
was the name of one of the 
islands of the Nicobar group, 
given by the Portuguese, which 
at present has ceased to exist. 
On the coast of Kanara, there 
are some small islands which go 
by the name of Santa Maria ; 
but the name of the coin could 
not have originated from these. 1 
Santo (saint). Konk. sdnt. 
Sant (subst.), in the sense of * a 
day of obligation to rest from 
servile work and to hear mass ', 
is perhaps from the Sansk. santa 
(adj .). Sinh. santuvariya 
(subst.). Kan. santa (us. 
among the Christians). Santeru, 

south-east, by which we distanced the 
Pataxes and lost sight of land." Man- 
rique, Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 

* " The small uninhabited islands are 
now called Sancta Maria : they lie 
between Bayanor and Baticala." Joao 
de Barros, Dec. I, iv, 11. 

320 SAN-TOM& 


saints. Kamb. santa (prefix- 
ed to Papa (< Pope')). Mai. 
santo ( v Pope '). Tet. sdntu. 1 ! 
Jap . seito ; this is probably from 
the English ' saint '. 

San-Tom6 (Saint Thomas, 
this being^ the name given to a 
coin struck in Goa) . Konk . sat- 
meifa, a gold coin with the effigy 
of St. Thomas. A difference is 
made between navdm satmirti 
('new St. Thomas coins') and 
parnifa satmeni ('old St. Thomas 
coins'). [Anglo-Ind. St. Tho- 
mas, St. Thomae]. 1 Jap. san- 

i " Gold coins which are made into 
ant'-tom6s for parties who wish to 
have them so converted. ' ' SimSo Bot- 
elho, p. 55. 

" These coins were the very pardaoa 
struck like cruzados of the value of one 
thousand rtia, having the (Portuguese) 
coat-of-arms on one side and on the 
other the figure of St. Thomas with the 
legend along the circumference, which 
read India tibi cessit." Gaspar Cor- 
reia, IV, p. 434. 

[** Reeling the want of money in the 
city, the Governor commanded the 
issue of a gold coin of the fineness of 
the round pagodas which are brought 
from the mainland, of 43 points, equal 
to 20J carats. . . He directed this coin to 
be struck with the figure of the blessed 
Apostle St. Thomas, the Patron Saint of 
India, on one side, and the royal coat 
of arms of Portugal on the other.] 
These coins came to be called Sao 
Thomes, and are even now to be 

tome, santomejina, species of 
striped cloth which came from 
San-Tom6 of Mylapore near 
Madras. Hepburn gives as a 
meaning of the word the term 
taffecillas ; I do not know to 
what language this word belongs 
but it occurs frequently in old 
writers. 1 [Taffecilla, or tafe- 

found in India where they are current 
throughout." Diogo do Couto, Dec. 
VJ, vii, 1. 

[" A St. Thomea de figura, 1GJ 
tangas ; a St. Thomea de Cruz, 15 
tangas." Mundy, Travels* Hak. 
Soc., Vol. Ill, pt. i, p. 65.] 

[''Their (of the people of Malabar) 
Coins are of Gold ; a St. Thomas 10 s. 
a Fanam, 1 and J of which go to a 
Dollar, or Petacha" Fryer, East India, 
Hak Soc., Vol. 1, p. 139.] 

["1 Gold St. Thomae 5 Xerep- 
hins." Hamilton, East-Indies (1727), 
Vol. TI, Table of weights, etc., p 7.] 

1 " Taftciras of silk, and beatilhas 
(q.v.) and other sorts of cloth." Gaspar 
Correia, II, p. 344. " They presented 
one sword, and six pieces of linen, and 
two taflciras." Id., 714. "Two small 
bales of tafeciras from Cambaya and 
other fine cloth." Id., Ill, 23. " Two 
small bales of tafeciras and painted 
cloth (' chintz ') from Cambaya." Id., 
p. 51. 

"From our master and also others 
(from Meliapor) we leernt that at some 
time in the past they were all very rich 
because of the great gains they derived 
from the trade hi cloth which was manu- 
factured in that city and which was re- 
garded as the best in the whole of the 




cira, the form in which the word 
is more commonly met with, 
is the Ar. tafsilah, ' woollen stuff 
from Mecca ', and was the name 
given to silk or cotton fabrics, 
as a rule, stripped or with floral 
designs and much like ' chint- 
zes '. See Glossario, s.v. tafecira.] 

There are other Japanese 
words similar to the above, like 
Bangarajinia, Chaujima, which 
indicate the place of origin 
(Bengal, Chaul) of the fabrics 
introduced into the country by 
the Portuguese. 

[The first St. Thomas gold 
coins were issued in Goa by the 
Governor D. Joao de Castro ; 
they had been struck in Portu- 
gal under the orders of King 
John III whose name they bore 
on the obverse and also the Por- 
tuguese coat of arms in the 
centre ; on the reverse there 
was the figure of St. Thomas 
standing, letters S and T on 
each side of the saint, and the 
( * India has yielded to you ' ) . It 
was, however, only during the 
succeeding governorship, that 
of Garcia de Sa (1548-49), that 

East." Jofto Ribeiro, Fatalidade hist., 
Ill, oh. 4. 


St. Thomas gold coins were for 
the first time actually struck in 
Goa. His successor, Afonso de 
Noronha, struck silver St. Tho- 
mas coins; these were also 
known as patacdes (see under 

Sapateiro (shoe-maker) . 
Konk. sapter ; vern. term cham- 
hdr ; mochi (1. us.). Sinh. sapa- 
teruva, sapatere\ vern. term 
samniariya. Tet. sapateru. 

Sapato (shoe) . Konk . sapdt 
(1. us.) ; vern. term mocho. 
Guj. sapdt. Hindust. (of Bom- 
bay) sepdt. Sinh. sapattu, sap- 
attuva. Sapattu-mahanna, shoe- 
maker. Slipper-sapattu, slippers 
for use in the house. Buj-sap- 
attu, boots ; vern. term us vahan 
(lit. ' high sandal '). Slipper and 
but ( = boot) are from English. 
Tarn, sappattn. Tel. sapdth. 
Mai. sapdtu. Sapdtu-panjan, 
boots. Sapdtu-kdyu, wooden 
shoes. Buga-sapdtu, the flower 
of the shoe (' the Chinese rose '). 
Sapdtu-kuda (lit. ' the shoe of 
the horse'), horse-shoe. Ach. 
sepdtu. Sund. sapdtu, *sepdtu. 
Sepdtu-panjan, boot. The term 
estivel, from the Dutch stivel, is 
also used. Jav. sapdtu, sepdtu. 
Mac., Bug. sapdtu, chapdtu. 
Nic. topdta. Tet., Gal. sapdtu. 




Pers. sabdt. Ar. sabbat, seb- 
bath, sabat. 1 

Saraf a (a kind of printed 
cotton fabric). Konk. sards. 
Jap. sarasa. 2 

The word is of Malay origin, 
sardsah. See Gongalves Viana, 
Apostilas, I, p. 347. 

[In the Glossario and also in 
Gongalves Viana e a Lex. Port., 
etc., Dalgado makes the sugges- 

1 "White apatos, birretas of pur- 
ple silk in hand." Gasper Correia, I, 
p. 533. 

" Sometimes patients are discharged 
after their recovery, but some of them 
for want of shirts, drawers, and sapa- 
tos will not go away from the hospital 
(1597)." Archivo Port. Or., Fasc. 5th, 
p. 1056. 

2 " With a corja (q.v.) of araas, and 
Malay body-cloth for his wife and 
daughter which is the common article 
of dress of that land." Fernfto Pinto, 
ch. xxi. 

" And he gave him two sarasas, 
cloth worn by women in India, which is 
pretty to look at." Francisco Vaz da 
Ahnada, in Hist, tragico-marit., IX, 
p. 71. 

" Sarassas and shirts, and all other 
articles of clothing they had with them, 
they handed over." Bocarro, Dec. XIII, 
p. 170. 

" In the Azores Islands there is in use 
even to-day a woman's under-petticoat 
called araa, says Senhor Brito da 
Fonseoa.... But I am inclined to 
think that this word sara^a came from 
the Eaat." Dr. Alberto de Castro, Flo- 
res de Coral, p. 172. 

tion that the Malay sardsah 
may itself have come from the 
Sansk. sarasa, the zone or girdle 
of a woman. Sarasa in the sense 
in which it is used by old Portu- 
guese writers with reference to 
India or the Far East is identi- 
cal with the article called in 
Anglo-Ind. sarong, in Port. 
sarao, from Malay sdrang which 
is the Sansk. saranga, meaning 
1 variegated ' and also * a gar- 
ment '. See Linschoten's inter- 
esting description of ' clothes 
of Sarasso ' (Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 91). Burnell's attempt to 
explain ' sarasso ' as the Hind. 
sarasa = ' superior ' is very un- 

Sargento (sergeant). Konk. 
sarjent. Tet. sarjentu. Gal . 
sarjentu, sarentu. 

Sarja (serge). Konk. sdrj. 
Mai. serja. 

The Portuguese Dictionary, 
Contemporaneo, derives sarja 
from the Latin sericus, and that 
of Candido de Figueiredo from 
the Arabic sardje. 

Satan , satanas (Satan). 
Konk. satandz. Sindh., Day. 
setan. Sinh. sdtan. Gar. sat- 
an. Gal. satanaz. Jap. satan. 

Saitdn, used in some of the 
Indian languages, is from the 



Persian- Arabic saitan, and satan 
itself may have come directly 
from English. Setan in Dyak 
must be of Dutch origin, and 
this is the view of Hardeland. 

Saude (health). Konk. savud, 
health, and also drinking to 
one's health. *In the former 
meaning the vern. terms are 
Wialdy, bhaldyki, dram, prandm. 
Sdvud karuhk, to raise the toast, 
bo drink to one's health. Beng. 
mvudi. Sinh. savodiya, toast. 
Tet., Gal. saudi. v - 

[Prof. E. M. Ezekiel, of St. 
Xavier's College, Bombay, in- 
forms me that it is customary 
in the Jewish community of 
Malabar at the marriage-dinner 
given by the bridegroom's 
father, for the bridegroom, 
before they start eating, to 
stand up with a glass of wine 
and to drink to the health of 
his parents in the following 
words : Bdvdd6um ummadeum 
saudi kebiba. ' Saudi kebiba ' is, 
I believe, the Portuguese saude 
bebo (' I drink the health '), and 
testifies to the extent and inten- 
sity to which the social habits 
of the Portuguese had in- 
fluenced the life of other 
communities that came into 
contact with them.] 

[Savel (the fish Clupea ilisha) 
Anglo-Ind. sable-fish (obs.). 1 

It is the same bony but sa- 
voury fish which is known in 
Bengal as hilsd, Sansk. iU6a, 
illi6a, and on the Indus river as 
palla. It is said that Maho- 
med Toghluk, the King of 
Delhi (1325-1351), when on 
an expedition in Lower Sindh, 
ate this very fish to excess, 
which brought on fever, of 
which he died.] 

Se (see ; the cathedral 
church). Konk., Tet., Gal. si. 

? Secar (to dry). Mai. seka. 
Jav. seko, njeko (also ' to wipe, 
to sweep, to brush'). Sikat 
(Mai.), sikat (Sund.), brush, 

Secretaria (secretary's 

office, secretariate). Konk. 
sekretdri. Tet., Gal. sekretariu. 

1 [" A little Island, called Apofingua 
(Ape-Fingan). .inhabited by poor peo- 
ple who live by the fishing of savels." 
Fernfto Pinto, ch. xviii, in Hobson- 

[" The fishery, we were told by these 
people, was of the " Hilsa " or " Sable 

Fish. 1 ' The Hilsa fish I had heard 

compared to a herring, but to which it 
bore no resemblance that I could find, 
either in taste or size, being at least six 
times as large. It is reckoned unwhole- 
some to eat in any quantity." Heber, 
Narrative of a Journey, etc., (1828), 
Vol. I, pp. 126 and 127.] 



Secret&rio (secretary). 
Konk. sekretdr. Tet., Gal. sek- 

SSda (silk). Konk. sd ; vern. 
terms retim, re&im lugat. Sedi 
(adj.), from silk, silky. Sinh. 
seda i vern. terms pdfa-redi, 
pajapitiya. S6da pa(iya, a silk- 
ribbon. ? Mai., Sund. sutra. 
Jav. sutro. Mad. sotra. 
Tet., Gal. seda. 1 

Dr. Heyligers justifies the 
identity of sutra and seda by 
means of the change of u for e 
and of t for d and by the inter- 
calation of r, either as the result 
of carelessness or for the sake 
of euphony. In Sanskrit, sutra 
means ' thread'. 

Seguro (safe) . Konk. sugur. 
Sugur-karunk, to save. Sugur- 
zavunk, to be safe. [Anglo-Ind. 
seguro, secure (obs.), subst., in 
the sense of 'passport, assur- 
ance' which the substantival 
form has in Portuguese.] 2 

1 "Here (in China) very good seda 
is produced." Duarte Barbosa, p. 382 
[ed. Dames, Vol. II, p. 214]. 

2 [" I was forced to currie favor with 
the Jesuites to get mee a safe conduct 
or eeguro from the Vice-Roy to goe 
for Goa, and so to Portugall, and from 
thence to England, thinking. . . .that, 
the Vice-Roy giving his secure royall, 
there would be no danger for me." 

Mai. . seguro (subst.), safety 

Sela (saddle).? Konk. stl 
(more us. is selim) ; vern. terms 
jin, khogir. Mai., Tet., GaL 
sila. Sund. sella. Jav. sild. 

Sfelo (revenue stamp). Konk. 
sel Tet., Gal. selu. c ;< O V 5 ! 
Sem (without). Mai. sin 

Semana (week). Konk. 
suman\ vern. terms satvado> 
sdtolem, afhvado', hdpto (us. in 
Kanara) . Sumankdr, a servant 
of the church who has to be on 
duty every alternate week ; ser- 
vant for the week. 1 Sinh. m- 
mdnaya. Sumdna-pata, weekly. 
Sumdnayak adangu, weekly ; 
vern. term satiya. Mai. semana 
(Haex). Also: sdtu mingo, lit. 
* one domingo ', i.e. Sunday ; 
sdtu ja' mat, lit. 'one Friday'. 
Tet., Gal. semana. 

The change of e into u in the 
first syllable of suman is due tc 
% the s initial and to the m follow- 
ing. Cf. seguro. The formao- 

William Hawkins, in Foster, Early Tra- 
vels in India (1921), p. 92. 

1 Derivatives of this kind are very 
common : Cf . chepektir, a man wearing 
a hat, from chapeu (' a hat ') ; mortikdr> 
a murderer, from morte ('a murder'), 
phontyt, one having a seton, from/onte 




mana is also to be found among 
the old Portuguese writers. 1 

Semana santa (Holy Week). 
Konk. sumdn sant. Tet- sem- 
ana santa. 

Seminar io (seminary) . 

Konk. simindr ; vern. term math 
(not in use among the Christ- 
ians). Tarn, semindri. Tet., 
Gal. semindriu. 

Senhor (lord, master). 
Konk. sijnor (=sinhor, 1. us.). 
T&eng.siyor. Mal.^'nftor, | stn- 
yur, sinyur, \ sinyo, siyu ; sinho 
(Castro). Sund., Mad. sinyo. 
Jap. sinnyoro, master of a mer- 
chant vessel. 

Bikker mentions senyor as 
meaning * a Dutchman ' ; nyung 
as meaning * a Portuguese ' and 
mistar ' an Englishman '. 

[It would appear from the 
quotation below that ' Senhor ' 
as a form of greeting was used 
also of Englishmen in India in 
the early eighteenth century, 
at any rate in Bombay.] 2 

l "To regard all the eight days of 
the somana ('week') as holidays, be- 
cause of the feast. 1 ' Jofio de Barros, 
Dec. Ill, iii, 10. 

* [" To the most Excellent, Opulent, 
and Renowned Senhr; William Phipps, 
President and Governor General of 
Persia as far as In dost an, in the Port 
of Bombay, Conajee Angria Sarquel 

Senhora (lady, madam). 
Konk. sijftor (1. us.). Mai. 
nyora, ? nyonya, nonya, nona. 
Mol. nyora. ? Sund., Jav., 
Mad. nyona (=znionha), nona. 

Dr. Schuchardt is very sure 
that sinyo, sinyor, and nona, 
nonya, nyora, come from senhor 
and senhora. See dona. 

Sentetif a (judicial decision). 
Konk. sentems ; vern. terms 
pharman, nivado. Tet., Gal. 

Sentido (sense, meaning). 
Konk. sintid ; vern. terms chitt, 
arth. Tet., Gal. sentidu. 

Sentinela (sentinel). Konk. 
sintinel\ vern. term paharekdr 
or pahdrkdr. Tet., Gal. senti- 

Sentir (to feel). Konk. sin- 
tir-zavunk, to be sorry ; vern. 
terms duhkh lagunk, vayt di- 
sunk. Tet., Gal. sinti; vern. 
terms hadomi. 

Separado (separate). Konk. 
sepdrdd (1. us.) ; vern. term 
ku6in. Mai., Jav., Mad., Day. 
separo (adv.), separately, apart, 
by halves. Sund. saparo, paro. 
Low- Jav. loro, ro (through 
the intervention of paro, with 
the loss of se), two. M aro, malih, 

sends cordially Greeting. 1 ' Forrest, 
Selections (Home Series), Vol. II, p. 37.] 




to separate, to divide into two 
parts. Paron, palikan, in two 
parts, halves. See Heyligers. 

? Serao (evening time). Mai., 
Sund., Low-Jav. sore. Properly 
speaking it means the part of 
the day from four in the after- 
noon to sunset. 

GonQalves Viana thinks that 
the resemblance of the two 
words is casual. 

Seringa (syringe). Konk. 
siring ; vern. terms nal, pich- 
kari. Mai. siring, filtered ; Sir- 
ing~an, a filter. Sund. saring. 

S6rio (serious, earnest). 
Konk. ser; vern. terms bhari, 
niralo. Tet. seri ; vern. term 
matinek. Gal. s6ri. 

Sertnao (sermon). Kon. ser- 
mdrtiv. Tet., Gal. sermd. 

[Serra^an East Indian scom- 
broid fish, Cybium guttaturri). 
Anglo-Ind. seer-, seir- 

1 [" There is a fish called Piexe Ser- 
ra, which is cut in round peeces as we 
out salmon, and salt it. It is very good, 
and wil indure long to carie over sea 
for victuals." Linschoten, Voyage, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. II, p. 11. Piexe ' is for Port. 
peixe, 'fish'.] 

["The Seas (on the 'Coast of Chor- 
mondel ') produce many Sorts of excel- 
lent Fishes, and the Rivers the best 
Mullets ever I saw. In November and 
December they have great Plenty of 
Seer-fish, which is as savoury as any 

Serra, in Port., means * saw, * 
and the name " would appear 
to belong properly to the well- 
known saw-fish (Pristis) . . .but 
probably it may have been 
applied to the fish now in ques- 
tion, because of the serrated 
appearance of the row of finlets, 
behind the second dorsal and 
anal fins, which are character- 
istic of the genus". Yule in 
Hobson-Jobson. In the Bombay 
market it is called Sur Mahi.] 

Service (service). Konk.stY- 
vis ; vern. terms chakri, seva. 
Mai. servicio (Haex). Tet. serv- 


Salmon or Trout in Kurope" Hamil- 
ton, East Indies (1827), Vol. I, p. 379 ] 

[" Fish pickled in a preparation of 
tamarinds is known in Indian trade by 
this name (Tamarind- Fish). The spe- 
cies most frequently treated in this way 
are Cybium guttatum, the seer or seir 

fish " Watt, The Comm. Prod, of 

Jndta(1908), p. 547.] 

[" Of those in ordinary use (in Ceylon) 
for the table tho finest by far is the 
Seir fish, a species of scomber, which 
is called Tora-malu by the natives.' 7 
Tennent, Ceylon, Vol. i, p. 205.] 

[" Saw Fish. The huge saw fish, the 
Pristis antiquorum, infests the eastern 
coast of the island, where it attains a 
length of from twelve to fifteen feet, 
including the powerful weapon from 
which its name is derived." Id., p. 207. 
This is the fish which in Portugal is 
called 4 aerra\] 




Servir (to serve). Konk. 
sirvir-zavuhk ; vern. terms 
are chakri karunk\ upkaruhk, 
kamdk servir 
(Haex). Tet., Gal. sirvi. 

Serzideira (naut., a rope or 
cable attached to the top-sail). 
Hindust. sisidor, sizador. 

Setim (satin). Konk. setitb ; 
vern. term atld [which is the Ar. 
atlas.'] Sinh. sitim; vern. term 
koseyyaya . Tul . seti . Mai . 
| sitin (Wilkinson derives it from 
English)), siten (Swettenham 
traces it to Portuguese). Jav. 
kestin. ? Mac., Bug. sotting \ 
perhaps from the Dutch satijn. 1 

? Sigilo (seal). Hindust. sij- 
jill. Pers . sijil. Ar . sijjil, 
decree, registry. 

Perhaps imported directly 
from Latin or Italian. 

Sinai (sign, token, earnest). 
Konk. sindl (especially in the 
sense of ' earnest money ' after 
a contract). Tet., Gal. sinal. 

Sino (bell). Sinh. sinuva, 
siniya ; vern. terms ghan^dva, 

1 Very goodjsilk is produced here 
(in China) from which they make great 
store of damask cloths in colours, 
86 tins, and other cloths Without nap, 
also brocades/' ' Duarte Barbosa, 
p. 382 [ed. Dames, Vol. II, p. 214]. 

44 With a jacket of black velvet and 
sleeves of purple cetym." Caspar 
Correia, Lendas, I, p. 533. 

ghan^draya . Sinuva-gahan nd 
(lit. 'the beater of a bell'), 
bell-ringer . Mai . sino . Tet . , 
Gal. sinu. 

Soberbo (proud) . Konk . su- 
berb, suberdo ; vern. terms garvi, 
ahankari. Mai. suberbo (Haex). 
Tet. suberbu. 

In Teto and Galoli the form 
suberba is also used. 

Sobretnesa (dessert). Konk. 
sobremez ; vern. term phaldr. 
Tet. sobremeza. 

Sobrinha (niece). Konk. s?/- 
brinh' 9 vern. terms putatyi, dhuv- 
di, bachi. Mai. sobrinja (Haex) . 
Sobrinho (nephew). Konk. 
subrinh ; vern. terms putanayo ; 
bhdcho. Mai. subrinjo (Haex). 
Tet. subrinhu ; vern. term mane- 

Sociedade (society). Konk. 
sosyeddd\ vern. terms pangat, 
sangat. Tet. sosiedddi, susi. 
Gal. sosiedddi. 

? Soco ( ' pedestal ' ) . Jav . 
sukh (Heyligers). 

Sof& (sofa) . Konk. suphd. 
Guj. soppd. -Hindust. sufa. 
Sinh. sopdva. 

Sofrer (to suffer) . Mai. suff- 
rir (Haex). Tet. sofri] vern. 
term terus. Gal. sufre. 

Solda (bot., Gallium mottugo). 
Mac., Bug. saloda. 



Soldado (soldier). Konk. 
solddd-, vern. terms Sipdy, Ia6- 
kari, pdyk, sainik. SinTi. soldd- 
duva ; vern. terms sevaya, hi- 
vay&. [Anglo-Ind. soldado l 
(obs.) not in Hobson-Jobson.] 
Mai. soldadu, seredadu, seri- 
dadu. Ach. serdddu ; seleddd, 
sailor, seaman. Sund. sol- 
dado, soldddu. Jav. sSrddddu. 
Mad. sordddu. Bal. sure- 
dddu, sredddu. Mac., Bug. 
sorodddu. Tet. Gal. soldddu; 
vern. terms emafonun. Malag. 

The Portuguese chroniclers 
spoke of the indigenous soldiers 
as pides and lascarins. 

Sombreiro (sun-shade). An- 
glo-Ind. sombrero, [sumbarero], 
summerhead. Tet. sombreiru ; 
vern. term sidti. Gal. som- 

In Indo-Portuguese, som- 
breiro is used both of ' a sun- 
shade ' and ' a water-proof '. 2 

1 "This Governor used to favour 
soldados who possessed good arms." 
Diogo do Couto, Dec. VI, v, 3. " With 
a hundred soldados and a few 
Lascaris (q.v.)". Id., Dec. VIII, i, 3. 

[" A cross-grain'd Brachmin, support- 
ed by an outlaw'd Portugal, contra- 
dicted in despight of both, seizing it 
by Force with Three Files of Sol- 
dadoes." Fryer, East India, Hak. 
Soc.,.Vol. I, p. 349.] 

2 "Near him (the King of Calicut) 


[Sombreiro among the Portu- 
guese meant ' a hat ' but in the 

they carry a sombrelro ('umbrella') 
on a high support which keeps off the 
sun." Duarte Barbosa, p. 320 [ed. 
Dames, Vol. IJ, p. 26]. 

["As well as the page armed with a 
sword, . . . they take also another who 
holds a sombreiro to shade them off 
and to keep off the rain, and of these 
some are made of finely worked silk 
with many golden tassels, and many 
precious stones and seed-pearls. They 
are so made as to open and shut, and 
many cost throe or four hundred cru- 
zados." Idem, Vol. T, p. 20<>. The editor 
is of the opinion that this is the second 
earliest mention of umbrellas made to 
open and shut, the only other earlier one 
is that of Marignolli who died in 1355.] 
" It is not permitted to any one to use 
torches, andor, sombreiro, without 
our permission or that of the Gover- 
nor." Foral (the Revenue Settlement) 
of John III, in Archive Port. Or., Fasc. 
5th, p. 132. 

"With sombreiros of green and 
crimson satin." Fernfto Pinto, ch. 

(The Archbishop of Goa) " when he 
goes abroad a large sombrero or para- 
sol is borne over his head ; and be it 
noted that his, and that of the viceroy 
and' the other great lords, are very 
magnificent, and covered with velvet 
or other silk stuff, and in winter with 
some fine wax cloth, the stick prettily 
worked and painted with gold and 
blue". Pyrard, Viagem, II, p. 80 
[Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 92]. 

["They (the people in Pegu) rowe 
too and fro, and have all their mar- 
chandizes in their boetes with a great 




sixteenth century it began to be 
used by them for ' umbrella'. 
Dames in Duarte Barbosa, Vol. 
I, p. 206, n, compares with this 
the use of ' bonnets ' for um- 
brellas by John Campbell in the 
seventeenth century (Travels 
of R. Bell and John Campbell, 
ed. by Sir Richard Temple, in 
The Indian Antiquary .] 

Sopa (soup, or bread soak- 
ed in broth, or wine). Konk. 
sop. Sinh. sop, soppaya. S6p- 
pingana, soup plate. ? Tarn. 
suppu (perhaps from the Eng- 
lish 'soup'). Tel. sopa. 

sombrero or shadow over their heads 
to keepe the sunne from thorn, which 
is as broad as a great cart wheele made 
of the leaves of the coco trees and fig 
trees, and is very light." Ralp Fitch, 
in Foster, Early Travels in India (1921), 
p. 29.] 

[" Sumbarcros or Catysols (see qui- 
la-sol) are here (' ChoromandeP) very 
Usefull and necessarie." Bowrey, A 
Qeo. Account, etc., Hak. Soc., p. 86. The 
whole of the paragraph from which only 
a line is quoted above is interesting be- 
cause it provides a valuable contribu- 
tion to the history of the words round- 
ell, sombrero, and kittysol ' all mean- 
ing umbrellas of sorts and their uses.] 

[" As a protection from sun and rain, 
they (the people of Peroem) use, when 
the wind is not too high, a sort of .um- 
brella, which the Portuguese call som- 
brero ". Manrique, Travels , Hak. Soc., 
Vol. I, p. 113.] 

[Anglo-Ind. supo (obs.)]. 1 
Mai. sdpa. Tet. sdpa. 

Supa, in Sanskrit, is * broth'. 

Sorte ('a lottery-coupon'). 
Konk. sort, sodt ; vernacular 
term cAtff. Mar. sodti. Guj. 
sorti, surti. Hindust. sharti. 
Or. surti. Beng. surtti. Sinh. 
sortiya. Malayal., Kan., Tul. 
sodti. Tet., Gal. soriti. luck. 
T6-s6riti, to enrich, to make 

The Portuguese r before t or 
d is easily changed in India in- 
to r or d cerebral. Cf . Konk. 
mort from Port, morte (' death ') ; 
Konk. kadtil from Port, cartilha 

Sossegado (quiet). Konk. 
susegdd ; vern. terms thand, 
svasth, 6dnt. Tet. susegadu ; 
vern. terms hakmdtek. 

Sota (queen in game of 
cards). Konk. sot. Mac., Bug. 
s6 ta. 

Sotaina (soutane). Tarn. 
sutan. Gal. sotana. 

Suissa ("a guard or corps 
of musketeers or riflemen 
founded by Afonso de Albu- 
querque", Candido de Figuei- 

1 [They (the women of Goa) dress 
Meat exquisitely ; [make] Supoes, Pot- 
tages, and varieties of stews." Fryer, 
East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 28.] 




redo). Konk. suyis. Suyisa- 
chlfa Icapel, chapel of the ' Swiss 
guards. ' Mai. suissa, " a select- 
ed body of armed troops" 

In the town of Mapuca (Goa), 
there is a chapel dedicated to 
the Holy Cross which is, by the 
common people, spoken of as 
'the chapel of the Swiss', i.e., 
the musketeers. On the feast 
day, after the church-services 
are over, a mock-fight is staged 
in a field near by between the 
Portuguese and the Marathas. 
The ' Swiss guard ' was regard- 
ed as invincible. 1 

Sul (south). Konk. sul\ 
vern. term dakhin. Sulkdr, a 
man from the south of Goa, 
i.e., an inhabitant of Kanara 

1 " The captains of the soy fa (Swiss) 
arrived at last in the ship Gonceigam, 
and with them also some men of good 
repute who are corporals " A. de 
Albuquerque, Cartas, I, p. 83. 

" He gave orders for a register to be 
prepared of all the lowest class of people, 
with their names and the reasons which 
made them enlist in Portugal, and he 
bade them join the militia as foiOS. 
A.nd because the oya and the militia 
was then something of a novelty, he 
had great difficulty in enlisting men, 
because it was considered dishonourable 
for a man to join the 9<>y9OS." Gaspar 
Corteia, II, p. 44. 

or of Malabar. L. -Hindus t. 


Sumaca ( ; a smack, vessel 
with two masts '). Mai. sumdka 
(Marre) . 

[The O.E.D. says that Eng. 
6 sumack ' is an adaptation of 
Port, sumaca. I have not come 
across 'sumack' in Anglo- 
Indian writings.] 

[Sumbaia, zumbaia (a pro- 
found reference, a low bow). 
Anglo-Ind. sumba, sumbra z 

1 "The largest income which 1 derive 
from customs dues in these parts is in 
respect of commodities that come from 
China or from Sul." Letter from His 
Majesty (1591), in Archivo Port. Or, 
Fasc. 3rd, p. 312. 

" And as the Island and City of Goa, 
the capital and metropolis of the Portu- 
guese dominions, is situated on the 
same coast, it is with reference to this 
City and Island that we reckon the 
situation of all the other lands, and 
fortresses of the State. Those which 
lie towards the left, are spoken of as 
the Sul. .." Fr. Luis de Sousa, Histo- 
ria de S. Domingos, TIT, p. 360. [Simi- 
larly the Portuguese dominions to the 
north of Goa, such as Salsete, Bassein, 
were spoken of as * terras do norte ' 
and their inhabitants as Norteiros 

2 [1540.'* There was security for all, 
with liberty and freedom during the 
whole month of September, according 
to the statute of the King of Si am, for 
this was the month of Qumbayas of 



(obs.) ; also used as a verb ' to 
sumbaie' (obs.). 

This word is not in Hobson- 
Jobson nor in the O.E.D. Most 
Portuguese dictionaries only 
give the form zumbaia, though 

Kings." Fern&o Pinto, Peregrhia$Qo< 
ch. 36, in Glossario.] 

[1560. "And thus they go near to 
the King, place their arms on the 
ground and make a big Umbaya to 
him with their hands joined and raised 
up to Heaven." Gabriel Rebelo, In- 
formacfio de Malitco, p. 152, in Glossa- 

[" Being aproched, we made our 
sumba or reverence to the King, and 
Thomas Robinson, laying the letters of 
Credit t which lie brought upon his head, 
did presentlio deliver them unto him, 
and then both he and Peter Munday, 
haveing kissed his hand, were willed to 
sitt downe upon a large Carpett about 
2 yards distant from himselfe." In 
Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soe., Vol. Ill, 
pt. i, p. 88.] 

["On approaching tho Puchique the 
Japanese made him profound sum- 
baya and salutations." Manrique, 
Travels, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 133.] 

["Wo read in the Factory Records 
(1642 5, 130) that Mr. Clark sum- 
baled the Achin Queen in vain V 
Editor's note to the above from Man- 

[" He must receive them with great 
reverence, Standinge Up and makeinge 
a S umbra to the Queens Windows, 
She all the while looketh upon us, al- 
though wee cannot See her." Bowrey, 
Hak. Soc., p. 307.] 

the older and correcter form is 
sumbaia . The No vo Dicciondrio 
derives it from Arabic but does 
not say from which Ar. word. 
Morais says it is an Indian word, 
Sir Richard Temple (Bowrey, 
p. 307, n.) is of the opinion that 
it is the Malay sembah, and 
quotes the meanings of this 
word from Wilkinson's Diction- 
ary : "A salutation, a respect- 
ful address ; the actual act of 
salutation or homage consisting 
in raising the hands to the face." 
Dalgado in his Glossario admits 
the existence of the Malay s$m- 
bah in the above meanings, but 
points out that Wilkinson alsa 
mentions s&iibahyang in the 
sense of ' worship of God, pray- 
er, ritual' (yang= 'divinity'), 
and is of the opinion that the 
source of the Portuguese word 
is sttnbahyang ; He accounts 
for the phonetic changes thus : 
Portuguese did not retain the 
nasal termination of the Malay 
word just in the same way as 
it did not retain m in the case 
of the Malayalam and Tamil 
words from which the Portu- 
guese jangada (q.v.) is derived. 
The vowel of the first syllable 
in sVmbahyang oscillates be- 
tween a surd or e surd, and it 



is, therefore, not surprising that 
foreigner's should represent it 
by o surd or by u. The change 
of s into z was perhaps influ- 
enced by the Portuguese verb 
zumbar which also means ' to 
bow in sign of courtesy '. 

With regard to the meanings 
of the word, Dalgado says that, 
though it is true, that sVmbah- 
yang signifies literally 'divine 
worship ', it is not to be won- 
dered at that it should also be 
used to denote 'reverential 
homage in general', in view of 
the fact that in Sanskrit and the 
Prakrits puja and namaskar 
are also used in a similar two- 
fold meaning. Even assuming 
that the Malays had reserved 
the term sVmbahyang to con- 
note ' reverence to a divine 
being', it is not unnatural to 
expect that the Portuguese 
should have confounded it with 
stmbah, seeing that the manner 
in which the homage or greet- 
ing implied by the latter term 
was offered appeared to them 
little short of adoration. 

Gubernatis derives sumbaia 
irorn the Sansk. sandhya ; in 
doing so he follows his usual 
bent of referring every conceiv- 
able Indian or Malay word to 

Sanskrit. Sandhya could never 
become sumbaia or sambaia, but 
it would become sanj or sanz, 
and these forms are met with 
in some of the Prakrits. 

Judging from the citations in 
the Glossario, the earliest of 
which goes back to 1540, it is 
evident the term sumbaia had 
acquired a great vogue among 
the Portuguese chroniclers, and 
there can be no doubt that 
such of the English writers as 
use the word either as substan- 
tive or verb adopted it from 
the Portuguese. 

Sumbaia in its meaning of 
1 obeisance ' was very similar 
to the Chinese Wo-fou, lit. 
* knock-head ', which gave 
6 kow-tow ' to Anglo-India and 

Sumbaia is not in Hobson- 
Jobson which, however, gives 
" Somba, Sombay, s. A pre- 
sent. Malay sambah-an ". May 
not this Malay word be the 
same as stmbah, and might it 
not be that the ' presents ' 
which the word implies are 
just those that are generally 
offered to a person in the East 
when he is treated with rever- 
ence and homage ?] 

Superior (superior). Konk. 




superyor (I. us.) ; vern. terms 
varto, vhadil. Tet. superior ; 
vern. term boti. 

Suspender (to suspend). 
Konk. suspender karunk ; vern. 
term mand karunk. Tet. sus- 
ptndi ; vern. terms tdra, tetu. 

Tabaco (tobacco). Mar. 
tambdkhu, tamakhu. Guj. i 

tambdku, tambdkuih, tamaku. 
Hindi, Hindust. tambaku, 
tamaku, tamaku. Tambaku- 
vald, tobacconist. Nep. tama- 
ku. Or. tamakhu. Tamrakufa, 
the tobacco plant. Beng. ta- 
mdk, tamdk, tamaku, tamaku, 
tamraku. Sindh. tamaku. Ta- 
maki, tobacconist. Purij. ta- 
maku, tamakhu. Kash. tabd- 
ku y tamok, tamok. Malayal. 
tambdkku. Kan. tambaku ; 
vern. term hoge-soppu (lit. * the 
herb of smoke' 1 ). Gar. tama- 
ku. ? Kamb. thu&m. 
? Ann. thudc.* Tonk. thuoc. 
Mai. tambdko, tembdko, tem- 
bdku. Ach. bakum, bakon. 
Batt. timbako, bako. Sund. 
tambako, bako. Jav, tambako, 

1 The other Dravidian languages 
have different names, which are equi- 
valent to ' leaf of smoke '. 

embako, bako. Mad. pdkd. 
Bal. temako. Day. tambdko, 
tamba. Mac., Bug. tambdko, 
Tet., Gal. tabdku. Malag. 
tambdko. Jap. tabako. Maki- 
tabako, a cheerot. Kagi tabako, 
snuff. 1 Pers. tambaku, tambak. 
Ar. tambak*. 

The plant is an exotic and 
the name is Mexican, according 

1 "It appears certain that we (the 
Portuguese) carried the plant and its 
uses to Japan ". Wenceslau de Morals, 
Day -Nippon. GonQalves Viana, how- 
ever, attributes a Spanish origin to the 
Japanese tabako " which we certainly 
did not leave behind there, and which 
must have been introduced in much 
more recent times than those in which 
we maintained direct relations with 
Japan ". 

' In place of wine of which, as I have 
said, there is none, tabaco, which we 
call herva santa, is used; to it have 
been attributed throughout all the 
Indies so many virtues, I cannot say 
whether real or imaginary, and especi- 
ally to the kind that grows in this 
Island" (of San Domingo). Gaspar 
Afonso (1595), in Htet. tragico-marit., 
VI, p. 54. 

2 "The revenue from tabaco (in 
Chaul) is nine thousand seven hundred 
and three patacdes ( q. v. ) per year. " A n - 
t6nio Boearro (1634), Livro das planter 
das Jorfalezas, in O Ghron. de Tisauary, 
IV, p, 33. 

"Drinking palm-wine and using 
tabaco for smoking." Jo&o Ribeiro, 
Fotolidade &***., Bk. I, oh. xix. 




to Girolamo Benzoni (1550). 
The use of tobacco spread in 
India during the reign of the 
Emperor Akbar ( 1 6th- 1 7th 
cent.). It was introduced into 
India, in all probability, by the 
Portuguese. But the following 
is taken from Tit-Bits of the 
22nd July, 1911. "The idea 
that tobacco was known in 
Europe only after the discovery 
of America is erroneous. A 
philologist has suggested that 
the Greeks and the Romans 
used to smoke tobacco, at least 
in their colonies. It is said that 
in the Malay Archipelago the 
use of cheerots and cigars dates 
from a period before the dis- 
covery of America." 1 

1 " Among them there is one which 
they call the smoker's weed, and which 
I would call ' erva sancta ' (tobacco), 
which they say they call (in Brazil) 
Betum.. .This plant was first brought 
to Portugal by Luiz de Goes. ' ' Damifio 
de Gois, Chron. de D. Manuel, I, ch. 57. 

[Prof. Alfred Haddon, F.R.S., in his 
Head Hunters says : " Although smok- 
ing was practised in these Islands 
(Papua and New Guinea) before the 
Whitemen came, and they grew their 
own tobacco, they never smoked much 
at a time. The native pipe is made of 
a piece of bamboo from about a foot to 
between two and three feet in length. 
..They enjoy it greatly and value 
tobacco very highly, they usually sell 

It is curious that Konkani, 
like the Dravidian languages, 
has not adopted the foreign 
word ; in this language tobacco 
is referred to generically as pan, 
' leaf ', orodhcMth pdn, ( the leaf 
for smoking', and is thus dis- 
tinguished from the betel-leaf, 
which is also called pan or, 
more specifically, khdvuncMvfa 
pan, 'the leaf for eating'. 1 
Prom pan is derived pankdr, 
' tobacconist '. 

[There can be no doubt about 
the home of Nicotiana Taba- 
cum being America (l)e Can- 
dolle, Origine, III). The 
Spaniards were the first to be- 
come acquainted with this plant 
when, at the close of the 5th 
century, they visited the Antil- 
les, and Oviedo (Hystoria de las 
Indias, 1535) was the first to 
give a clear account of it. 
According to him tabaco was 
the name in the Carib of Hayti 
of the Y shaped tube or pipe 
through which the Indians in- 
haled the smoke. But according 

almost anything they possess for tho 
same." In Ind. Antiq., Vol. XL, 
p. 40.] 

1 " In Arabic cadegi indi which 
means leaf of India. " Garcia da Orta, 
Col. xxiii [ed. Markham, p. 203]. 




to Las Casas (Obras 1 552), it was j 
applied to a roll of dried leaves j 
which was kindled at the end, 
and used by the Indians like a 
rude cigar. But Monardes, the 
Spanish physician, published in 
1517 an account of tobacco in 
which he says: "This hearbe 
which commonly is called Taba- 
co is an Hearbe of muche anti- 
quitie, and knowen amongest 
the Indians .... The proper 
name of it amongst the Indians 
is Piecielt, for the name of Ta- 
baco is geven to it of our Spani- 
ardes, by reason of an Ilande 
that is named Tabaco." But 
the island of Tobago itself, after 
which the herb has been said 
by some to have been named, 
received, according to some, the 
name from its resemblance to 
an Indian pipe. Whatever, 
therefore, be the meaning which 
tabaco had among the Indians, 
the fact which remains undis- 
puted is that the Spaniards re- 
garded tabaco as the name of 
the herb or its leaf, and in this 
sense it has passed from Spanish 
into other European languages. 
The tobacco plant was 
brought from America to Spain 
for the first time in 1558 and 
very soon began to be cultivat- 

ed in the Iberic peninsula. In 
1560 Jean Nicot, the French 
ambassador to Portugal, sent 
seeds of the plant to the Queen, 
Catherine de Medici. At first, 
great medicinal and almost 
miraculous properties were 
attributed to the plant and it 
was known by various names, 
such as, herba panacea, herva 
santa. Tobacco was first in- 
troduced into England by 
Thomas Harriot in 1560, and 
tobacco smoking became popu- 
lar there thanks to Sir Francis 
Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh ; 
from England the use of tobacco 
for smoking spread to the Con- 

It was towards the close of 
the 16th century that the 
Portuguese introduced the plant 
into Africa, both on the east 
and west coasts. The negroes 
took to it with the greatest 
readiness, and the enormous 
number of tiny seeds which the 
plant gives out facilitated its 
rapid propagation and dissemi- 
nation in that continent. In 
Central Africa the names for 
tobacco according to Schwein- 
furth (Heart of Africa) are eh- 
tobboo, tab, tabba; in Swahili 
tombako ; in Ki-Galla tambo 




and in Lu-Chicongo tabaco and 
fumu, the last named being the 
Port, fumo, ' smoke '. 

There are no references to 
the tobacco plant in Baber's 
Memoirs (1519-1525) nor in 
Garcia da Orta's Colloquies 
(1563), nor inChristoval Acosta 
(1578), not even in Linschoten 
(1589). " The first direct refer- 
ence to it, in connection with 
India, centres around certain 
Portuguese missioniaries at the 
court of the Great Mughal. 
Doubtless to the Portuguese is 
due the credit of having con- 
veyed both the plant and the 
knowledge of its properties to 
India and China. It is said in 
the Dara-shikohi that they had 
conveyed it to the Deccan as 
early as 1508. Asad Beg, of 
date 1605 (Elliot, Hist. Ind., 
1875, VI, 165-7), says of Bija- 
pur that he found some tobacco 
and, " never having seen the 
like in India I brought some 
with me and prepared a hand- 
some pipe of jewel work." 
These he presented to the 
Emperor Akbar, who attempt- 
ed to smoke, until he was for- 
bidden by his physician. It 
would thus seem to have been 
known in the Deccan for nearly 

a century before it was carried 

to the rest of India By 

1617 smoking had, in fact, be- 
come so general in India that 
the Emperor Jehangir forbade 
the practice, as also had Shah 
Abbas of Persia (Elliot, I.e. 
v., 851)." (W***, Tb* Homm. 
Prod, of Ind., p. 796.) 

The cultivation of the plant 
must have been taken up 
vigorously and spread with 
surprising rapidity, for there 
are references in letters and 
invoices received by the East 
India Company from its ser- 
vants in the East of as early 
a date as 1619 to shipments of 
tobacco from India. These 
references also enable us to 
know the prevailing price of 
tobacco in India in these early 
years of its cultivation. 1 

1 ["Goods sent to the Red Sea in 
the Lion. Mahm. Pice 

Tobacco, 155 maunds at 

4 m. 18 p. . . 707 [0] 

Foster, The Snglith Factories (1618 
1621), p. 64. 

' Tobako at rials 4 per maund of 32 
sears' 1 (in Mocha). Op. cit., p. 109. 

" Of the goods carried thither (Gom- 
broon, on December 4, 1638) by the 
Francis,., .the tobacco was sold for 9 
larls per maund." Op. cit., (1637-1641), 
p. 126. 

Mahmudi, a silver coin current in 




Watt very truly remarks : 
" As in other parts of the world, 
so in India, tobacco passed 
through a period of persecution, 
but its ultimate complete dis- 
tribution over India is one of 
the numerous examples of the 
avidity with which advantage- 
ous new crops or new appliances 
have been absorbed into the 
agriculture and social customs 
and even literature of the people 
of India " (op. cit., p. 796). On 
the other hand, it is but fair to 
mention that it has been main- 
tained by some that the tobacco 
plant is indigenous to India 
and that tobacco was used there 
both for smoking and medici- 
nal purposes centuries before 
the date commonly assigned 
for its introduction. Mr. 
GanpatRay, Librarian, Bengal 
National College, Calcutta, 
supported this view in The 
Indian Antiquary (Vols. XXV, 
p. 176 and XL, pp. 37-40) with 
many quotations : one from 
the poet Ban a to show that 

Gujarat of the value of nearly an 
English shilling. 

A rial was calculated then at about 
4*. (}d. and sold for about 5 Mamtidis. 
Larl was worth about an English shill- 


smoking after dinner was a 
common Indian habit ; others 
from Susruta and Charaka des- 

iribing the process of 'manu- 
facturing a cigar ' and also the 

efficacy of smoking '; and also 
one from the Skanda-Purana 

[ch. 52) which is as follows : 

>, v 
" Smokers after death will be 

turned into ghosts. During the 
Kaliyuga, Kali himself will be 
incarnated as the tambala leaf. 
" On the advent of the Kali- 
yuga all the castes will be cast 
into hell on smoking tobacco. 
The worst type of men will fall 
victims to tobacco. Thus, los- 
ing their dharma, they will fall 
into the Maharaurava hell..." 

Mr. Ray's contention is that 
the Bengali term for tobacco, 
tamaku, is a corruption of the 
Sanskrit word tamrakuta a 
statement which he supports by 
quotations from old Sanskrit 
works. He goes further and 
maintains that tamrakuta is the 
same as tamala of the Skanda- 
Puraqa. But the tamala 
plant has been identified with 
either Garcinia Xanihochymus, 
Hook., or Xanthochymus Pic- 
torius, Roxb., or Cinnamomum 
Tamala, Nees (Watt, Diet. 
Econ. Prod., Vol. Ill, p. 478). 




It is not enough to say, as 
Mr. Ray does, that because 
tamrakuta is mentioned along 
with opium, ganja, and other 
intoxicants, it must " therefore 
mean ' tobacco V Why should 
it not be some other nar- 
cotic like opium or ganjd ? It 
requires no great philological 
acumen to perceive that tabaco 
could give in Bengali tamaku, 
as it did in Marathi, in which 
tamakhu exists side by side with 
tambakhu. Moreover, botanical 
evidence is completely oppos- 
ed to Mr. Ray's contention. 
(See Ind. Antiq., Vols. I, p. 210 
and XXXVII, p. 210.) 

Taberna (tavern, pot- 
house). Sinh. teberuma, tebere- 
ma\ vern. terms- surdsela, surd- 
$aldva. r ; , 

Tabernaculo (tabernacle):' 
Konk. tdberndkl. Tarn, taber- 

Tacho (stew-pan). Sinh. 
tdchuva. Mai. tdchu. Tet., 
Gal. tdchu, tdsu. 

Tajelo, from the Malay spo- 
ken in Amboyna, is, according 
,to Dr. Schuchardt, composed 
of tacho and tijela ' bowl '. 

[Taja (a cup). ?Anglo-Ind. 
toss. 1 

i ["And then moat of them (Persi- 
ans) will freely take off their Bowls 

' Toss ' is used by Fryer and 
Ovington in the sense of 'a 
cup ', and their editors derive it 
from Pers.Jas* * a cup '. But if 
the Persian word was so much 
in use in the 17th century as to 
have been easily picked up by 
English travellers it should, 
without a doubt, have been 
adopted in colloquial Urdu or 
Hindi, in which, however, we 
do not find it. The Hindi word 
for ' cup ', in common use, is 
pyald or jam. Ta^a was used 
by the Portuguese for ' a cup ', 
especially * drinking cup ', and 
as their festas accompanied by 
drinking had acquired a noto- 
riety in India, it is not impro- 
bable that their name for ' cup ' 
enjoyed considerable currency. 
The O.E.D. regards ' toss ' used 
by Fryer as a variant or mis- 
print for ' tass ' which derived 
from Arabic or Persian and 

of Wine, most of Silver, some 

of Gold, which we call a Toss, and is 
made like a Wooden Dish.'* Fryer, East 
India and Persia, Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, 
p. 137.] 

[" All the Dishes and Plates brought 
to the Table are of pure Silver, massy 
and Substantial; and such are also 
the Tosses or Cups out of which we 
drink." Ovington, A Voyage to Surat, 
O.U.P., p. 231.] 




meaning ' a cup or small goblet ' 
has been used in English from 
the 14th century. But it is 
not only Fryer, but also Oving- 
ton who speak of ' toss ' . The 
Portuguese ta$a has the same 
origin as the English ' tass^.] 

Talapoi, talapoi ('a Bud- 
dhist monk ') . Anglo-Ind., 
Indo-Fr. talapoin. 

The source of the word is 
the Pali talapannam (Sinh. tola- 
pata), a fan which the Buddhist 
monks carry in accordance with 
their liturgy. 1 

1 " The Cliaubainha sent the King a 
letter by one of his talapoy, a religious 
who was four score years of age." 
Fern&o Pinto, ch. cxlix [tr. Cogan, 199]. 

" Throughout all these kingdoms 
there are many religious observing 
different rules ; some who are called in 
Pegu Talapois, and in Siam, Bicos ; 
and in Kamboy a, Chicus. . . Their dress 
consists of cloaks arid tunics of a dark 
yellow colour, a dye which they prepare 
from the bark of the jack-fruit tree. 
They carry over their heads umbrellas 
made of oil-paper." Diogo do Couto, 
Dec. V, vi, L " Preaching one day to 
the ambassadors of Brama, and the 
Talapoens who had accompanied 
them, they are their Bishops, and 
Religious. Id., Deo. VIII, 1, 12. 

"He did not want for himself any- 
thing more than alms, as he was a 
talapdi, which is the same as a religious 
among us." Antonio Bocarro, Dec. 
XIII, p. 125. 

[In the supplement to the 
Glossario, Dalgado says that 
Senor Gabriel Ferrand has in- 
formed him that very recent in- 
vestigations have disclosed the 
origin of this word to be the two 
Peguan words, tola, ' lord', and 
pdi, 'our', i.e., 'our lords or 
monsignori', a title given to 
Catholic prelates. This is also 

" They regard it as a sign of ^holiness 
to go about with their heads shaven 
and their feet unshod, and to carry in 
their hand a large paper- fan shaped 
like a buckler with which they protect 
their heads from the sun, and shield 
their looks from the gaze of the people 
when they pass by them." Jofio de 
Barros, Dec. Ill, ii, 5. 

[" In Pegu they have many TalH- 
poies or priests, which preach against 

all abuses The Tallipoies go very 

strangely apparelled, with one cambo- 
line or thinne cloth next to their body 
of a browne colour, another of yellow 
doubled many times upon their shoul- 
der, and those two be girded to them 
with a broad girdle ; and they have a 
ski line of leather hanging on a string 
about their necks, whereupon they sit, 
bare headed and bare footed, for none 
of them weareth shoes ; with their right 
armes bare and a great broad sombrero 
or shadow in their hands to defend 
them in the summer from the sunne, 
and in the winter from the raine." 
(Follows a very full account of the 
manner of their ordination and their 
manner of life.) Ralph Fitch, in Foster, 
Early Travels, p. 36.] 




the view of the O.E.D. See 
also Ind. Antiq., Vol. XXXV, 
p. 267.] 

Talento (high mental abi- 
lity). Konk. talent] vern. 
terms barkamdy, mardi. Tet. 

Talhamar (cut- water). L.- 
Hindust. taliyamdr, taliyavdr. 

Tambaca, tambaque ('an 
alloy of copper and zinc pre- 
pared in Indo-China ') . Konk. 
tambak. | Sinh. tambdkka \ . 
Tarn., Malayal. tambdkku. 
Tul. tambaku. Anglo-Ind. 
tomback. 1 ^c , < - % 

From the Malay tambaga 
(which is related to the Sans- 
krit tamrka) , it was introduced 
into India by the Portuguese. 
. Tambor (tambour, drum). 
Konk. tambor. ? Mar., 
Hindust., Punj. tambur. ? 
Ass. tambaru, tambur u. Sinh. 
tamboruva, tambor eva . Tarn . , 
Malayal. tambor. ? Kan. 

1 ["When the King came to the 
First little building on the greene, hee 
alighted From thatt Elephant, and 
passing through the roome, Mounted 
on another thatt there stood ready 
For him, having the Pavillion over his 
head of Tambacca, a mixt Mettall of 
gold and Copper much esteemed in 
these parts." Mundy, Travels, Hak. 
Soc.,Vol. Ill, pt. i,p. 125. 

tambur e. ? Mai., Sund., Jav. 
tambur. ? Ach. tdmbu. Bug. 
tdmboro, tamburu. 1 

The source-word of tambor is 
said the Arabic-Persian 
tanbur, which might have been 
directly carried to the langu- 
ages in which the word ends in 
ur. \ See Dozy, s.v. atambor. \ 

Tanchao (stanchion). L.- 
Hindust. tenchan. 

Tangedor (player on a 
stringed instrument). Mai. 
tanjedor, tanjidur. Jav. tanji- 
dur, panjidur. Bug. tanjidoro. 
A musician who plays on a 
European instrument. 

Tanger (to play on a string- 
ed instrument). Mai. tanji 
(subst.), music. Bikin tanji, to 
play music. 

? Tanque (cistern ; an arti- 
ficial reservoir of water). Mar. 
tahki, tankerh,. Guj. tahki, tdn- 
kurti. Tul. tdnki. Anglo-Ind. 
tank. | Mai. tdngki, ( ship's 
tank ' | . . > 

It appears that here is an 
instance of a coincidence of two 

1 " He used to give orders to play on 
an a tambor which was of such a huge 
size that four men could not move it.** 
Jofto de Barros, Dec. IV, vii, 20. 

" With many bag -pipes, trumpets, 
kettle-drums, tambores, fifes." Diogo 
do Couto, Dec. VI, iv, 16. 




terms etymologically distinct, 
with a meaning almost alike: 
the Portuguese tanque from the 
Latin stagnum, and the Guj. 
tdhkurii (the etymon of the 
other words), which is probably 
from the Sanskrit tafalca or 

Portuguese writers speak of 
tanque when they refer to the 
Indian cisterns or water reser- 
voirs, which in Konkani are 
called talem 1 . 

1 " Chaul lies over fields and culti- 
vated lands, and contains many tan- 
ques of water and many groves of 
trees and is delightfully cool." A. de 
Albuquerque, Letters, I, p. 136. 

" There was a big tanque four fath- 
oms deep." Roteiro da viagem de Vasco 
de Gama, p. 05. 

"Wheresoever they (the Baneanes 
of Gnzerate ') dwell they have orchards 
and fruit-gardens and many water 
tanques wherein they bathe twice a 
day, both men and women." Duarte 
Barbosa, p. 268 [ed. Dames, Vol. I, 
p. 113]. 

" In order to collect the rain water, 
they make these tanques (which 
might be more properly called lakes) 
all lined with stone." JoSo de Barros, 
Dec. IV, vi, 5. 

["And this king (* Crisnarao of Bys- 
naga* (Vijayanagar) also built in his 
time a water tamque, which is situated 

between two high hills and as there 

was no one in his country who could 
construct it, he made a request to the 
Governor of Goa for some Portuguese 

Tanto (adv., so much).? Mai., 
Mac., Bug. tdntu, certain, de- 
terminate, steady. Jap. tan- 
to (colloquial), much, in great 

Hepburn observes : ' ' This 
term is derived probably from 

Tapete (carpet). Konk. 
tapet ; vern. terms tivasi, sat- 
rangi. Tet. tapeti. 

Tar a (tare, abatement from 
the gross weight of goods). Tel. 
tdramu. ~~~~ 

Tarde (afternoon, evening). 
Konk. tdrd (1. us.) ; vern. terms 
sdnz, u6ir. Mai. tarda (Haex). 
Tet., Gal. tdrdi. 

? Tarifa (tariff). Malayal. 

It is possible that it may 
have been imported directly 
from Arabic or through Eng- 
lish. [Tarifa is itself derived 
from the Ar. ta'rif, ' notifica- 
tion ' (' irf, ' knowledge ').] 

Tartaruga (tortoise). Mai. 
tateruga, tetrugo (Haex). Mol. 
tarturugo, turtle. 

[Teca (Tectona grandis* 
Linn., and also its wood). 

masons, and the Governor sent him 
Jo&o de Ha Ponte, a great builder of 
masonry work." Chronica de Bisnaga, 
ed. David Lopes, p. 55.] 




Anglo-Ind. t e a k. 1 I n d.-F r. 

The Portuguese became ac- 
quainted with this word as 
they did with so many others 
in the Malabar country : Mala- 
yal. tekka, Tarn, ttkku. The 
Sansk. name of the tree is 
saka, whence the Mar. and Guj. 

1 [" The interior of DamSo which is 
mountainous and dry and parched has 
many of the roughest thickets of bam- 
bus, and forests of the most plentiful 
and best timber that there is in the 
world, and that is teca." Diogo do 
Couto, Dec. VII, vi, 6.] 

[" Likewise all timber for shipping 
and houses of durance, wcjj wee may 
call ye oak of India, growes up at 
Cullean, Bimurly, and must necessarily 
passe by Tanna, where they take 33 p. 
cent, custome." Forrest, Selections 
(Home Series), Vol. I, p. 120.] 

[" Teke by the Portugueze, Sogwan 
by the Moors, is the firmest Wood 
they have for Building, and on the 
account it resists Worms and Putre- 
faction, the best for that purpose in 
the World; in Height the Lofty Pine 
exceeds it not, nor the Sturdy Oak in 
Bulk and Substance; the knotty 
Branches which it bears aloft, send 
forth Green Boughs more pliant, in 
Form Quadrangular, fed within by a 
Spongy Marrow or Pith, on which at 
the Joints hang broad, thin, and 
porous Leafs, sending from the main 
Rib some Fibres, winding and spread- 
ing like a Faii." Fryer, East India, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. II, p. 75.] 

sag, and the Hindust. sag fin 
and sdgwdn. In the ' Bombay 
Letters' as late as 1667 this 
wood is not referred to as ' teak ' 
but as *ye oak of India,' and 
Fryer is the earliest English 
traveller not only to refer to 
'teke' but also to show first 
hand acquaintance with the 
tree as can be seen from the 
quotation below.] 

TSmpera (used for tempero, 
" seasoning or condiments used 
in cooking"). Konk. tempr ; 
vern. terms sdmbhdr, masalo, 
jiremmir e m. Tet. tempra ; 
vern. term budu. Gal. tempera. 

In the form tempra or tempr 
the word is used in Indo-Portu- 
guese dialects. 

Temperado (spiced). Konk. 
and Tarn, temprad (subst.), a 
vegetable stew. Sinh. tern- 
prdduva, mixture. Temprddu 
karanavd, to season. 

Tempo (time). Konk. 
temp ; vern. terms kdl, vel, 
vagat, samay\ Mai. tempo > 
duration and atmospheric con- 
dition. Minta tempo, to ask 
for time. Jav. tempo. Tem- 
pon, period of time fixed in 
contracts. Sund. tempo. Ma- 
rempo, " a modified form of 
tempo and used in the sense of : 



it is all up with them ; their 
hour has struck. It is also used 
of a single person, if all his 
little affairs have been ruined. 
G$ns rarempo jasah, the most 
miserable, the most destitute." 
Rigg. Day. tempo, limit, 
period. Tet., Gal. t6mpu. 

Tenaz (subst., a pair of tongs 
or pincers). Malayal. tandss. 

Tenda (tent). Konk. tend, 
awning. Sinh. tende, couch, 
bed. MaL tenda, awning. 
Jav. tendd, tindd. Tet. tenda. 

Tenta^ao (temptation). 
Konk. tentasdmv ; vern. terms 
talrii, ndd, bhul. Tet. tentasd. 

Tentar (to tempt). Konk. 
tentdr-karuhk, to tempt one 
to evil ; to vex. Mai. tentar 
(Haex). Tet., Gal. tenta. 

TSrjo (a third of a rosary ; 
a string of beads with five 
decades). Konk. ters. Beng. 
tersu. Tarn., Tet., Gal. tersu. 1 

[In Konkani the term ters 
has also come to denote the 
prayer with Aves and Pater- 
nosters which the string of beads 
was originally intended to help 
to count, and this is perhaps 
also the case in the other langu- 

i "All say the ter$o of the rozary 
aloud." Cardim, p. 93. 

ages which have adopted the 

Terebentina (turpentine). 
Jap. terementina. | Turk, ter- 
menti \ . 

Gcfti^alves Viana derives the 
Japanese terementina from the 
Spanish trementina. But Diogo 
do Couto says : ' Era semel- 
hante d trementina ' ('It was 
similar to turpentine') (Dec. 
IV, vii, 9) ; and in the Archivo- 
Portuguese Oriental there ap- 
pears the following item ( 1585) : 
"Trementina at 10 reis an 
ounce" (Fasc. 5, p. 1048). 
| Bluteau also mentions the 
form trementina. \ 

[Terranquim (a kind of 
small and swift bark used in 
the Persian Gulf and adjoining 

? Anglo-Ind. trankey. 1 

1 ["He (Noceret) fled to Komzara, 
and thence in a tarranquy, or light 
bark, to Lapht, a seaport in the Isle of 
Broct, which isle wo Portuguese call 
commonly Queixome." Pedro Teixeira, 
Travels, Hak. Soc., p. 159.] 

[" And besides these ships there were 
in the harbour (of Ormuz) about two 

hundred galleons There were 

also many terradas (like the barques 
of Alcouchete) full of small guns and 
men wearing sword -proof dresses and 
armed from head to foot, most of them 
being archers." A. de Albuquerque, 



Crooke's hypothesis that 
'trankey' may be connected 
with the Port, trincador is in- 
admissible; it is no doubt the 
same word as the Port, terran- 
quim. But what is the deri- 
vation of terranquim ? Dalga- 
do's view is that terranquim is 
either an augmentative or 
diminutive of terrada (Ar. tar- 
rod), the name of a short boat 
and also of small boats for ser- 
vice in war used in the same 
parts, which is frequently re- 
ferred to by Portuguese chro- 
niclers. It is not impossible 
that the Portuguese spoke of 
the small terrada as terradim, 

Commentaries, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, 
p. 105.] 

["Even the water comes (to Ormuz) 
from outside, from tho main and from 
the neighbouring isles for thoir drink- 
ing in certain small boats which they 
call teradas, as I have said before." 
Duarte Barbosa, eel. Dames, Vol. I, 
p. 97.] 

["As soon as the Contract was 
made, the Arabs went couragiously to 

Work, and gave the English 

their Choice, and then got Trankies, 
(or Barks without Decks) and shipt 
what belonged to the English for M us- 
kat." Hamilton, East Indies (1827), 
Vol. I, p. 57.] 

[(The King of that Province) "had 
provided a sufficient Number of small 
Vessels, called Trankies, for their 
Transports." Idem, p. 59.] 

just as they formed the dimi- 
nutive varandim from varanda, 
and that terradim became 
subsequently transformed into 
terraquim perhaps through the 
influence of terrdqueo (' terra- 
queous'). See Glossario. Both 
terrada and terranquim are men- 
tioned in Vieyra's Dictionary. 
The derivation of 'trankey' 
given in the O.E.D. makes all 
the above hypotheses value- 
less and shows how necessary 
it is to seek for the explanation 
of a word in the language of 
the people by whom, and of 
the region where, it is used. 
The O.E.D. says 'trankey or 
tranky ' is adopted from Pers. 
trankeh, name in Persian Gulf 
for a pearl diver's net, or per- 
haps its adjectival derivation 
tranki, applied elliptically to a 
pearling boat, and gives as its 
meaning ' a small undecked 
vessel, used in the pearl fishery 
in the Persian Gulf '. 

There is no reason to suppose 
that * trankey ' owes anything 
to terranquim which is the 
Portuguese transcription of the 
Persian word. For the inser- 
tion of e after t, and for the 
nalised termination, cf. mor- 




Terrina (tureen). Konk. 
terrin. Tet., Gal. terrina. 

Tesourar ia ( treasury ) . Guj . 
tijori: also used in the sense 
of * a safe '. Malay al. tiSori ; 
perhaps from the English ' trea- 

Tesoureiro (a treasurer). 
Konk. tijr&r. Guj. tijorar. 
Tarn, tijoreri. 

Testamento (will, testa- 
ment). Konk. testament ; vern. 
term maranpatr. Mai. tista- 
men (Castro). Tet., Gal. testa- 

Tia (aunt). Konk. ti, titi (1. 
us.). Beng. titi. Tet. tia. 

Tinta (ink). Konk. tint; 
vern. terms are 6ai, masi, pat- 
ran Jan. Sinh. tinta (also us. of 
* colour, dyes'); vern. terms 
masi, deli. Tinta gdnava, to 
dye, to colour. Tinta-kuppiya, 
tinta-keduva, an ink-pot. Tarn. 
tintei. Mai., Jav. tinta, Euro- 
pean ink; colour. Mansi is 
Chinese ink. Tet., Gal. tinta. 

[Sir Thomas Roe speaks of 
Tinta Roxa (Hak. Soc., p. 22), 
which Foster says is probably 
orchilla weed, a lichen which 
grows on rocks and trees near 
the sea-coast, and yields a pur- 
ple dye. Tinta Roxa is Portu- 
guese for * purple dye ', and 

was perhaps the then current 
trade name for this weed.] 

Tinto (red wine). Konk. tint, 
tintocho sard. Jap. chinta. 

Tio (uncle). Konk. tiv, the 
paternal uncle (us. only among 
the Christians) ; vern. term 
bdplo. Beng. tiv (us. among 
the Christians of Hashnabad, 
Dacca district. Mai. tio (Schu- 
chardt). Tet. tio. 

Tira (a strip). Konk. tir\ 
vern. terms phali, chindhi, Sir, 
patti, ban. Sinh. tiraya, tireva. 
Mai. tiros, thread, string. 
Tet., Gal. tiros 9 also 'ribbon, 
band'. As in apas, uvas, in 
this word too, the plural form 
tiros is preferred. 1 

Tiro (a shot ; range). Konk. 
tir, aim, mark ; vern. terms 
phdr, ('shot'); ftp, moki, 
('aim '). Sindh. tiru, bullet. 
Tet., Gal. tiru. 

Toalha (towel). Konk. 
tuvolo ; vern. terms hatpusnem 
(' hand-towel'), mezachem cha- 
dar ( ' table-towel ' ) . Guj . tu- 
vdl. Hindi, Hindust. tauliyd 
(also * a serviette ') ; vern. terms 
rumdl, angochchd. Beng. toy- 
die. Sinh. tuvdya, tuvdjaya, 

1 In the sense of * curtain *, which 

it has ia Tamil and Malayalam, lira is 
from Sanskrit. 




tuvdje; vein, term pisnakada. 
Tarn, tualei. Malayal. tu- 
vdla. Tel. tuvala, tuvalag^ta. 
Tul. tuvdlu. Anglo-Ind. tow- 
leea. Khas. taulia. ? Siam. 
tok. Mai. tudla, tuvdla. Tet., 
Gal. tualha. 

The hiatus in oa was destroy- 
ed by the intercalation of v 
(=w), and Ih became depala- 
talized, because there is no such 
sound in the oriental langu- 

Tocha (torch). Konk. toch. 


Tarn, tocha. 

Tomar (to take). Mai. 
toma ; Toma dnin, toma hams, 
to sail near the wind, to take 
the current. 

Tomate (tomato). Konk. 
tomdt ; tamat (from the English 
* tomato'); vern. term belvan- 
gem. Tet. tomdti; vern. term 

T6mbo (record ; archive). 
Sinh. tombuva. 

Topa (top; teetotum). 
Mai. topa\ used in a game of 

Topaz (a dark-skinned 
Christian half-breed of Portu- 
guese descent). Anglo-Ind. 
topaz, topass (obs.). Indo-Fr. 

This term was employed in 

the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries as synonymous with 
mestizo to denote those who 
claimed to be Portuguese de- 
scendants, spoke Portuguese, 
affected the Portuguese style 
of dress, professed the Catholic 
faith and served ordinarily as 
soldiers in the army. 

The origin of the word has 
been the subject of much discus- 
sion. At least three different 
derivations of the word, more 
or less plausible, are given : ( 1 ) 
The Turk.-Pers.-Hindust. top- 
chi, ' a gunner ', by profession, 1 
(2) Hindust. topi (Tarn, toppi), 
' a hat ' topivald, l one who 
wears a hat '), used as a distin- 
guishing mark, at times honour- 

1 "Seven hundred Portuguese, be- 
sides some topazes who were also mus- 
keteers." Antonio Bocarro, Dec. XIII, 
p. 244. 

" Gaspar Figueira was with eight 
companies, and in these there were two 
hundred and forty Portuguese, and 
there was one company of topazes in 
which there were thirty seven." Jofio 
Ribeiro, Fatalidade hist., Bk. II, ch. 

" In the early history of the Company 
these people were extensively enlisted 
as soldiers ; [hence the term came to be 
applied to the Company's native sol- 
diery generally in the Peninsula: it is 
now obsolete " (p. 525)]. H. H. Wilson. 




able, at others opprobrious, 1 
(3) Tarn, tuppdsi (which is 
not mentioned in modern dic- 
tionaries ) for dubdshi = Neo- 
Aryan dubhd&i or doba6i = 
Sanskrit dvibhdtya, ' bilingu- 
al, interpreter ' ; because they 
spoke two languages. 

In spite of Yule's censorious 
remark ( u his usual fertility of 
error"), I find, as also does 
Dr. Schuchardt, that Fra Pao- 
lino de S. Bartolomeo had good 
reason in regarding topaz as a 
corruption of dobhd$ya. z 

In the Tamil spoken by the 
people, dubhaSi or dobdsi ought 
normally to be changed into 

1 "Metis (see mestizo) or Topas, 
people wearing hats are so called," A. 
Marre. [Wilson also thinks that this is 
probably the derivation of topaz from 
Hindi topi, a hat.] 

2 "He proposed also that it was 
necessary for the Church of Calicut to 
have a Topaz, or an interpreter from 
the Christians of the land, who should 
not only be competent to carry out this 
work but also be one to command res- 
pect, and able to carry on negotia- 
tions with the Samorim and his minis- 
ters regarding affairs of the Church 
and the Christians (1698)." O Chroni. 
de Tisauary, II, p. 83. 

"Tuppasi, that is, an interpreter, 
which name is also usually given to 
the Indian Portuguese." Ber. IV. 19 
Anm. O, apud Schuchardt. 

tuppdsi ; because, as it possesses 
only soft intervocalic sounds, it 
changes the initial sounds of 
foreign words into its own res- 
pective hard ones, and very 
often converts the soft medials 
into twin hard ones, either by 
assimilation or by emphasis. 
Of. 2aAw = Sansk. dhdtu, tivu 
Sansk. dvlpa\ tukkam=zSa,mk. 
duhkham, tujfu = Neo-Aryan 
dudu. Malayalam, which pass- 
es for a dialect of Tamil, has 
in fact tuppdsi or tupdyi in the 
sense of 'interpreter'. 1 And 
Sinhalese, which occupies a 
place midway between the 
Aryan and Dravidian langu- 
ages, has tuppahiyd, in the 
same sense; it is certainly a 
corruption (tadbhdva) of the 
Aryan dubhasya or an adoption 
of the Dravidian tuppdsi, with 
h for the intervocalic s, a 
common phenomenon, and with 
the separable suffix-ya. 

The designation of topaz for 
the * mestizo ' was more current 
in the south of India, 2 and it 

* Gundert mentions documents of 
the 18th century in which tupdyi is 
employed in the sense of * an East 
Indian, or half-caste \ 

2 " A native Christian sprung from a 
Portuguese father and Indian mother 




is, therefore, to be presumed 
that it had its origin in one of 
the Dravidian languages. 
Now, if tuppasi corresponds to 
dubhd6i and primarily signified 
an ' interpreter ', it is clear that 
it would be applied in this 
acceptation to the indigenous 
Christians who might be acqu- 
ainted with Portuguese, 1 just 
as well as to the descendants 
of the Portuguese who would 
speak besides Portuguese one 
or more of the Indian verna- 
culars, and as such would be 
frequently employed as inter- 
preters between the Europeans 
and the Indians. 2 And in this 
sense the term is used by Por- 
tuguese and other writers. 
" Those who have wants mani- 

in the south of India. In the early 
history of the Company these people 
were extensively enlisted as soldiers.'' 
H. H. Wilson. 

1 " There were at that time no more 
than five Portuguese, seven Indians, 
the children of Portuguese, who were 
born there, and six Topazes, by this 
name are called those Christians who 
have no Portuguese blood in them." 
Conquista do Reyno de Pegu, ch. vii. 

2 " A letter patent of His Highness, 
dated the 25th January, 1571, in which 
it is ordained that the posts of Linguaa 
(interpreters) be given to the new 
(Christian) converts." Archive Port. 
Or., Suppl. 2nd, p. 79. 

fest and set them forth very 
well without topaz, or inter- 
preter ' ' . Lucena . ' ' Appre- 
ciating greatly the occasion of 
finding himself without 
topaz". Id., Bk. ii, ch. 16. 

Afterwards, when the word 
came to be used of one parti- 
cular race, and there were in- 
terpreters from the other 
classes, some of the Dravidian 
languages, in order to avoid 
confusion, imported the term 
dubdSi, as tatsama, in order to 
designate an interpreter in 
general, as well as a factor 
or agent. 1 (See Hobson-Jobson 
and Schuchardt, Beitrdge, etc.). 

[With the object of settling 
the vexed question of the deri- 
vation of the word ' Topaz or 
Topass ', Sir R. C. Temple col- 
lected in chronological order as 
many references to, and defini- 
tions of, the term as appear in 
Hdbson-Jobson, the O.E.D., the 
Ceylon Antiquary, and his own 
notes from original records and 

i In Laskari- Hindustani, * topas ' is 
the name of a sweeper. " It is doubt- 
ful to what language this word properly 
belongs. It does not mean a sweeper 
in Hindustani, but the Laskar ' topas ' 
generally acts as such as his special 
duty in the ship." Small. 




old travellers, and they are to 
be found in the Ind. Antiq., 
Vol. L, pp. 106-113. I shall 
supplement these by a few 
citations from Manrique and 
Manucci, both of whom use the 
term of Indian converts to 
Christianity. 1 

1 " Moreover, I would be responsible 
also for their (Christians) maintenance 
and that of their wives and children 
for a month . . . During this period they 
would have sufficient time to arrange 
a method of livelihood, as other top- 
azes do (this name of topaz is applied 
by the Portuguese of those parts to 
Indians and half-castes who are Christ- 
ians)." Manrique, Travels, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. 1, p. 279.] 

[ <l Father Fray Juan de la Cruz, a 
truly Apostolic man, of whom the evil 
spirits declared through the mouths of 
inspired persons, that they could not 
stand before him, was retreating with 
two Christian Topazes. He saw he was 
being pursued, .... so he told his two 
companions to fly, and knelt down, 
raising his hands to heaven. As he 
was in this position one of those bar- 
barians came up to him with a large 
sharp sword and gave him so severe a 
blow on the shoulders as to cut him 
half through. They paid no heed to 
the two Topazes or, as they call them 
Galas Franguia, who were fleeing." 
Idem, Vol. II, p. 337.] 

[" For, as they call themselves Jesuits 
in India and Apostolic in the other 
place, people expect to find in them a 
charity which is veritably Apostolic and 
Christian. In this these poor men are 

Sir R. C. Temple's view of 
the derivation of the word is 
identically the same as Dal- 
gado's. He says that there can 
be little doubt " that the word 
is an early Portuguese corrup- 
tion, through a form topdshi in 
Malayalam (the first Indian 
language the Portuguese learnt) 
of the Indian dubhdshi (Skt. 
dvibhdski) one with two langu- 
ages, i.e., a half-breed servant 
of Europeans ; thence a soldier, 
especially a gunner, and among 
sailors, a ship's servant, a lava- 
tory or bathroom attendant, 
and incidentally, on occasion, 
an interpreter. In the form 
topaz, topass, the term became 
differentiated from dubhdshi (in 
the mouths of Europeans, du- 
bash), a superior native inter- 
preter, and meant always a 
low-class half-breed. It has 
no relation to tdp, a gun, or to 
tdpi, a hat."] 

Tope (the top of a mast). 
L.-Hindust. topi. . ,^ 

deceived, for they are waited on in the 
hospital most carelessly by Canarese or 
Topasses, who frequently demand 
payment for even the water they 

require As a relief to himself 

the Father Administrator entertains at 
this hospital a Topass chaplain, who 
looks after the patients, so they say." 
Manucci, ed. Irvine, Vol. Ill, p. 283.] 




The word topi, topi or toppi, 
which is found in the Gaurian 
and Dravidian languages, with 
the meaning of ' cap or hat ', is 
traced by some philologists to 
the Portuguese tope or tdpo 
{' the top, the uppermost end '). 
But the Roteiro da Viagem de 
Vasco de Oama (' The Log Book 
of Vasco de Gama') mentions 
tupy as corresponding to the 
Port, barrete, ' cap ', in the list 
of Malabar words. Indian dic- 
tionary writers connect topi 
with fopa or top, ' big hat, hel- 
met and (in Konkani) mitre '. 

[Wilson (Glossary, p. 525)has: 
" Toppi-kuda, Malayal. A hat- 
umbrella, a hat with a project- 
ing brim on the crown, worn 
by fishermen and other castes 
in Malabar; the term seems 
to be of old, and to precede 
the Portuguese."] 

Tor an j a (Citrus decumana, 
the shaddock or ' the pomelo '). 
Konk. toronz (neut., the fruit), 
tordnz (fern., the plant), Mar. 
turanj, toranjan. Guj. Hin- 
dust. turanj. Sindh. turunju. 
Tel. turanj, turdnju. | Turk. 
twrunj. | 

The plant is a native of Java, 
probably introduced by the 
Portuguese into India. The 

name is the Arabic turunj, 
Persian turanj, which appears 
to be the immediate source of 
the word in many of the langu- 

[The pomelo has no Sanskrit 
name. It was known to the 
early Dutch traders as 'Pompel- 
moes ' ( = pumpkin citron), 
hence some of the modern 
names. It reached India and 
Ceylon in the 17th century. 

The pomelo is presumed to 
have been introduced into India 
and Ceylon from Java, hence 
the name batdvi nebu, and it 
was carried to the West Indies 
by a Capt. Shaddock after 
whom it is known there. The 
best quality of the pomelo is the 
thin-skinned Bombay variety, 
hence the South Indian name 
for it of bombalinas. See Watt, 
The Comm. Prod, of Ind.] 

Toro (' trunk or body of a 
man'). Mai., Jav., toro, a 
kind of jacket. According to 
Dr. Heyligers it is an abbre- 
viation of bdju-toro (Mai.) and 
rasukan-toro. cd ^ r v ; *\ * 

T6rre (tower). Konk. tdrr ; 
vern. terms gopur, burinz. 
Tet., Gal. tdrri. 

Torto (' squint eyed'). Mai. 
torto (Haex). 



Touca (a woman's coif). 
Mai. tocca, ' girdle ' (Haex). 

It appears that the meaning 
given by Haex is not correct 
because tokka in the Portu- 
guese dialect of Malay signifies 
'veil, mantilla, shawl'. 

Traifao (treason). Konk. 
trayisdmv] vern. term ghat 
dbghdt. Tet. traisa. 

Traidor (traitor). Konk. 
trayidor (1. us.); vern. terms 
ghatki, galekapo. Mai. taledor. 

Tranca (bar, piece of wood 
to bar a door with). Sinh. 
trankaya ; vern. term agula. 

Tr anqueir a (palisade) . 

Mai. trankeyra, trankera, teran- 
kera, telanklra. 1 

Trapa (a trap or device to 
take wild beasts). L.-Hind. 
trapd, a raft. 

Traquete (the mizzen-sail). 
L.-Hindust. trikat, tirkat, trin- 
kat. Mai. trinket, triaket. z 

1 "And of these villages the prin- 
cipal one is Upi, which by another name 
is called Tranqueira." Godinho de 
Eredia, Declara$am de Malacca, fol. 5. 

2 [" And as it happened that, in the 
act of boarding the junk, our own 
men were closely pressed, the Javanese 
wounded several of the men with 
arrows, and hampered the gear of the 
traquete, and the bowsprit ". Afonso 

Tratamento (treatment. ) 
Konk. tratament; vern. term 
chalauni, kelauni, upachdr. 
Tet., Gal. tratamentu. 

Tratar (to treat). Konk. 
trdtdr-karunk ; vern. terms 
chalauhk, kelaunk. Tet., Gal. 

Tratos ( ' tortures ' ) . Mai. 
tarato (Haex), | tardtu. Tempat 
tardtu, ' the torture-room ' | . 

Trave (a beam). Tarn. 

Trds (three). Malayal. tress, 
fraction of f reis ' (Gundert). 

PTresdobrado (threefold). 
Konk. tibrdd. The term is 
especially used of very strong 
distilled liquor. Tul. tibralu, 
liquor from the coco-nut palm 
thrice distilled. 

I am of the opinion that 
tibrdd does not come directly 
from the Portuguese word tres- 
dobrado, but is formed on the 
analogy of dobrdd (q.v.). As 
the first syllable of this word 
sounds like du which is the 
compositive form of don, ' two ' 

de Albuquerque, Commentaries, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. Ill, p. 63.] 

["The next day we sail'd gently 
along, onely with the sail call'd the 
Trinket." Delia Valle, Travels, Hak. 
Soc., Vol. I, p. 143,] 




(of. dupat, c double', dutondi, 
'double headed'), it was re- 
placed by ti, from tin, ' three ' 
(cf. tipet, 'triple 5 , tipayi, 'tri- 
pod'), in order to indicate its 
three-fold character. Tulu 
must have received the word 
directly from Konkani, as it 
did so many others. 

Trigo (wheat). Sinh. tirin- 
gu] vern. term goduma. Mai. 
trigu, terigu ; vern. term gun- 
dum. Sund. tarigo ; vern. term 
gundrum . Ja v . trigu . Tet . , 
Gal. trigu. 

In Southern India and in 
Malasia no wheat is produced. 
The Portuguese spread the 
knowledge of the cereal and its 
use. See pdo. Goduma and gun- 
dum are related to the Sanskrit 

Triste (sad). Konk. trist\ 
vern. terms chintefy, khantibha- 
rit, udds. Gal. tristi. 

Trocar (to exchange). 
Konk. trokdr-karunk (1. us.) ; 
vern. terms badlunk ; vatdvuhk. 
Mai., Sund., Jav. tukar. 
Ach. tukar, tuka. Tet. tukar, 
truka (also us. as a subst.) ; 
vern. term siluku. 

Trombeta (a trumpet). 
Konk. turmet ; vern. terms kdl, 

Mac., Bug. turumbeta, turum- 
p6ta. Tet. trombeta. 1 

Tronco (' a prison or gaol '). 
Mar. turung, turang. Guj. tur- 
ahg. Guj. turang. Turang 
adhikari, gaoler. Sindh. tu- 
rungu. ? Tarn, turukkam, a 
fortress on a mountain (perhaps 
from the Sansk. durgam). 
Malay al. turungu] vern. term 
tadavu. Tul. turungu, torangu, 
turanga ; ver. term bandlkhane. 
Anglo-Ind. trunk (obs.). 
Siam. tdrahng. Ann. tu rac. 
Mai. tronko, tarunku. 

4 The municipal gaol, where 
those charged with the smaller 
delinquencies were locked up, 
was called tronco ; the others 
were sent to prison. In Lisbon 
the tronco existed till the time 
of King Sebastian in whose 
reign two prisons were estab- 
lished." Almanack do Occidente, 

In the East the term tronco 
was used in a generic accepta- 
tion. " The tronco which was 
the house of the chief magis- 
trate, where the captives of 
Bintao were imprisoned, on 
account of the bribe they offer- 

1 "A great number of trombetas, 
bagpipes and kettledrums." Diogo 




ed, was kept open for them 
on that day." Castanheda. 1 

Tropa (troop of soldiers). 
Konk. trop. It is going out of 
currency ; but it is preserved 
in such expressions as tropacho 
ghodo, ( cavalry horse ', to desig- 
nate a person well fed and 
indolent. 2 ? Malayal. truppu, 
from the Engl. ' trooper ', 
according to Gundert. Tet., 
Gal. tropa. 

1 " As soon as we arrived at Can- 
ton, they brought us before the pocha- 
cy and he ordered us to be taken to 
certain houses used as troncos." 
Christovfto Vioira, in Donald Fergu- 
son, Letters from Portuguese Captives in 
Canton, p. 50. [Ind. Antiq., Vol. XXX, 
p. 46S, and the translation in Vol. 
XXXT, p. 12.] 

" Simao Caeiro, and Langarote de 
Seixas who were coming with him were 
taken to the tronco of Goa, and put in 
irons." Diogo do Couto, Dec. IV, ii, 6. 

["This prison ig the only one in all 
the town of Cochin, and is called the 
Tronco.* 1 Pyrard, Voyage, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. I, p. 429.] 

[" There are four general prisons at 
Goa, besides other private ones: the 
first is that of the Holy Inquisition ; 
the second is that of the archbishop, 
close to his residence ; the third, the 
Tronquo, at the viceroy's palace, the 
chief and largest of all.'* Idem, Vol. 
II, p. 18.] 

2 There is also a chapel in Goa 
which is called ' tropacheth kapel (* the 
chapel for the troops ') 

Trunfo (trump in cards). 
Konk. trumph. Mac. tarumpu. 

Tubo (tube). Konk. tub ; 
vern. term nali. ? Kan. tubu, 
sluice, bore, hole. 

Reeve regards the Kanarese 
word as a vernacular one. 

? Tudo (all). Jav. tutung, 
having reached the end ; 
brought to the close. Nutung 
to bring to a close, to achieve 
the end. j Chin, tud \ . 

Dr. Heyligers connects tutung 
with the Portuguese todo, and 
observes that the final g is pro- 
nounced very faintly. 

? Tufao (hurricane). Konk. 
tuphdn, storm, tempest ; 
ravage, damage ; disturbance, 
disorder ; rage ; groundless ac- 
cusation. Tuphani, tuphankdr, 
one given to brawls ; calum- 
niator. Mar. tuphdn (has 
the same meanings as in 
Konkani). Tuphankhor, calum- 
niator. Guj. tophdn, tempest; 
tumult ; wickedness. Tophani, 
tempestuous ; mischievous. - 
Hindust. tufdn, inundation ; 
deluge ; whirlwind ; a disorder- 
ly person. Tufani, a bois- 
terous, quarrelsome fellow. 
L.-Hindust. tufdn, storm. Or., 
Beng. tuphdn, tempest ; brawl. 
Tuphani, boisterous ; quarrel- 




some. Sindh. tuphanu, hurri- 
cane; extravagance; calumny. 
Tuphani, boisterous ; quarrel- 
some ; calumniator. Punj . 
tufdn, storm ; strife ; calumny. 
Tufani, a disorderly fellow. 
Kash. tuphdn, tempest. Tel* 
tuphanu. Kan., Tul. tuphanu, 
hurricane ; groundless accu- 
sation ; calamity. Anglo-Ind. 
typhoon. Khas. tupan. Mai. 
tufdn. Jap. taifu. Pers. tu- 
fdn, tufdn, strong winds ; inun- 
dation. Ar. tufan, inunda- 
tion ; overpowering rain ; cata- 

Portuguese dictionary-writ- 
ers, with the exception of Fr. 
Joao de Sousa, point out as 
the original of the Portuguese 
word the Gieek typhon, which 
normally ought to give typhao 
or tifao. But was the term 
current in Portugal ? Fernao 
Pinto says : " We went through 
such a terrible south wind which 
the Chinese call tufao ". And 
in another place :"" The storm 
which the Chinese called 
tufao ". 

The same source is indicated 
by Diogo do Couto, 1 and 

i "They had very rough weather, 
which the inhabitants (of the port of 
Ohincheu) call Tufao, which is a distur- 

corroborated by John Barrow 
and GileS, who derive the 
word from the Chinese sylla- 
bles ta-fung, ' great wind ', and 
by Dr. Hirth, who derives it 
from the local Formosan term 
fai and fung. 

Webster (s.v. typhoon) says 
that the whirlwind which raises 
clouds of dust was called ty- 
phoon * ' because it was regarded 
as the work of Typhon or Ty- 
phos, the giant who was struck 
with a thunderbolt by Jupiter 
and buried under Mount Etna ". 
But the meaning he gives to 
the word is : "a violent tornado 
or hurricane .occurring in 
Chinese seas ". 

Yule and Burnell admit that 
the word was first employed in 
the China Sea and not in the 
Indian Ocean, and observe that 
the Portuguese tufao distinctly 

bance so great and fierce and causes 
so many storms and earthquakes ....;" 
V, viii, 12. "The fly of the compass 
was moving as fast as do the tufoes of 
China." Id., VIIT, i, 11. 

[" It was accompanied by such a 
furious storm of rain, with lightning 
and hail, that those who were familiar 
with these coasts declared it to be a 
tufon, a form of storm much dreaded 
in those parts." Manrique, Travels, 
Hak. Soc.,Vol. II, p. 53.] 




represents tufdn and not tdi- 
fung, and presume that Vasco 
de Gama and his followers got 
the word tufao, as well as the 
word monqdo ('monsoon '), from 
Arab pilots. 

Indian dictionary-writers 
regard Arabic as the source of 
the word. Shakespear derives 
tufdn from the verb tuf, ' to 
turn', "or, rather, from the 
Chaldaic or Syriac tafu, from 
Chaldaic taf and tof, to fall, to 
run, to overflow " ; and says 
it is analogous to the Greek 
typhon. The authors of Hobson- 
Jobson identify tufdn, which 
occurs several times in the 
Koran, with typMn or typhon 
and presume that it may have 
come to the Arabs either as 
the result of maritime inter- 
course or through the transla- 
tions of Aristotle. 

Robertson Smith distin- 
guishes between two words : 
the one typhon, ' whirlwind, 
water-spout', connected with 
typhos, which he says is pure 
Greek ; and the other tufdn, 
* the deluge ', which he declares 
to be borrowed from the Ara- 
maic. " Tufdn, for Noah's flood 
is both Jewish, Aramaic and 
Syriac, and this form is not 

borrowed from the Greek, but 
is derived from a true Semitic 
root tuf, ' to overflow ' ". He 
observes that in the sense of 
* whirlwind ' the word is not 
met with in classical Arabic, 
but he conjectures that this 
meaning was derived subse- 
quently from the Arabic root 
tuf, ' to go round ', or, rather, 
introduced from some form of 
typhon, typho, or tifone. See 

In view of this controversy, 
it is not certain whether the 
Portuguese derived the word 
from Arabic or from Chinese, 
or if they at all introduced it 
into India. In the Portuguese 
spoken in India the word 
Samatra (q.v.) is used, by pre- 
ference, to denote ' a tempest, 
or storm \ 

[Sir R. C. Temple appears to 
be inclined to accept the Ar. 
tufdn, Port, tufao as the ori- 
ginal of typhoon, but he pro- 
ceeds to say that "some Chinese 
scholars, however, ascribe a 
Chinese origin to the term 
through Cantonese tdi-fung, a 
gale, lit., tdi, great, and Jung, 
wind. It is possible that the 
form and sound * typhoon ' 
for tuf an arose out of tdi-fung ". 




Mundy, Travels, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. Ill, pt. I, p. 164, n 1 . 

The O.E.D. distinguishes be- 
tween two different Oriental 
words: ( 1 ) the a forms, like Port. 
tufao, are referred to Ar. tafa 
which itself is probably an adap- 
tation of Gk. Typhon,(2)tuffoon, 
tyfoon represent the Chinese tai- 
fung. The spelling of the second 
has apparently been influenced 
by that of the earlier known 
Indian word, while that now 
current is due to association 
with Typhon. 

Below is a description of a 
storm given by Pyrard which 
is clearly influenced by the 
Greek conception of Typhon. 2 ] 

1 [" Their houses (of the people of 
Macao) double tyled, and thatt plais- 
tred over againe, for prevention of 
Hurracanes or violentt wyndes thatt 
happen some Yeares, called by the 
Chinois Tuffaones." 

2 [" On the 24th August we passed 

the equinoctial line Nothing is 

so inconstant as the weather, but there 
it is inconstancy itself ; in a moment 
it becomes calm as by a miracle ; in 
half an hour there is on all sides thun- 
der and lightning, the most terrible 
that can be imagined : this is chiefly 
when the sun is near the equinox. 
Suddenly the calm returns, then the 
storm begins again, and so on. All at 
once the wind rises with such impetu- 
osity that it is all vou can do to lower 

Tumba (a bier for the poor). 
Konk. tumb. Beng. tumbd. 
Tet., Gal. tumba. ? Jap. 
fumbo, a grave ; vern. term 

The change of t into / in the 
Japanese word cannot be ex- 
plained. Cf . tinta, mdrtir. 

Tumor (bump, swelling). 
Konk., Mar. tumbar. 

Tutanaga (a Chinese alloy 
of copper, zinc and nickel ; also 
zinc). Anglo-Ind. tootnague. 
[Indo-Fr. toutenague]. 

It appears that the imme- 
diate source of the Portuguese 
word is the Tarn, tuttandgam, 
* zinc ', from the Persian tutia- 
nak, ( oxide of zinc'. 1 

all sail in time, and you would suppose 
that the masts and yards would give 
way and the ship be lost. Often you 
see coming from afar great whirlwinds, 
which the sailors call dragons ; if they 
pass over ships they break them up 
and send them to the bottom. When 
they are seen coming the sailors take 
naked swords and strike them one 
against the other, in the form of a 
cross, on the bows of the ship, or in 
the direction where they see the storm 
coming, and they consider that that 
prevents it coming upon the ship and 
turns it aside.*' Voyage, Hak, Soc., 
Vol. I, p. 11.] 

1 [" Here cometh to an end the 
great and wealthy Kingdom of Guze- 
rate and Cambavs. in which are many 




[Da Ounha (Indo-Portuguese 
Numismatics, BBRAS, Vol. 
XIV, p. 409) referring to 
'tutenag' says: "This alloy, 
which has from time imme- 
morial been used by the Chinese 
in the manufacture of the gong, 
is whitish in appearance, sono- 
rous when struck, tough, strong, 
malleable, easily cast, ham- 
mered, and polished, and does 
not readily tarnish .... When 
analysed, it yields of copper 
40-4, zinc 25-4, nickel 31-6, 
and iron 2-6. Its name is be- 
lieved to have been given to it 
first by the Portuguese in India, 
who must have got it from the 
Malayalam language, in which 
tuttu is the name of a tutenag 
coin equal to 20 cash, or \ 
pice ; if it is not derived from 
the English tutty, tutia in low 
Latin, tuzia in Italian, and 
tuthie in French for a sub- 
limate of zinc or calamine col- 
lected in the furnace."] 

horses many cotton muslins. . . . 

and also other coloured cloths of divers 

'kinds, silk muslins gingelly oil, 

southernwood, spikenard, tutenag 
borax, opium." Duarte Barbos'a, ed. 
Dames, Vol. I, p. 154.] 


? Umbreira (door-sill). 
Konk. umbor, umbro, urribri 
(dim.), threshold, door-step ; 
folding or two-leaved door ; 
vern. term darvanfo, devdi. 
Mar. umbra, umrd, umbartd, 
umar(d, threshold, door-step ; 
hearth, family; vern. terms 
darvafd, devdi, defiali. Umbar- 
patti, umbarsard, contribution 
of the house. Guj. umbro, 
ubharo, threshold. 

The origin of the Indian 
words is not known. Its 
meaning differs somewhat from 
that of the Portuguese word. 
The resemblance may be per- 
haps accidental, as in the case 
of chapa, tanque, varanda. 

Uniforme (a uniform). 
Konk. uniphorm. Tet. uni- 

Urinol (urinal). Konk. 
urnol, urnel ; vern. term dori. . 
Tet. urinol ; vern. term kuzi. 

Vacina (cow-pox ; vaccina- 
tion). Konk. vasin. Tet., Gal, 
vasina, also * to vaccinate '. 

PVagem (pod, husk). Sinh. 




Valado (a mound or embank- 
ment). Anglo-Ind. walade (1. 
us.), vellard (used in Bombay). 1 
[Not in O.E.D. The term is 
applied to the causeways built 
between Bombay and the neigh- 
bouring islands, intended to 
exclude water and to serve as 
dry passages over the marshy 

Whitworth's suggestion that 
the Marathi walhdd, to cross 
over, would supply a derivation 
for ' vellard or walade ' would 
be an instance of striving after 
meaning, if there were such a 
word in Marathi. Molesworth 
does not mention it. Olandane 
in Mar. is c to cross over'.] 

Valer (to be worth), Mai. 
valer (Haex). 

Vapor ('a steamship'). 
Konk. vapor; vern. term a0r-fco(, 
lit. 'fire boat', (b6t is from the 
English ' boat ' ) . Tet. vapor . 

1 " The Moors were also busy mak- 
ing a vallado in the river." Ant6nio 
Bocarro, Dec. XIII, p. 81. 

[" The bridge over the " wide breach 
of land " is now called Breach Candy. 
It is also called * Vellard," a corrup- 
tion of the Portuguese Vallado, which 
means a fence or hedge, properly a 
mud-wall with a fence of wood upon 
it.'* Da Cunha, The Origin of Bombay, 
p. 57.] 

? Pers. vdpur. ? Ar. 
vabur. | Turk vapor \ . 

Belot derives vabur from 

Vara (a linear measure, a 
yard). Konk., Guj. vdr. Adha- 
vdr (Guj.), half a yard. Mala- 
yal. vdra. Kan. vdru. Tul. 
vdru, varu. -Mai. vara, a stick 
(Haex). 1 

The word is used in Konkani 
and in Tamil also in the sense 
of ' the pole of a canopy, and 
of the staff carried by the chief 
member of a religious sodality '. 

Varanda (verandah). Konk. 
vardnd, the principal part of 
the house which one first 
enters. ? Mar. varand, var- 
add, varanda , varandi, parapet, 
a wall alongside a verandah, 
or a street. Guj. varando, gal- 
lery. Hindi, barandd, vardndd, 
varanda, barandaka, bardmada. 
? Hindust. baramada. 
Beng. bardndd. Ass. barandd, 
a species of thatched cottage. 
Sinh. bardnde, bardndaya, 
varandaya.T&m. , Malayal. 
varanda. Kan., Tul. varanda. 

l "All these kinds of cloths are 
produced in entire pieces each of which 
measures twenty-three or twenty-four 
Portuguese varas." Duarte Barbosa, 
p. 362. 




Anglo-Ind. veranda, veran- 
dah. 1 Indo-Fr. veranda veran- 
dah. Gar., Khas. baranda. 
Mai. vardnda, baranda, berdn- 
da, meranda. Ach. berdnda. 
Sund. baranda, Tet., Gal. var- 
and,a. Pers. baramada. 

The origin of the word var- 
anda or veranda, ' gallery 
round a house or sometimes 
only in front ', is a subject 
of great controversy. Three 
hypotheses have been put 

John Beames, [Whitworth,] 
Littr, and many others derive 
it from the Sansk. varanda, 
from the root vr or mr, c to 
cover, to surround, to enclose '. 
And this word is marked 
by Bohtlingk, Cappeller and 
Monier Williams as a pure dic- 
tionary-word, because it is not 
to be found in any Sanskrit 
books known till now; and in 
the dictionaries it has various 
meanings, such as : multitude, 
group, rash on the face, a pile 
of hay, bundle, purse, etc. 

i ['.'.. Small ranges of pillars that 
support a pent-house or shed, form- 
ing what is called, in the Portuguese 
Lingua-franca Verandas, either round 
or on particular sides of the house." 
Grose, A Voyage to file East Indies 
(1757), p. 84.] 

Benfey, Bohtlingk & Roth 
(Dictionary of St. Petersburgh, 
1855-1875), Monier Williams 
(1st ed., 1874), Whitney, and 
Apte give it the meaning of 
'verandah, gallery or portico'. 
And the commentator of Am- 
arako6a (dictionary of the fifth 
century) quotes the authority 
of Hemachandra (a dictionary- 
maker of the twelfth century) 
in support of the meaning of 
antaravedi ("a veranda resting 
on columns ", Williams) he 
gives to it, which in itself is 
also a pure dictionary term. 1 

Bohtlingk (Sanskrit Wdrter- 
buchinkurzererFassung, 1884), 
Cappeller (1891), M. Williams 
.(the edition of 1899) leave out 
entirely the meaning of 'gal- 
lery', as not justified. 2 And 

1 The phrase antara vedirmattavara- 
nayoriva, of EaghuvamSa (XII, 93> 
Bombay ed.) means 'like a wall be- 
tween two furious elephants '. 

2 The meaning of the compound 
varandatam-buka., which is met with in 
the drama Mrchakatika of Kalidasa, is 
very obscure. Cappeller interprets it 
as 'fishing-line ', which is also the only 
meaning which he gives for varanda, 
and observes that the word occurs only 
in the translation from the Prakrit. 
Monier Williams attributes to it inter- 
rogatively the same meaning. But 
Apte claims that it means a " project, 
ing or overhanging wall". 




Burnell observes that the mean- 
ing referred to above " does not 
belong to old Sanskrit, but is 
only to be found in works rela- 
tively modern", but does not 
<cite any text. 

Molesworth (Mar.) distin- 
guishes between two varandas, 
one of Sanskrit origin, in the 
sense of ' a load of hay ', and 
the other with the various 
meanings mentioned above, 
but does not suggest its etymo- 
logy. Candy (Mar.) translates 
the English ' veranda ' into 
osri, padvi, padsdl, pad-osri, 
padSala, paddvi, oti. Almost 
all these words, and in addition 
to these osro and 0(6, are current 
in Konkani. Gundert (Mal- 
ay al.) admits the Portuguese 
source. Campbell (Tel.) adopts 
the Sanskrit derivation. Zieg- 
ler (Kan.) states that varanda 
is a foreign term but does not 
indicate its origin. Haex (Mai.) 
mentions baranda ('a story or 
balcony') as a vernacular term ; 
but Favre attributes it to a 
Sanskrit and Wilkinson to 
a Portuguese origin. Rigg 
(Sund.) derives it from Portu- 

Yule & Burnell were the first 
to suggest that there existed in 

Portuguese and Spanish the 
word varanda, independent of 
the Indian varanda, with the 
same or analogous meaning, 
because the author of the 
Roteiro (1498) employs it with- 
out explaining it, 1 and also 

1 " And ho came to join us where we 
had been put in a varanda where 
there was a large candlestick made of 
brass that gave us light." FernSo 
Pinto (1540) employs the word varanda 
very often as though it was well- 
known: "We entered with her into 
another court much nobler than the 
first, surrounded on all sides witii two 
kinds of varandas, as if it had been a 
cloister of monks." [Cogan renders 
this reference to verandas thus: "all 
about invironed with Galleries" (in 
Hobson-Jobson).'] And Gasper Correia 
(1561) : " The King was in a varanda, 
so that he saw everything in the order 
in which it happened." 

[In Chronica de Bisnaga (1525), ed. 
David Lopes, both forms varamdas 
and baramdas are met with and no- 
where is an explanation of the term 
offered : " The palaces of the King (of 
Vijayanagar) are of this kind : they 
have a gate leading to an open space 
. . . and above this gate there is a 
pinnacle very high built like such others 

with their varamtfas After going 

through this gate you find there is a 
large open space . . . and you soon come 
to another gate very like the first ... so 
much so that when you have entered 
this you have a large open space before 
you, and on either side of it some low 
baramdas in which the captains and 




because it occurs in Vocabulista 
Ardbigo of Pedro de Alcala 
(1505). And the following 
passage, very significant, can 
also be cited from Joao de Bar- 
ros in proof thereof: " The 
inhabitants of Ru^otello made 
an open Avooden gallery which 
in those parts serves the same 
purpose that varandas or ter- 
races do among us." .Dec. Ill, 
v, 7. 

Gongalves Viana (Ortografia 
NacionaL A post Has aos Die. 
Port.) defends this hypothesis 
with many arguments of great 
value ; he connects the word 
with vara ('a rod') and vardo 
('a bar'), and concludes that 
4 'the existence of this word in 
India and in the Romanic lan- 
guages is accidental, as the 
same must be the case with 
that of tanque (' tank') and of 
chapa ('mark') in Portuguese 
and the Indian vernaculars ". 

Even if the existence of 
varanda in Sanskrit and its 
transmission into many present 
day Prakrits were not open to 
dispute, it appears to me, for 
more than one reason, that the 

the gentry are accommodated from 
where to watch the festivities." p. 

meaning of * a gallery with 
columns', which is to be found 
in some of these languages, is 
not Indian, but derived from 
Portuguese, and has found its 
way into them in modern times. 
First, no Sanskrit or Prakrit 
passage with varanda in such a 
sense is found before the six- 
teenth century. Secondly, 
Konkani, Hindustani, Oriya, 
Sindhi, Kashmiri, to judge from 
the dictionaries of these langu- 
ages, are not at all acquainted 
with the word in the form 
varanda. Thirdly, many dic- 
tionaries of the other languages 
do not mention it, as for ins- 
tance the Gujarati Dictionary of 
L. Patel and N. Patel, the Sin- 
halese of Clough, the Punjabi of 
Starkey ; or they derive it from 
another language, as the dic- 
tionary of Singh does, from 
the Persian bardmada ; or they 
make a phonetic distinction 
between bardndd or bardnda 
and varanda, as does the Hindi 
Dictionary of Guni Lala, the 
Sinhalese of Carter (s.v. porti- 
co). Fourthly, Marathi and 
Assamese do not assign to the 
word varanda the meaning of 
' a gallery or portico ' . Fifthly, 
in Konkani vardnd has no 




cerebral sounds, andis employed 
solely among the Christians to- 
gether with other terms (vasr6, 
vasri) and in a meaning which 
is peculiar to it. Sixthly, the 
English form veranda or ver- 
andah betrays clearly its Portu- 
guese, and not indigenous, 
origin ; had it been the latter, 
it would have become warand. 1 
The third hypothesis, little 
probable, proposed by Webster 
and C. Defremery, points out as 
the primary source of varanda 
the Persian baramada (intro- 
duced into Hindustani), a com- 
pound of bar ('from above') 
and amada ('coming'), and 
equivalent to c coming forward, 
projecting'. Yule thinks it 
possible that it may be a Per- 
sian ' striving after meaning ' 
in explanation of the foreign 
word which they may have 

1 Dr. Schuchardt finds that in the 
Romanic languages the actual meaning 
of varanda is not brought out, because 
the Port, varanda, Sp. baranda, Catalan 
barana (' balustrade '), are derived from 
the verb ' barrar \ Beitrage, etc. 
[Barrar in this connection would be 
derived from barra, bar of metal or 
wood, and barrar would mean either 
'to support on bars', or 'to lay bars 

[The O.E.D. says that ' ver- 
andah ' was originally intro- 
duced into English from India, 
where the word is found in 
several of the native languages 
as Hindi varanda, Beng. baran- 
da, mod. Sansk. baranda, but it 
appears to be merely an adop- 
tion of Port, and older Sp. 
varanda (baranda), railing, balu- 
strade, balcony. The Fr. ver- 
anda appears to it to have been 
adopted from English, but to 
Dalgado from Indo-Fr. through 

[Varela (an idol ; a Buddhist 
temple and monastery in Indo- 
China, China and in Japan). 
Anglo-Ind. varella. 1 

This word which is to be 
met with in the works of old 
Portuguese writers is believed 
to be the Malay barhala (Jav. 
brahald), ' idol,' and to have 

1 [" And they consume many canes 
likewise in making of their Varellaes 
or idole temples, which are in great 
number, both great and small. They 
be made round like a sugar loaf e ; some 
are as high as a church, very broad 
beneath, some a quarter of a mile in 
compasse . . . They consume in these 
Varellaes great quantity of golde, for 
that they be all gilded aloft, and many 
of them from the top to the bottome." 
Ralph Fitch, in Foster, Early Travels, 
p. 35.] 




been used by the Portuguese 
also to signify ' a temple ' or 
' the house of idols,' just in the 
same way as pagoda was em- 
ployed by them in the sense of 
an 'idol' and a 'temple'. In 
Fernao Pinto both forms var- 
eta and bralla are met with. 
See Glossario.] 

[Varzea, vargem or verga 
(a piece of level ground that is 
sowed and cultivated). Anglo- 
Ind. verge (used formerly for 
'rice lands'). 1 See Hobson- 

Varrao (a boar-pig). Konk. 
bardmv. Sinh. barama. 

Vaso (vase, vessel). Konk. 
vdz, flower vase. Mai. pdsu, 
bdsu. Ach., Jav., Batav. pdsu. 
Sund., Bal., Day. pdso. 
Tet., Gal vdzu. 

Dr. Schuchardt says that proceeds probably from 
the Dutch vaas l a vessel to put 
any liquor in,' notwithstanding 
its vowel ending. See cdmara. 

1 ["They offten dig their mimes 10 
foth ; and when they have a shoure of 
raine or two in a day, then they geet 
the most tinn. But when the raines 
are wholley seet in then they leave of 
their diging and goas to their varges ' 
Ind. Antiq., July, 1931, p. 106. It is 
strange that Sir R. Temple should have 
conjectured that ' varges ' might stand 
for ' villages '.] 

[Vedor, also Veador (an in- 
spector, or controller). Anglo- 
Ind. veador. 1 

In the O.E.D. but not in 
Hobson-Jobson. This term in 
the English Factory records 
sometimes assumes interesting 
forms : Veadore, Theodore. 

The Vedor de Fazenda was 
an official at Goa who had 
charge of all matters concern- 
ing revenue, finance, and ship- 
ping, and ranked second only to 
the Viceroy.] 

Velho (old man). Konk. el 
(us. in a restricted sense). 
Mai. veillo, also "an old 
woman" (Haex). 

Veludo (velvet). Konk. 

1 [' This Viador is overseer of all 
finances, and also of everything that 
goes on in Goa, as well affairs of war 
and shipping as all other affairs, he 
being the second personage next after 
the viceroy in all that pertains to the 
affairs of the king". Pyrard, Voyage, 
Hak. Soc., Vol. II, pt. i, p. 40.] 

[" He (the Viceroy of Goa) referred 
us unto the Theadore de Fazendo, 
from whome we received the enclosed 
note of his desires, both in the prices 
and proportion.'' Foster, The English 
Factories, 1634-1636, p. 99.] 

["He is to proceed to Goa in the 
William ; and, arriving there, to present 
the accompanying letters to the Vedor, 
with whom he is to treat concerning 
his goods". Idem, p. 121.] 




vilud. Sinh . villudu. Mala- 
yal. villudu, veludi. Mai. velu- 
do (Haex), beludu, beludro, 
beldu, belduva. Ach. beludu. 
Batt. bilulu. Sund. beludru, 
buludru. Jav. beludru, bludru, 
belddur. Mad. blutru. Bal. 
bludru. Batav. biludru. Mac. 
bilulu. Bug. beludu, bilulu, 
valudu, biladura. Jap. birodo. 1 

[Pyrard in his Diet, of some 
words of the Maldive language 
mentions velouzy, which is ob- 
viously derived from Portu- 
guese. See Hak. Soc.'s ed. Vol. 
II, pt. II, p. 416.] 

Beludru in Javanese and 
belustru in Malay is also the 
name of a botanical plant, 
Momordica charantia. In 
Konkani, as also in the Portu- 
guese of Goa, vilud is also the 
name of Celosia cristata. 

Vendas (' sale by public auc- 
tion '). Sinh. vendesiya. Ven- 
disi saldva, the place of the 
auction-sale. Vendesi-kara- 
nava (lit. 'to make a sale'), 
vendteiyen vikuqanava (lit. ' to 

1 "And on the head over a coif of 
gold, a cap of velud<K" Jo&o de 
Barros, Dec. II, x, 8. 

"With jackets of black veludo and 
sleeves of purple satin." Gaspar 
Corroia, I, p. 533. 

sell in a public auction'), ven- 
desi damanava (lit. ' to place 
on sale'), to sell by auction. 
Vendesi-kdraya, vendu, the 
seller at an auction. 

[ Veneziano (the name of an 
old Venetian gold coin current 
in India and which in the six- 
teenth century was worth 420 
reis ; afterwards the sequin). 
Anglo-Ind. Venetian. 1 

There are frequent references 
to this coin in the early Portu- 
guese writers in India from as 
early a date as the middle of 
the sixteenth century.] 

[ Ventosa (cupping-glass) . 
Anglo-Ind. ventoso (obs.). 2 

This form is not mentioned 
in the O.E.D., nor is the word 
found in Hobson-Jobson.] 

Verde (green). Konk. verd ; 
vern. term pachvo. Beng. berdi 
(us. among the Christians). 

1 ["There is another kinde of gold 
money (in Goa), which is called Vene- 
tianders : some of Venice, and some 
of Turkish coine, and are commonly 
2. Pardawes Xeraphins." Linschoten, 
Voyage, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 243.] 

["The Money which passes is a 
Golden Venetian, equivalent to our 
Angel." Fryer, Hak. Soc., Vol. Ill, p. 

2 ["To Cup they use Ventosoes, 
without Scarifications." Fryer, East 
India, Hak. Soc., Vol. I, p. 286.] 



Mai. verdi, in Idzu-virdi, lapis- 
lazuli. [See Bende verde.] 

Verdura (' greens '). Konk. 
verdur\ vern. terms varverh, 
tarkari, sdk-bhaji. Anglo-Ind. 
verdure (obs.). 1 

[Vereador (an alderman). 
Anglolnd. vereador. 

This term is often met with 
in the early settlements of 
disputes between the inhabit- 
ants of Bombay and the British 
Government. 2 Neither in the 
O.E.D. nor in Hobson-Jobson. 

1 " The people were pleased with the 
present, and especially those ailing 
with the verdura and oranges." Gas- 
par Correia, 1 , p. 44. 

2 [*< Vereador is one who holds the 
staff or wand of power ; is a member of 
Council or of the Chamber ; a func- 
tionary charged with the administra- 
tion of the police or the repairs of 
public roads ; a bazaar superintendent ; 
a magistrate or a public functionary 
who fires local tariffs or taxes ". Report 
oj Cases decided in the Original Civil 
Jurisdiction of the High Court of 
Bombay, Vol. IV, 1866-67, p. 90. 

Da Cunha (Origin of Bombay, p. 
230) makes the following comments 
on the above origin suggested for this 
word : " Now vereador has nothing to 
do with the holding of the start or 
wand of power. This fanciful deriva- 
tion is evidently drawn from the Port- 
uguese word vara, Latin virga, which 
means a ' rod '. But vereador has not 
the remotest connection with it. Ver- 
eador simply corresponds to the word 

Whitworth is obviously 
thinking of this official when 
he says : * * Veador . An appel- 
late judge under the Portu- 
guese Government, who heard 
appeals from the ouvidors ; also 
a land factor or overseer." 
The way he spells the word 
might lead one to confound it 
with vedor (q.v.).~\ 

Verniz (varnish). Konk. 
verniz ; vern. term rogan. 
Tet., G&IJ verniz. 

Ver6nica (veronica; 'cloth 
with representation of Christ's 
face ' ) . Konk . verank ; vern . 
term arluk. Tet., Gal. veroni- 

Verruma (gimlet) . Konk. 
rum; barmo, birmo ('auger, 
borer 5 ); vern. terms girbo, 
topan. Hindi, Hindust. bar- 
md. Beng. burmd ; vern. term 
turpun, bhramar. Sindh. bar- 
md\ vern. term sarai. Punj. 
varmd, barmd. Sinh. bnruma, 
burema, burema-katuva; vern. 
term tora-pataya . Malay al . 

procurator, or attorney, and was in 
olden times equivalent to consul and 
decurio. He never held the staff of 
power in his hand, but wore a toga 
or gown, as vereador da Camara or 
member of the Municipal Corpora- 
tion.' 1 ] 



veruma, bormma ; vern. term 
turppanam, tdmar. Tel. buru- 
ma, baramd ; vern. term tora- 
padamu. Tul. burma, burmu] 
vern. terms beiraye, beiravu, 
beirige. Gar., Khas. borma, 
bolma. Tet., Gal. verruma. 
Pers. barmd. Ar. barrima. 

Portuguese dictionary-wri- 
ters give as the certain or prob- 
able source of verruma the 
Arabic berrima. But Simonet 
says: "Berrima. Ar. Afr. 
and Or. barrima or burima, 
' borer ' ; Sp. berrima Port, ver- 
ruma. Ital. verrina. Low Lat. 
verrinum or perhaps better 
verrina: "cum verrinis per- 
foravit" (' bored holes with a 
gimlet') Ducange, from Lat. 
verruina and this again from 
veru 9 from which source we 
have also the Low Lat. ver- 
rubius (terebrus). In conse- 
quence the Spanish word ber- 
rima is neither of Germanic 
nor Arabic origin, as some 
have imagined. The Arabs 
received it from the people 
of Spain as M. Dozy with 
much reason conjectured, and 
from it formed the word 

All the same, it is very prob- 
able that barmd or barmo in 

the Indian languages comes 
directly from the Persian 
barmd. 1 In Konkani rum 9 
which is evidently from ver- 
ruma (cf. duljens, from indul- 
gencia, ' indulgence,' pen from 
empena, ( gable end of a 
house'), is distinguished from 
bormo or birmo. 

Verso (verse). Konk. vcrs 
(us. among the Christians) ; 
vern. terms pad, charan, 6lok. 
Tet., Gal. versu. 

Vesper as (vespers). Konk. 
vespr. Tarn. vesper. Kan. 
vsperu. Mai . vesporas. Tet . , 
Gal. vesper a. 

Vestido (dress). Konk. vrs- 

tid. Gal. vestidu. ^> ' , i ; 


V6u (veil, cover). Konk. 
vev ; vern. terms 61, odJini.- 
Beng., Tarn, vevu (of the cha- 
lice used at mass). Tet., Gal. 

Vidro (glass; also a tumb- 
ler). Konk. vidr\ vern. terms 
kdnch or kdz ; pelo, kanso, 
pivanpatr, surdbhdnd (1. us. in 
this sense). Sinh. viduruva, 

1 " They use (in the Moluccas) only 
an adze, a narrow chisel, a wooden 
mallet, verruma, which is like a 
gouge inserted in a hollow pipe." 
Gabriel Rebelo, p. 176, 



idureva, vidur ; vern. terms 
kdchakaya. Vidur evu, glazed. 
Vidur e silpiyd, glazier. Mai. 
vidro. Also gilds from the 
English 'glass'. Nic. vitore, 
tumbler (cf. libare from livro 
('book'). Tet., Gal. vidru. 
Jap. biidoro. 

In Indo-Portuguese also vidro 
means ' a tumbler '. 

Vigario (vicar). Konk. 
vigdr . Tarn . vigdri . Tet . , 
Gal. vigariu. 

Vinagre (vinegar). Konk. 
vindgr\ vern. term Sirko. 
Sinh. vindkiri ; vern. terms 
kdchi, kdnjika. 

Vinha de alhos (the name 
of a species of viand). Konk. 
vinjdl. Hindust. (of the south) 
binddlu. Tarn. venddle. 

[Anglo-Ind. vindaloo. Not in 
the O.E.D. nor in Hobson- 

[In Indian Cookery (Bombay) 
there are recipes for the pre- 

1 " There is another fish (in Angola) 
which they call ongulo ; it is like pork 
and, served in vinha dalhos, much 
resembles it" (1585), Garcia SimOes, 
in Jour. Oeo. Soc. Lisb., 4th ser., 
p. 344. 

["No water must be used in the 
preparation of vindaloo " Indian Coo- 
kery,, by An Anglo-Indian (Bombay, 
1923), p. 74.] 

paration of * vindaloo ' of 
various kinds.] 

Vinho (wine). Konk. vinh 
(1. us.); vern. term saro or 
soro. Malayal. vinnu ( = vin- 
hu). Tel. vinu. Nic. vlniya, 
wine, liquor, brandy. 

The Sinhalese vayin appears 
to be from the English ' wine '. 
In the Portuguese dialect of 
Ceylon vein is ' European wine ' 
and vinho ' country liquor'. 

Viola (viol ; guitar). Konk. 
vyol. Sinh. v i y 6 I e. M a L, 
Sund., Day. biyola, biola. 
Ach. biula. Mac., Bug. biyola. 
Tet., Gal. viola. 

Virador (naut., tow-line). 
L.-Hindust. virador. 

Virtude (virtue). Konk. 
virtud (1. us.) ; vern. terms guji, 
sugun, or segu. Tet. virtude : 
vern. term diak. 

Visagra (hinge) .^ Konk. 
bizdgr. Mar. bifagreiirf, bijogri. 
Guj. majagarevh, majagardm, 
misjdgarum. Malayal. vi6d- 
gari. Kan. bijdgr i. Tul. 
bijdkri, bijigre. 

Visita (visit). Konk. vizit ; 
vern. terms bhefqi, bhfy. Tet., 
Gal. vizita. **"" 

[Visitador (an official visi- 
tor; one who visits a monas- 




tery). Anglo-Ind. visitador 
(obs.). 1 

The Dutch adopted the name 
for one of their officials, the 
Visitador General (Foster, Let- 
ters, II, 165).] 

Viso-rei (viceroy). Mala- 

^j **"*" y*w>-~ 

yal. msareyi. Mai. bisurey. 

Viva! (long live! hurrah!) 
Konk. viva. ; vern. terms 6abds 
or &ebds. Tet. viva, biba. 

Volta (turn, bend). Konk. 
volt, a band such as is worn by 
clergymen. L.-Hindust. bolla, 
boltd, the twist or winding of 
a rope. 

Voltar (to turn, in a game 
of cards). Konk. voltdr-karunk ; 
vern. term partunk. Mai. 

Voto (vow). Konk. vot\ 
vern. term angvan, mat ; van- 
gad, sammati. Tet. votu ; vern. 
term lia 16s. 


[Xerafim (a coin formerly 
current in Goa and other east- 
ern ports). Anglo-Ind. xera- 
fine, sherapheen, xerephin* 

1 ["The Father Visitador of the 

Carmelites persuaded the Agent 

to* leave me at Siraa" Fryer, East 
India and Persia, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
p. 344.] 

2 ["The principall and commonest 

The original of the Portu- 
guese word is the Ar. ashrafi 
(or sharif i), ' noble 7 ^' which 
name was originally used of 
the gold dinar worth about 
3000 reisT~*~the Portuguese 
xerafim was originally a gold, 
but afterwards a silver coin ; 
the latter was worth 5 tangas 
or 300 reis. The Konkani 
asurpl or usurpl is derived 
directly from ashrafl and not 
from xerafim.] 

money (at Goa) is called Pardaus 
Xeraphiins. Linschoten, Voyage, Vol. 
I, p. 241. J 

[" Our rents were not much increased 
last year, though something they were 
our chiefe rent. The Custome is farmed 
for 27000 Xs." Forrest, Selections 
(Home Series), Vol. I, p. 120.] 

{" The Vicar of Parela, Padre Anto- 
nio Barboza (a Jesuit) presented mee 
with the paper which is herewith 
sent for your perusall, by which hee 
endeavours to make appearo that 
2000 Sherapheens out of the Kings 
rents at Maim, which comes but to 26 
Sherapheens more per annum, were 
given to their Company by the King 

of Spaine and confirmed unto- 

them by the Vice Roys of India." 
Letter from Humfrey Cooke, in Khan, 
Anglo-Portuguese Negotiations, p. 472,] 

["Their (Goa) Coin. 1 Vintin 15 
Budgeroocks, 1 Tango 5 Vintins, 1 
Xerephin or Pardoa, 5 Tangos , 1 
Gold St. Thomae, 5 Xerephins." A. 
Hamilton, Vol. II, Table of Weights,. 




? Zamboa (the Malay apple- 
tree, Eugenia Malaccensis). 
Jap. zambo, zabon. 1 

Gongalves Viana is of the 
opinion that the word is Spa- 
nish in origin. But it is quite 

1 " In Malacca the name is jam bos 
and the fruit is so called also in this 

possible that zambo is related 
to the Sanskrit jai$u, adopted 
in the Prakrits and in Malay 
and used to designate various 

country.*' Garcia da Orta, Col. xxviii 
[ed. Markham, p. 237]. " The jambo 

is the fruit of a species of Eugenia 

. .the Eugenia malaccensia." Conde de 
Ficalho, Coloquios, Vol. II, p. 27. [See 


Abada (rhinoceros, see p. 1). 

Muzaffer Shah of Gujarat 
included a rhinoceros among 
the presents he sent in 1513 
to Afonso de Albuquerque 
not to the King of Portugal, 
as is wrongly mentioned by 
Barbosa (see cit. p. 1). Al- 
buquerque decided to send this 
strange and rare creature to 
King Manuel I who took a 
keen interest in oriental curio- 
sities. The rhinoceros reached 
Lisbon safely and was kept in 
the royal menagerie till 1 )17. 
In that year the King was 
seized with the extraordinary 
whim to see a fight between 
the rhinoceros and an elephant 
which he also happened to own. 
In February of that year the 
two beasts were made to con- 
front each other in a large 
enclosure. The rhinoceros 
rushed to attack the elephant, 
but the latter to everybody's 
surprise jumped over the rail- 
ing of the enclosure and with 
loud trumpeting ran for safety 

to his stall, leaving the rhino- 
ceros master of the field. 
Shortly afterwards the King 
sent the victorious beast as a 
present to the then Pope, 
Leo X. The vessel carrying the 
animal left Portugal in October, 
1517. It put in at Marseilles 
and Francis I, who happened 
to be just then at this port, 
had an opportunity of seeing 
this strange pachyderm. When 
the ship continued the voyage 
to its destination, it was 
caught in a storm and sank 
near the coast of Italy. The 
rhinoceros perished but its car- 
cass was washed up on to the 
shore ; it was skinned and 
stuffed and carried to the Pope. 
This is the brief and tragic but 
remarkable history of the first 
and, perhaps, the only rhino- 
ceros that found its way from 
Gujarat to Europe. See Cor- 
reia, Lendas, II, 373. Damiao 
de Gois, Chronica, etc., pp. 276 
and 277 ; Ficalho, Coloquios, I, 
pp. 320 and 321. 

i The new vocables, citations, and information set. down herein came to 
my notice too late to be inserted in the body of the book. Ed. and Trans. 




1628-37." On the tops of these 
interlaced trees we saw large numbers 
of monkeys and below some abadas 
or rhinoceroses, which frequent those 
wilds." Manrique, Travels, Hak. Soc., 
Vol. I, p. 124. 

Abafado (a dish of stew, 
see p. 2). Anglo- Ind. buffath. 

For recipes for preparing 
"Madras Buffath, Buffath of 
Fresh Meat, Mutton Buffath ", 
see Indian Cookery by Anglo- 
Indian, pp. 75 and 76. 

Achar (pickles, see p. 6). 

The citation below from 
Fryer helps to explain why Goa 
was noted for mango pickles. 

1672-1681. " They [the Goa women] 
aiug, and play on the Lute, make Con- 
fections, piokle Achar s, (the best 
Mongo Achars coming from them). 
Fryer, East India, Hak. Soc., Vol. II, 
p. 28. 

1640-41. "After numerous dishes 
of various kinds of flesh, both of 
domesticated and wild animals and 
birds, with stimulants of sundry 
achares, made of cucumber, radish, 
limes, and green chillies, soaked in 
strong fragrant vinegars, that served 
to spur the appetite." Manrique, 
Trawls, Hak. Soc., Vol. IF, p. 127. 

Adarga (a buckler made of 
buffalo hide). Anglo-Ind. 
adarga (obs.). Neither in Hob- 
son- Jobson nor in the O.E.D. 

, 1638." Every Cavallero was bravely 
apparelled with an adarga, which is 
a great paatboard or leather buckler on 
his arme." Mundy, Travels, Vol. III. 
pt. i, p. 266. 

Aduana (customs-house) . 
Anglo-Ind. aduano (obs.). Nei- 
ther in Hobson-Jobson nor in 
the O.E.D. \\; -: 

1610. "To-morrow we purpose to 
send you the copy hereof by the old 
scrivano [q.v. p. 149] of the Aduano 
of . . ." Danvers, Letters, Vol. I (1602- 
1613), p. 51. 

Afogado (a kind of stew). 
Konk. fugad ; arros fugad, rice 
boiled in broth. Anglo-Ind. 
foogath. <,-/ ^ ' * ^ ^ 

14 Foogaths are vegetables